Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Skjoth, C. A.; Geels, C. (2013)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Q1, Chemistry, DOAJ:Earth and Environmental Sciences, QD1-999, G, Geography. Anthropology. Recreation, QC801-809, Geophysics. Cosmic physics, GE1-350, DOAJ:Environmental Sciences, Physics, Environmental sciences, QC1-999
We present here a dynamical method for modelling temporal and geographical variations in ammonia emissions in regional-scale chemistry transport models (CTMs) and chemistry climate models (CCMs). The method is based on the meteorology in the models and gridded inventories. We use the dynamical method to investigate the spatiotemporal variability of ammonia emissions across part of Europe and study how these emissions are related to geographical and year-to-year variations in atmospheric temperature alone. For simplicity we focus on the emission from a storage facility related to a standard Danish pig stable with 1000 animals and display how emissions from this source would vary geographically throughout central and northern Europe and from year to year. In view of future climate changes, we also evaluate the potential future changes in emission by including temperature projections from an ensemble of climate models. The results point towards four overall issues. (1) Emissions can easily vary by 20% for different geographical locations within a country due to overall variations in climate. The largest uncertainties are seen for large countries such as the UK, Germany and France. (2) Annual variations in overall climate can at specific locations cause uncertainties in the range of 20%. (3) Climate change may increase emissions by 0–40% in central to northern Europe. (4) Gradients in existing emission inventories that are seen between neighbour countries (e.g. between the UK and France) can be reduced by using a dynamical methodology for calculating emissions. Acting together these four factors can cause substantial uncertainties in emission. Emissions are generally considered among the largest uncertainties in the model calculations made with CTM and CCM models. Efforts to reduce uncertainties are therefore highly relevant. It is therefore recommended that both CCMs and CTMs implement a dynamical methodology for simulating ammonia emissions in a similar way as for biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) – a method that has been used for more than a decade in CTMs. Finally, the climate penalty on ammonia emissions should be taken into account at the policy level such as the NEC and IPPC directives.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Anderson, N., Strader, R., and Davidson, C.: Airborne reduced nitrogen: ammonia emissions from agriculture and other sources, Environ. Int., 29, 277-286, 2003.
    • Aneja, V. P., Schlesinger, W. H., and Erisman, J. W.: Effects of Agriculture upon the Air Quality and Climate: Research, Policy, and Regulations, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 4234-4240, 2009.
    • Arneth, A., Harrison, S. P., Zaehle, S., Tsigaridis, K., Menon, S., eTm 00--115505//00111166//00113311//00111155//00220022//00331177//00330011//00441166//00440011//00551166//00553311//00551155//00P663300//e006611r55i//00o773300d//00771144//00882299//00881133//00992288//00991133//11002288//11001122//11112277//11111122//11222277//1122 3gBD,ea.o,5rtc2Slhe5cei-hnm5u,3irPcg2.ae,Jlr2.s,f0,Fe1eeG0di.c.b,haStceokr,rsvJa.i,nrKi,tohSreh.,ocallianm,dAatV.e,eKssayulslamt,emaTl.a,:,NMTae.tr,urOeres'tDrGiaoelnonsbeciolil.-,, (a) Period Barbu, A. L., Segers, A. J., Schaap, M., Heemink, A. W., and BuiltSimulated 2 meter temperature at Tange jes, P. J. H.: A multi-component data assimilation experiment diSimulated 2 m20e0t7e,rreantaelymsedpera20t4u7,rbeiasacotrrTecatendge rected to sulphur dioxide and sulphate over Europe, Atmos. En] 3350 2007, reanalysed 2047, bias corrected Barvrierto,nK.,.4:3O, c1e6a2n2ic-1a6m3m1,o2n0ia09e.missions in Europe and their trans[°C 2355 boundary fluxes, Atmos. Environ., 32, 381-391, 1998.
    • re] 2300 Beusen, A. H. W., Bouwman, A. F., Heuberger, P. S. C., Van Drecht, tau[°C 1255 G., and Van der Hoek, K. W.: Bottom-up uncertainty estimates of rere 1200 global ammonia emissions from global agricultural production pmtrau155 systems, Atmos. Environ., 42, 6067-6077, 2008.
    • eTep 100 Bintanja, R., van der Linden, E. C., and Hazeleger, W., Boundary eTm 0--15505/0116/0131/0115/0202/0317/0301/0416/0401/0516/0531/0515/0630/0615/0730/0714/0829/0813/0928/0913/1028/1012/1127/1112/1227/12 lEaCye-Erastrathb,ilCityli man.dDAyrncatmic.c,l3im9,at2e6c5h9a-n2g6e7:3a, fdeoeid:1b0ac.1k0s0t7u/dsy00u3s8in2g(b) 01/0116/0131/0115/0202/0317/0301/0416/0401/0516/0531/0515/06P30/e061r5i/0o730d/0714/0829/0813/0928/0913/1028/1012/1127/1112/1227/12 Bo0u1w1m-1a2n7,2A-1.,F2.,0L1e2e., D. S., Asman, W. A. H., Dentener, F. J., Van AppenFdiixg,.FAig11.. (aa))TThehheohuorluyrvlyarivaatiroinatiinosniminuPlsaetiemrdiou2ldamteetder2t-emmpteermatupreerfaotrutrhee fToarnge area der Hoek, K. W., and Olivier, J. G. J.: A global high-resolution ttAhhpaetpyewentaaedhrrnieexd2,u0TcFs0aeoi6gndr1guri.esneaisn)tpahgTroeeahnpanedathipihdnoeeagruntrlbtlywiyycahavSloaskmrujiuøarosttlhdieyoedenlvtisiaannerltiust(aihp2mt.0eiou1bpl1n)aa)stTepadhfneoedr2rhbcmtooyhuererrteelyyrspetveoaamnrrdipa2iente0irgota0lntya6ulrih.neuo(sfsu2oiirnm0rlyg1tuh1laea)tnTedan2gemaerteear 561-587, 1997.
    • Skjøth variations for emission inventory for ammonia, Global Bio. Chem. Cy., 11,
    • that wiedreenutsiecdailnmthoedpealpseertbuyp.Sk(bjø)thTehtealh(o2u0r1l1y) vanadriacotirorenspionnsdiinmgulylahtoeudrl2y-vmariations for
    • ttehmepyeertaaertmu2r0pe0ef6roarutsutihnreeg TfaoannrigdteheneatriTecaalnthmgaeotdwaerelersaeettuuhspea.dtbwi)naTtshheeushpeoadupreilrynbvtyhareSiakptjiaøotpnheirentbsayilmS(u2kl0aj1tøe1dt)h2anmd ettheerBraAn.dBt, .,J.H,Sanilsveenr,, KJ.,. FMro.,hHn,edLe.gMaa.r,dG,Gee.lsB,.,CS.,kGjørtohs,sC,.AA.,.,HVainlslaedn-, steimmuplearetaettduarlef.u(ft2ourr0e1thv1ea)rTiaaantnidognethaoernesa2imthmauteltawetreerdetemfuuspeteudrraietnuvrteaheruiaspitanipgoenrclboimynaS2tke-jmømthotedemetlaploeu(r2tap0tu1ut1r)efraonmd tthhee sen, H., Zare, A., and Christensen, J. H.: An integrated model ENSEuMsBinLgEScldimataastet manoddbeialsocuotrpreucttiforno.m the ENSEMBLES data set and
    • simulated future variation on 2 meter temperature using climate model output from the study for Europe and North America using the Danish Eulerian bias correction. Hemispheric Model with focus on intercontinental transport of ENSEMBLES data set and bias correction. air pollution, Atmos. Environ., 53, 156-176, 2012.
    • 22Cappelen, J.: Monthly means and extremes 1961-1990 and 1981- 22 2010 for air temperature, atmospheric pressure, hours of bright Acknowledgements. This study was supported by the EU project sunshine and precipitation - Denmark, The Faroe Islands and ECLAIRE (project no: 282910), the ECOCLIM project funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council and the Villum-Kann Greenland, 1-21, 2011.
    • de Leeuw, G., Skjøth, C. A., Hertel, O., Jickells, T., Spokes, L., Rasmussen Foundation through a Post Doc grant to Carsten Vignati, E., Frohn, L., Frydendall, J., Schulz, M., Tamm, S., Ambelas Skjøth. The results presented here address two of the Sørensen, L. L., and Kunz, G. J.: Deposition of nitrogen into the scientific challenges described in the FP7 project ECLAIRE North Sea, Atmos. Environ., 37, Supplement 1, 145-165, 2003.
    • (http://www.eclaire-fp7.eu/), specifically Work Package 6, on how de Meij, A., Krol, M., Dentener, F., Vignati, E., Cuvelier, C., and to quantify ammonia emissions from agriculture in response to Thunis, P.: The sensitivity of aerosol in Europe to two different interactions of weather, climate and climate change. emission inventories and temporal distribution of emissions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4287-4309, doi:10.5194/acp-6-4287-2006, Edited by: A. B. Guenther 2006.
    • de Meij, A., Thunis, P., Bessagnet, B., and Cuvelier, C.: The sensitivity of the CHIMERE model to emissions reduction scenarios on air quality in Northern Italy, Atmos. Environ., 43, 1897-1907, 2009.
    • de Vries, W., Kros, J., Reinds, G. J., and Butterbach-Bahl, K.: Quantifying impacts of nitrogen use in European agriculture on global warming potential, Curr. Op. Environ. Sustain., 3, 291- 302, 2011.
    • Dosio, A. and Paruolo, P.: Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Evaluation on the present climate, J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos., 116, D16106, doi:10.1029/2011JD015934, 2011.
    • Elzing, A. and Monteny, G. J.: Ammonia emission in a scale model of a dairy-cow house, Trans. Asae, 40, 713-720, 1997.
    • Erisman, J. W., Galloway, J., Seitzinger, S., Bleeker, A., and Butterbach-Bahl, K.: Reactive nitrogen in the environment and its effect on climate change, Curr. Op. Environ. Sustain., 3, 281- 290, 2011.
    • European Commission: Image2000 and CLC2000 Products and Methods European Commission, Joint Research Center (DG JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Land Management Unit, 21020 Ispra (VA), Italy, 1-152, 2005.
    • Fowler, D., Pitcairn, C. E. R., Sutton, M. A., Flechard, C., Loubet, B., Coyle, M., and Munro, R.: The mass budget of atmospheric ammoina in woodland within 1 km of lifestock buildings, Environ. Pollut., 102, 343-348, 1998.
    • Galloway, J. N., Aber, J. D., Erisman, J. W., Seitzinger, S. P., Howarth, R. W., Cowling, E. B., and Cosby, B. J.: The nitrogen cascade, Bioscience, 53, 341-356, 2003.
    • H., Ellermann, T., Løfstrøm, P., Gyldenkaerne, S., Brandt, J., Hansen, K. M., Frohn, L. M., and Hertel, O.: Improved modelling of atmospheric ammonia over Denmark using the coupled modelling system DAMOS, Biogeosciences, 9, 2625-2647, doi:10.5194/bg-9-2625-2012, 2012.
    • Grell, G. A., Dudhia, J., and Stauffer, D. R.: A description of the fifth-generation Penn State NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5), Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 122, 1- 22, 1995.
    • Gruber, N. and Galloway, J. N.: An Earth-system perspective of the global nitrogen cycle, Nature, 451, 293-296, 2008.
    • Gyldenkaerne, S., Ambelas Skjøth, C., Hertel, O., and Ellermann, T.: A dynamical ammonia emission parameterization for use in air pollution models, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D07108, doi:10.1029/2004JD005459, 2005
    • Hallsworth, S., Dore, A. J., Bealey, W. J., Dragosits, U., Vieno, M., Hellsten, S., Tang, Y. S., and Sutton, M. A.: The role of indicator choice in quantifying the threat of atmospheric ammonia to the 'Natura 2000' network, Environ. Sci. Policy, 13, 671-687, 2010.
    • O. T.: Atmospheric ammonia and particulate inorganic nitrogen over the United States, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10295-10312, doi:10.5194/acp-12-10295-2012, 2012.
    • Hellsten, S., Dragosits, U., Place, C. J., Misselbrook, T. H., Tang, Y. S., and Sutton, M. A.: Modelling Seasonal Dynamics from Temporal Variation in Agricultural Practices in the UK Ammonia Emission Inventory Acid Rain - Deposition to Recovery, edited by: Brimblecombe, P., Hara, H., Houle, D., and Novak, M., Springer Netherlands, 3-13, 2007.
    • Hertel, O., Skjøth, C. A., Reis, S., Bleeker, A., Harrison, R. M., Cape, J. N., Fowler, D., Skiba, U., Simpson, D., Jickells, T., Kulmala, M., Gyldenkaerne, S., Sørensen, L. L., Erisman, J. W., and Sutton, M. A.: Governing processes for reactive nitrogen compounds in the European atmosphere, Biogeosciences, 9, 4921- 4954, doi:10.5194/bg-9-4921-2012, 2012.
    • IPCC: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment. Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1-996, 2007.
    • Jacob, D. J. and Winner, D. A.: Effect of climate change on air quality, Atmos. Environ., 43, 51-63, 2009.
    • Kean, A. J., Littlejohn, D., Ban-Weiss, G. A., Harley, R. A., Kirchstetter, T. W., and Lunden, M. M., Trends in on-road vehicle emissions of ammonia, Atmos. Environ., 43, 1565-1570, 2009.
    • Klimont, Z. and Brink, C.: Modelling of Emissions of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases from Agricultural Sources in Europe, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Autria, 1-69, 2004.
    • Krupa, S. V.: Effects of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) on terrestrial vegetation: a review, Environ. Pollut., 124, 179-221, 2003.
    • Kryza, M., Dore, A. J., Blas, M., and Sobik, M.: Modelling deposition and air concentration of reduced nitrogen in Poland and sensitivity to variability in annual meteorology, J. Environ. Manage., 92, 1225-1236, 2011.
    • Res., 14, 226-237, 2009.
    • Langner, J., Engardt, M., Baklanov, A., Christensen, J. H., Gauss, M., Geels, C., Hedegaard, G. B., Nuterman, R., Simpson, D., Soares, J., Sofiev, M., Wind, P., and Zakey, A.: A multi-model study of impacts of climate change on surface ozone in Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10423-10440, doi:10.5194/acp12-10423-2012, 2012.
    • Menut, L. and Bessagnet, B.: Atmospheric composition forecasting in Europe, Ann. Geophys., 28, 61-74, 2010, http://www.ann-geophys.net/28/61/2010/.
    • Muck, R. E. and Steenhuis, T. S.: Nitrogen Losses from Manure Storages, Agricult. Wastes, 4, 41-54, 1982.
    • Neumann, K., Elbersen, B. S., Verburg, P. H., Staritsky, I., PerezSoba, M., de Vries, W., and Rienks, W. A.: Modelling the spatial distribution of livestock in Europe, Landscape Ecol., 24, 1207- 1222, 2009.
    • Pinder, R. W., Strader, R., Davidson, C. I., and Adams, P. J., A temporally and spatially resolved ammonia emission inventory for dairy cows in the United States, Atmos. Environ., 38, 3747-3756, 2004.
    • Res., 111, D16310, doi:10.1029/2005JD006603, 2006.
    • Pouliot, G., Pierce, T., Denier van der Gon, H., Schaap, M., Moran, M., and Nopmongcol, U.: Comparing emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII project, Atmos. Environ., 53, 4-14, 2012.
    • Reche, C., Pandolfi, M., Alastuey, A., Moreno, T., Amato, F., Ripoll, A., and Querol, X.: Urban NH3 levels and sources in a Mediterranean envionment, Atmos. Environ., 57, 153-164, 2012.
    • A.: Reactive nitrogen in atmospheric emission inventories, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 7657-7677, doi:10.5194/acp-9-7657-2009, 2009.
    • Seinfeld, J. H. and Pandis, S. N.: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 1-1203, 2006.
    • Sheppard, L. J., Leith, I. D., Mizunuma, T., Neil Cape, J., Crossley, A., Leeson, S., Sutton, M. A., van Dijk, N., and Fowler, D.: Dry deposition of ammonia gas drives species change faster than wet deposition of ammonium ions: evidence from a long-term field manipulation, Global Change Biol., 17, 3589-3607, 2011.
    • Simpson, D., Aas, W., Bartnicki, J., Berge, H., Bleeker, A., Cuvelier, C., Dentener, F., Dore, T., Erisman, J. W., Fagerli, H., Flechard, C., Hertel, O., Van Jaarsveld, H., Jenkin, M. E., Schaap, M., Smeena, V. S., Thunis, P., Vautard, R., and Vieno, M., Chapter 14: Atmospheric transport and deposition of reactive nitrogen in Europe in: The European Nitrogen Assessment - Sources, Effects and Policy Perspectives, edited by: Sutton, M., Howard, C. M., Erisman, J. W., Billen, G., Bleeker, A., Grennfelt, P., van Grinsven, H., and Grizzetti, B., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 298-316, 2011.
    • S., Tsyro, S., Tuovinen, J.-P., Valdebenito, A´ ., and Wind, P.: The EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model - technical description, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 7825-7865, doi:10.5194/acp-12- 7825-2012, 2012.
    • Skjøth, C. A., Geels, C., Berge, H., Gyldenkaerne, S., Fagerli, H., Ellermann, T., Frohn, L. M., Christensen, J., Hansen, K. M., Hansen, K., and Hertel, O.: Spatial and temporal variations in ammonia emissions - a freely accessible model code for Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5221-5236, doi:10.5194/acp-11-5221- 2011, 2011.
    • Skjøth, C. A., Hertel, O., Gyldenkaerne, S., and Ellermann, T.: Implementing a dynamical ammonia emission parameterization in the large-scale air pollution model ACDEP, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D06306, doi:10.1029/2003JD003895, 2004.
    • Sommer, S. G., Genermont, S., Cellier, P., Hutchings, N. J., Olesen, J. E., and Morvan, T.: Processes controlling ammonia emission from livestock slurry in the field, Eur. J. Agron., 19, 465-486, 2003.
    • Sommer, S. G., Østerga˚rd, H. S., Løfstrøm, P., Andersen, H. V., and Jensen, L. S.: Validation of model calculation of ammonia deposition in the neighbourhood of a poultry farm using measured NH3 concentrations and N deposition, Atmos. Environ., 43, 915- 920, 2009.
    • Sørensen, L. L., Hertel, O., Skjøth, C. A., Lund, M., and Pedersen, B.: Fluxes of ammonia in the coastal marine boundary layer, Atmos. Environ., 37, S167-S177, 2003.
    • A., Muller, S., and Dise, N. B.: Nitrogen deposition threatens species richness of grasslands across Europe, Environ. Pollut., 158, 2940-2945, 2010.
    • W., Bash, J. O., Walker, J. D., Simpson, D., Horvath, L., Misselbrook, T., Bleeker, A., Dentener, F., and de Vries, W.: Toward a Climate-Dependent Paradigm of Ammonia Emission & Deposition, submitted to Proc. Roy. Soc., Part B, November 2012.
    • Environ., 34, 855-869, 2000.
    • R., Levy, P., Mobbs, D. C., Milne, R., Viovy, N., Vuichard, N., Smith, J. U., Smith, P., Bergamaschi, P., Fowler, D., and Reis, S.: Challenges in quantifying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of nitrogen species, Environ. Pollut., 150, 125-139, 2007.
    • Sutton, M. A., Erisman, J. W., Dentener, F., and Mo¨ller, D.: Ammonia in the environment: From ancient times to the present, Environ. Pollut., 156, 583-604, 2008.
    • Sutton, M. A., Oenema, O., Erisman, J. W., Leip, A., van Grinsven, H., and Winiwarter, W.: Too much of a good thing, Nature, 472, 159-161, 2011.
    • Velthof, G. L., van Bruggen, C., Groenestein, C. M., de Haan, B. J., Hoogeveen, M. W., and Huijsmans, J. F. M.: A model for inventory of ammonia emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands, Atmos. Environ., 46, 248-255, 2012.
    • Xu, L. and Penner, J. E.: Global simulations of nitrate and ammonium aerosols and their radiative effects, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 9479-9504, doi:10.5194/acp-12-9479-2012, 2012.
    • P., and Arya, S. P., Modeling agricultural air quality: Current status, major challenges, and outlook, Atmos. Environ., 42, 3218- 3237, 2008.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Published in

Funded by projects


Cite this article