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Publisher: United Reformed Church History Society
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: DA
Suggests that historians have exaggerated the leadership crisis in British Congregationalism in the Edwardian era by ignoring the significant contribution of women and by concentrating on the relocation of some churches to the suburbs while giving inadequate attention to those that remained in urban centers, such as Norwich
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    • 1. 'The Pagan"', "Peeps at Pulpiteers. Norwich Churches Visited. No. 10Chapel-in-theField."' Eastern Evening Mercury. 13 Jan. 1920.
    • 2. M. Ostrogorski, Democracy and the Organisation of Political Parties (1902), c.F.G. Masterman, The Condition of England, (1909), K Chorley, Manchester Made Them (1950), C. Binfield, So Down to Prayers: Studies in English Nonconformity, 1780-1920 (1977), D.W. Bebbington, The Nonconformist Conscience: Chapel and Politics, 1870- /914 (1982), D.W. Bebbington, "Nonconformity and Electoral Sociology, 1867-1918"', HistoricalJournal 27 (1984), and S. Yeo, Religion and Voluntary Organisations in Crisis, (1976).
    • 3. 1. Glaser, "English Nonconformity and the Decline of Liberalism"'. American Historical Review 63 (1958).
    • 4. See for example, S. Koss. Nonconformity in Modern British Politics (Hampden Connecticut, 1975).
    • 5. The obvious exceptions are Binfield, Down to Prayers. Binfield, "Business Paternalism and the Congregational Ideal: A Preliminary Reconnoitre," in D.J. Jeremy (ed.). Business and Religion in Britain (Aldershot, 1988), Binficld. "An Excursion into Architectural Cousinhood: The East Anglian Connexion" in N. Virgoe and T. Williamson (Eds.), Religious Dissent in East Anglia (Norwich. 1993) and Jeffrey Cox. The English Churches in a Secular Society: Lambeth. 1870-/9/4 (Oxford. 1982).
    • 6. c.T. Rae, "The Free Churches of Norwich" in E. Felce (Ed.). Norwich: Civic. 1ndustrial. Historica/. (Norwich, 1935).
    • 7. RW. Hale, "Nonconformity in Nineteenth-Century Norwich" in C.J. Barringer (ed.). Norwich in the Nineteenth Century (Norwich. 1984) and H.C. Colman. Princes Street Congregational Church: Norwich. 1819-/919. (Norwich. 1919).
    • 8. See the Norwich Table from H. Mann, Report on 1851 Census reproduced in Hale. "Nonconformity" p. 177.
    • 9. Norwich Mercury 2 Oct. 1858, Eastern Evening News 30 Dec. 1966 and Eastern Daily Press, 25 Feb. 1972.
    • 10. William White Ltd .. History and Directory of Noifolk 1890 Facsimile edition of the Norwich section, (Kings Lynn, 1988), p. 34-37; Kellys Ltd., Kelly's Directory ofNoifolk. 1912 (1912). p. 288 and R. Salt. Plans For a Free City. (Norwich, 1989).
    • II. Colman, Princes Street. p. 28-29, 59-60 and 86. Magdalen Road Congregational Church Magazine. November 1960 and September 1903.
    • 12. Chapel-in-the-Field contributed £200 towards the building of Magdalen Road. plus £35 plus per annum to help with the minister's salary. Princes Street was consistently the largest donor to the Church Aid Society. Eastern Daily Press 25 Feb. 1972, Norfolk Congregational Union. Report Presented to the Annual Assembly Held in the Princes Street Congregational Church Norwich 1909 (Kings Lynn, 1909) p. 14-17.
    • 13. See for example Binfield. Down to Prayers, p. 202. For a successful city centre Congregational church see C. Binfield "The Building of a Town Centre Church: St. James's Congregational Church. Newcastle upon Tyne",Northern History xviii (1982). 1 am grateful to Dr. Binfield for this reference.
    • 14. J.1. Brooker. "After Three Years". The Old Meeting Congregational Church Magazine Vol. 11 No. 16 (April 1908).
    • 15. 'The Secretary's Report", Annual Report of the Norfolk Congregational Union. (Norwich, 1903). p. 20.
    • 16. Rae, Free Churches p. 86. Eastern Daily Press 25 Feb. 1972.
    • 17. For the sources used to calculate these figures see B.M. Doyle. "Middle Class Realignment and Party Politics in Norwich. 1900-1932" (University of East Anglia PhD Thesis. 1990), p. 38.
    • 18. Gilbert calculates the national Nonconformist average at 5.5%and the Congregational average as 1.2%. AD. Gilbert, Religion and Society in Industrial England: Church. Chapel and Social Change. 1740-1914 (1976) Table 2.2, p. 39.
    • 19. Colman, Princes Street. p. 90. Those who lost their lives included Sydney Durrant Page, a leading activist in the YMCA and the Boys' Brigade. Boys' Brigade Gazette XXV 10 (June 1917). p. 119. B.M. Doyle. "Religion. Politics and Remembrance: A Free Church Community and its Great War Dead" (Forthcoming).
    • 20. Colman, Princes Street, p. 72.
    • 21. Princes Street Yearbook 1929. (Norwich. 1929).
    • 22. Old Meeting Congregational Church Magazin'e Feb. 1929.
    • 23. T. Robinson. "Rev. George S. Barrett", The Evangelical Magazine Jan. 1894. p. 1.
    • 24. Robinson. Barrett p. 2.
    • 25. G.S. Barrett, The Seculan'sation o/the Pulpit (1894) and The Secularisation o/the Church (1894).
    • 26. G.S. Barrett, The New Theology: A Sermon Preached in Prince's Street Congregational Church. Norwich. January 27th. 1907. (1907), p. 5.
    • 27. Robinson. Barrett p. 3.
    • 28. Colman, Princes Street. p. 54.
    • 29. Eastern Daily Press 25 Feb. 1972.
    • 30. The Old Meeting Congregational Church Magazine Vol. II. No. 16 (April 1908).
    • 31. The Old Meeting Congregational Church Magazine Vol. II, No. 24 (Dec. 1908).
    • 32. See for example "The Christian as a Citizen", Magdalen Road Congregational Church Magazine. November 1900, p. 14.
    • 33. "Minutes of the Citizens League to Combat the 1902 Education Act, 1902-14"Norfolk Records Office FC13/60.
    • 34. For biographies of other Congregational ministers see Citizens of No Mean City (Norwich 1910).
    • 35. C.B. Hawkins, NO/wich:A Social Study, (1910), p. 294.
    • 36. Noifolk Congregational Union Annual Report, 1909, p. 13.
    • 37. Magdalen Road Congregational Church Magazine, November 1900. Chapel-in-theField Congregational Church, Monthly Record (July 1904).
    • 38. Magdalen Road Congregational Church Magazine IV (September 1903), The Old Meeting Congregational Church Magazine Vol. II. No. 16 (April 1908), Chapel-in-theField Congregational Church. Monthly Record (July 1904).
    • 39. The Old Meeting Congregational Church Magazine. Vol. II, No. 17 (May 1908).
    • 40. Magdalen Road Congregational Church Magazine (November 1900),p. 12.
    • 41. The Old Meeting Congregational Church Magazine. Vol.II, No. 16(April 1908),Chapelin-the-Field Congregational Church, Monthly Record (July 1904)P,rince's Street PS.A. Magazine, 4 (Oct. 1896)M,agdalen Road Congregational Church Magazine (September 19m),Magdalen Road PS.A. Almanac (1908).A copy of Booth, awarded to Princes Street P.S.A.member Henry Raynor, is in the possession of the author.
    • 42. A woman pastor was inducted in Sheffield in 1918,whilst woman deacons were appointed in 1912at the same church. Elsewherein the country the question of both women deacons and pastors were discussed from the 1880swith women such as the Spicers playing a leading role in some congregations as early as the 1890s.I am grateful to Dr. Binfield for this information. For religion in Sheffield see C. Binfield "Religion in Sheffield" in C. Binfield et af. (Eds.), The History of the City of Sheffield 1843-1993. Volume II Society (Sheffield, 1993).
    • 43. The Old Meeting Congregational Church Magazine Vol. II, No. 16 (April 1908).
    • 44. Miss Colman gave a paper on "The Life and Work of Mr. Sheppard of the Scottish Presbyterian Church in India" to a united meeting of the Chape!-in-the-Field and Old Meeting Guilds in November 1908. The Old Meeting Congregational Church Magazine, Vol. II, No. 24 (Dec. 1908).
    • 45. Magdalen Road Congregational Church Magazine (November 1900). Similar organisations were operated by working-class churches in Preston at that time. M. Savage. "Urban History and Social Class: Two Paradigms" Urhan Historv 20 (April 1993).p. 74 and note 41.
    • 46. For the commercialisation of religion and irreligion in the Edwardian period see Yeo, Voluntary Organisations and D.S. Nash, Secularism. Art and Freedom. (Leicester 1992), chapter 6.
    • 47. For the suggestion of2,000 touched by a big city centre church (St. Maris Baptist) see c.B. Jewson, The Baptists In Norfolk (1957), p. 140.
    • 53. Chapel-in-the-Field Congregational Church, Norwich, List o/Members o/the Church and Congregation, with their Residences (Norwich 1900).
    • 54. See "Names and Addresses of Members of Church and Congregation", The Old Meeting Congregational Church Magazine. Vol. II, No. 16 & 17 (April & May 1908).
    • 55. There is an excellent description of the culture of late Victorian Pockthorpe in N. MacMaster. 'The Battle for Mousehold Heath 1857-1884:'Popular Politics' and the Victorian Public Park" Past and Present 127 (1989).
    • 56. Yeo, Voluntary Organisations, Savage, Urban History. R. Trainor, "Urban Elites in Victorian Britain"Urban History Yearbook (1985).
    • 57. H.C. Colman, Sydney Cozens-Hardy: A Memoir (Norwich 1944). For his family see B. Cozens-Hardy, The History of Letheringsett in the County of Noifolk (Norwich 1957). L.E. Stuart, In Memoriam: Caroline Colman (Norwich 1896), Binfield. Down to Prayers chapter 6.
    • 58. This and the next paragraph are based on Colman, Cozens-Hardy.
    • 59. For the involvement of Congregationalists in Norwich politics see Doyle, Thesis chapter .:;. For Norwich politics and Nonconformity generally see B.M. Doyle. "Business Liberalism and Dissent in Norwich 1900-1930"Baptist Quanerly xxxv No. 5 (1994).
    • 60. For the mayors see P. Palgrave-Moore. The Mayors and Lord Mayors ofNurwich. 1836- 1974 (Norwich 1978).
    • 64. The Old Meeting Congregational Church Magazine Vol. XXIV (Nov. 1929).
    • 65. For some of the problems with the movement see Binfield, Down to Prayers, p. 203.
    • 66. F.W. Weldon,A Norvic Century and the Men Whu Made It, 1846-1946 (Norwich 1946).p. 65.
    • 67. The nearby Baptist church at Silver Road. which opened in 1910, attracted the support of a number of the leading members ofSt. Mary's, including Dr. E.E. Blyth. the city's first Lord Mayor and Richard Jewson, Lord Mayor in 1918. Anon. 1910/ 1960: Fifty Years of Baptist Witness. The Story of Silver Road (Norwich 1960).
    • 68. Referring to his involvement with the First Day School junior department. Mase recalled that "Many of the lads I had with me then are still my friends, a number of them being engaged in the Norvic Works". Wheldon. Norvic Century p. 65.
    • 69. Binfield,Architectural Cousin hood. p. 102-106.
    • 70. Doyle, Thesis. p. 192-204 especially Figure 6.1.
    • 71. See family tree in H.C. Colman, Jeremiah James Colman By One of His Daughters (London 1905).
    • 72. Colman had six children, two sons and four daughters. Alan died at the age of thirty without marrying, Ethel and Helen also remained single, whilst Laura married James Stuart, an academic and Liberal M.P., Florence married Boardman and Russell married the daughter of a Welsh Liberal M.P. James Stuart, Reminiscences (1912), L.E. Stuart, In Memoriam: Alan Cozens-Hardy Colman (Norwich 1898), J. Mardle, R.J Colman 1861-1946:Some Sketches for a Family Ponrait (Norwich 1954).
    • 73. E. Shorter, The Making of the Modern Family (1972).
    • 74. For the social trends which led to the breakdown of this marriage system in the postWorld War I period see B.M. Doyle, "Urban Liberalism and the 'Lost Generation': Middle Class Culture and Norwich Politics, 1900-1935"Historical Journal (Forthcoming, 1995).
    • 75. Binfield. Down to Prayers chapter 8 which deals with the Manchester suburb of Bowdon in Cheshire or Cox, Secular Society which has analysed the London suburb of Lambeth.
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