Journal: Chemical Geology
Subjects: sub-01, Geology, Geochemistry and Petrology
In order to assess the long-term security of geologic carbon storage, it is crucial to study the geochemical behavior of sulfur in reservoirs that store CO2. Fossil fuel combustion may produce mixtures of carbon dioxide and sulfur gases, and the geochemical effects of sulfur–CO2 cosequestration are poorly understood. This study examines sulfur mineralization from a core drilled in a stacked sequence of natural CO2 reservoirs near the town of Green River, Utah. These reservoirs include the Entrada and Navajo Sandstone, which are separated by the Carmel Formation caprock and transected by a system of CO2-degassing normal faults, through which saline CO2-charged brines discharge. Our objective in this study is to evaluate the mechanisms and timing of secondary mineral formation, particularly gypsum formation, in the CO2 reservoirs and intervening caprock. The Carmel Formation contains beds of gypsum within a fault zone. Secondary veins of gypsum exist throughout the Entrada Sandstone and Carmel Formation. We report sulfur and oxygen isotope data (δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4, respectively) measured in gypsum and δ34S measured in pyrite, and the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition (δ18O and δD, respectively) of gypsum hydration water. The multiple isotope approach allows us to trace the sources of sulfur in the reservoirs and, when combined with structural and petrological evidence, the progress of fluid-rock reactions and relative timing of vein mineralization.
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