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Peters, Gretchen Marie; Skala, Luke P.; Plank, Taylor N.; Oh, Hyuntaek; Reddy, G. N. Manjunatha; Marsh, Andrew; Brown, Steven P.; Raghavan, Srinivasa R.; Davis, Jeffery T. (2015)
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: QD
The ability to modulate the physical properties of a supramolecular hydrogel may be beneficial for biomaterial and biomedical applications. We find that guanosine (G 1), when combined with 0.5 equiv of potassium borate, forms a strong, self-supporting hydrogel with elastic moduli >10 kPa. The countercation in the borate salt (MB(OH)4) significantly alters the physical properties of the hydrogel. The gelator combination of G 1 and KB(OH)4 formed the strongest hydrogel, while the weakest system was obtained with LiB(OH)4, as judged by 1H NMR and rheology. Data from powder XRD, 1H double-quantum solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) were consistent with a structural model that involves formation of borate dimers and G4·K+ quartets by G 1 and KB(OH)4. Stacking of these G4·M+ quartets into G4-nanowires gives a hydrogel. We found that the M+ cation helps stabilize the anionic guanosine-borate (GB) diesters, as well as the G4-quartets. Supplementing the standard gelator mixture of G 1 and 0.5 equiv of KB(OH)4 with additional KCl or KNO3 increased the strength of the hydrogel. We found that thioflavin T fluoresces in the presence of G4·M+ precursor structures. This fluorescence response for thioflavin T was the greatest for the K+ GB system, presumably due to the enhanced interaction of the dye with the more stable G4·K+ quartets. The fluorescence of thioflavin T increased as a function of gelator concentration with an increase that correlated with the system’s gel point, as measured by solution viscosity\ud
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