Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Journal: PLoS ONE
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Medicine, Q, R, Science, QL, Research Article
Illegal hunting (poaching) is a global threat to wildlife. Anti-poaching initiatives are making increasing use of technology, such as infrared thermography (IRT), to support traditional foot and vehicle patrols. To date, the effectiveness of IRT for poacher location has not been tested under field conditions, where thermal signatures are often complex. Here, we test the hypothesis that IRT will increase the distance over which a poacher hiding in African scrub bushveldt can be detected relative to a conventional flashlight. We also test whether any increase in effectiveness is related to the cost and complexity of the equipment by comparing comparatively expensive (22,000 USD) and relatively inexpensive (2000 USD) IRT devices. To test these hypotheses we employ a controlled, fully randomised, double-blind procedure to find a poacher in nocturnal field conditions in African bushveldt. Each of our 27 volunteer observers walked three times along a pathway using one detection technology on each pass in randomised order. They searched a prescribed search area of bushveldt within which the target was hiding. Hiding locations were pre-determined, randomised, and changed with each pass. Distances of first detection and positive detection were noted. All technologies could be used to detect the target. Average first detection distance for flashlight was 37.3 m, improving by 19.8 m to 57.1 m using LIRT and by a further 11.2m to 68.3m using HIRT. Although detection distances were significantly greater for both IRTs compared to flashlight, there was no significant difference between LIRT and HIRT. False detection rates were low and there was no significant association between technology and accuracy of detection. Although IRT technology should ideally be tested in the specific environment intended before significant investment is made, we conclude that IRT technology is promising for anti-poaching patrols and that for this purpose low cost IRT units are as effective as units ten times more expensive.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Kamins A, Restif O, Ntiamoa-Baidu Y, Suu-Ire R, Hayman D, Cunningham A et al. (2011) Uncovering the fruit bat bushmeat commodity chain and the true extent of fruit bat hunting in Ghana, West Africa. Biol Cons 144: 3000-3008.
    • 2. Festus IA, Omoboye IF (2014) Bushmeat Hunting: A Challenge to Sustainable Ecotourism. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences 4: 13-20.
    • 3. Lindsey PA, Balme G, Becker M, Begg C, Bento C, Bocchino C et al. (2013) The bushmeat trade in African savannas: Impacts, drivers, and possible solutions. Biol Cons 160: 80-96.
    • 4. Chaber AL, Allebone‐Webb S, Lignereux Y, Cunningham AA, Marcus Rowcliffe J. (2010) The scale of illegal meat importation from Africa to Europe via Paris. Conserv Lett 3: 317-321.
    • 5. Bowen-Jones E, Brown D, Robinson E (2002) Assessment of the solution-orientated research needed to promote a more sustainable bushmeat trade in Central and West Africa. DEFRA. Available at: http:// dspace.africaportal.org/jspui/bitstream/123456789/22615/1/Assessment%20of%20the%20Solution% 20orientated%20Research%20Needed%20to%20Promote%20a%20More%20Sustainable% 20Bushmeat%20Trade%20in%20Central%20and%20West%20Africa.pdf?1 Accessed: 25/07/2014
    • 6. Lee J (1995) Poachers, Tigers, and Bears. . .Oh My-Asia's Illegal Wildlife Trade. Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus 16: 497.
    • 7. Servheen C, Darling LM, Archibald WR (1990) The status and conservation of the bears of the world. Int Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. Monogr. Series No. 2: 33.
    • 8. Hutton J, Webb G (2002) Crocodiles: Proceedings of the 16th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. Wilderness Environ Med 16:143-159.
    • 9. Drews C (2001) Wild animals and other pets kept in Costa Rican households: Incidence, species, and numbers. Soc Anim 9: 107-126.
    • 10. Maisels F, Strindberg S, Blake S, Wittemyer G, Hart J, Williamson EA et al. (2013) Devastating decline of forest elephants in Central Africa. PLoS One 8: e59469. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059469 PMID: 23469289
    • 11. Stiles D (2011) Elephant meat trade in Central Africa: summary report. IUCN. Available at: http:// cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/ssc_op_045.pdf Accessed: 20/7/2014.
    • 12. Stiles D (2004) The ivory trade and elephant conservation. Environ Conserv 31: 309-321.
    • 13. Mahmood T, Hussain R, Irshad N, Akrim F, Sajid M (2012) Illegal mass killing of Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) in Potohar region, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Zool, 44: 1457-1461.
    • 14. Katuwal HB, Khanal B, Basnet K, Rai B, Devkota S, Rai SK et al. (2013) The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal. Asian J. Conserv. Biol. 2: 21-29.
    • 15. Emslie R, Brooks M (1999) Status survey and conservation action plan: African Rhino. IUCN/SSC Rhino specialist group, IUCN Available at: https://portals.iucn.org/library/efiles/documents/1999-049. pdf Accessed: 20/72014.
    • 16. Gastrow P (2001) Triad societies and Chinese organised crime in South Africa. Institute for Security Studies South Africa. Available at: http://dspace.africaportal.org/jspui/bitstream/123456789/31288/1/ paper48.pdf?1 Accessed: 21/07/2014.
    • 17. Nijman V, Shepherd CR (2007) Trade in non-native, CITES-listed, wildlife in Asia, as exemplified by the trade in freshwater turtles and tortoises (Chelonidae) in Thailand. Contrib Zool 76: 207-212.
    • 18. Wyler LS, Sheikh PA (2008) International illegal trade in wildlife: Threats and US policy. CRS Report for Congress. Available at: file:///C:/Users/Advent/Downloads/ADA486486%20(1).pdf Accessed: 21/07/ 2014.
    • 19. Challender DW, MacMillan DC (2014) Poaching is more than an enforcement problem. Conserv Lett doi: 10.1111/conl.12082
    • 20. Mulero-Pázmány M, Stolper R, van Essen L, Negro JJ, Sassen T (2014) Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems as a Rhinoceros Anti-Poaching Tool in Africa. PloS one 9: e83873 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone. 0083873 PMID: 24416177
    • 21. Stein A, Erckie B, Fuller T, Marker L (2010) Camera-trapping as a method for monitoring rhino populations within the Waterberg Plateau Park, Namibia. Pachyderm 48: 67-70.
    • 22. Banzi J (2014) A Sensor Based Anti-Poaching System in Tanzania National Parks. IJSRES. Available at: http://www.ijsrp.org/research-paper-0414/ijsrp-p2815.pdf Accessed: 23/07/2014.
    • 23. Allison NL, Destefano S (2006) Equipment and techniques for nocturnal wildlife studies. Wildlife Soc B, 34:1036-1044.
    • 24. Boonstra R, Krebs C, Boutin S, Eadie J (1994) Finding mammals using far-infrared thermal imaging. J mammal 75: 1063-1068.
    • 25. Hristov NI, Betke M, Kunz TH (2008) Applications of thermal infrared imaging for research in aeroecology. Inter Comp Biol 48: 50-59.
    • 26. Dunn WC, Donnelly JP, Krausmann WJ (2002) Using thermal infrared sensing to count elk in the southwestern United States. Wildlife Soc B, 30: 963-967.
    • 27. Schaefer A, Cook N, Tessaro S, Deregt D, Desroches G, Dubeski PL et al. (2004) Early detection and prediction of infection using infrared thermography. Can J Anim Sci 84: 73-80.
    • 28. Sader SA (1986) Analysis of effective radiant temperatures in a Pacific Northwest forest using thermal infrared multispectral scanner data. Remote Sens Environ 19: 105-115.
    • 29. Sykes D, Couvillion J, Cromiak A, Bowers S, Schenck E, Crenshaw M et al. (2012) The use of digital infrared thermal imaging to detect estrus in gilts. Theriogenology 78: 147-152. doi: 10.1016/j. theriogenology.2012.01.030 PMID: 22444552
    • 30. McCafferty D, Moncrieff J, Taylor I, Boddie G. (1998) The use of IR thermography to measure the radiative temperature and heat loss of a barn owl (Tyto alba). J Therm Biol 23: 311-318.
    • 31. Mccafferty DJ. (2007) The value of infrared thermography for research on mammals: previous applications and future directions. Mammal Rev 37: 207-223.
    • 32. Kaplan H (2007) Practical applications of infrared thermal sensing and imaging equipment. Washington. SPIE press. p169.
    • 33. Hristov NI, Betke M, Kunz TH (2008) Applications of thermal infrared imaging for research in aeroecology. Integr Comp Biol, 48: 50-59. doi: 10.1093/icb/icn053 PMID: 21669772
    • 34. Philip A, How CH, Poh HS, Lee YO, Rishi H, Tan SJ et al. (2013) Aerial surveillance to tackle poaching. The Skyno project Available: http://www.ee.ic.ac.uk/hemang.rishi12/yr2proj/report.pdf Accessed: 25/ 07/2014
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article