Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Olson, W.S.; Kummerow, C.D.; Yang, S.; Petty, G.W.; Tao, W.-K.; Bell, T.L.; Braun, S.A.; Wang, Y.; Lang, S.E.; Johnson, D.E.; Chiu, J. Christine (2006)
Publisher: American Meteorological Society
Languages: English
Types: Article
A revised Bayesian algorithm for estimating surface rain rate, convective rain proportion, and latent heating profiles from satellite-borne passive microwave radiometer observations over ocean backgrounds is described. The algorithm searches a large database of cloud-radiative model simulations to find cloud profiles that are radiatively consistent with a given set of microwave radiance measurements. The properties of these radiatively consistent profiles are then composited to obtain best estimates of the observed properties. The revised algorithm is supported by an expanded and more physically consistent database of cloud-radiative model simulations. The algorithm also features a better quantification of the convective and nonconvective contributions to total rainfall, a new geographic database, and an improved representation of background radiances in rain-free regions. Bias and random error estimates are derived from applications of the algorithm to synthetic radiance data, based upon a subset of cloud-resolving model simulations, and from the Bayesian formulation itself. Synthetic rain-rate and latent heating estimates exhibit a trend of high (low) bias for low (high) retrieved values. The Bayesian estimates of random error are propagated to represent errors at coarser time and space resolutions, based upon applications of the algorithm to TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) data. Errors in TMI instantaneous rain-rate estimates at 0.5°-resolution range from approximately 50% at 1 mm h−1 to 20% at 14 mm h−1. Errors in collocated spaceborne radar rain-rate estimates are roughly 50%–80% of the TMI errors at this resolution. The estimated algorithm random error in TMI rain rates at monthly, 2.5° resolution is relatively small (less than 6% at 5 mm day−1) in comparison with the random error resulting from infrequent satellite temporal sampling (8%–35% at the same rain rate). Percentage errors resulting from sampling decrease with increasing rain rate, and sampling errors in latent heating rates follow the same trend. Averaging over 3 months reduces sampling errors in rain rates to 6%–15% at 5 mm day−1, with proportionate reductions in latent heating sampling errors.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Adler, R. F., and Coauthors, 2003: The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979-present). J. Hydrometeor., 4, 1147-1167.
    • Bauer, P., J.-F. Mahfouf, W. S. Olson, F. S. Marzano, S. Di Michele, A. Tassa, and A. Mugnai, 2002: Error analysis of TMI rainfall estimates over ocean for variational data assimilation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 128, 2129-2144.
    • Bell, T. L., and P. K. Kundu, 1996: A study of the sampling error in satellite rainfall estimates using optimal averaging of data and a stochastic model. J. Climate, 9, 1251-1268.
    • --, and --, 2000: Dependence of satellite sampling error on monthly averaged rain rates: Comparison of simple models and recent studies. J. Climate, 13, 449-462.
    • --, A. Abdullah, R. L. Martin, and G. R. North, 1990: Sampling errors for satellite-derived tropical rainfall: Monte Carlo study using a space-time stochastic model. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 2195-2205.
    • Chang, A. T. C., L. S. Chiu, and T. T. Wilheit, 1993: Random errors of oceanic monthly rainfall derived from SSM/I using probability distribution functions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 2351- 2354.
    • Curtis, S., and R. Adler, 2000: ENSO indices based on patterns of satellite-derived precipitation. J. Climate, 13, 2786-2793.
    • Dudhia, J., 1993: A nonhydrostatic version of the Penn StateNCAR mesoscale model: Validation tests and simulation of an Atlantic cyclone and cold front. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 1493-1513.
    • Hong, Y., C. D. Kummerow, and W. S. Olson, 1999: Separation of convective and stratiform precipitation using microwave brightness temperature. J. Appl. Meteor., 38, 1195-1213.
    • Hou, A. Y., S. Q. Zhang, A. M. da Silva, and W. S. Olson, 2000: Improving assimilated global data sets using TMI rainfall and columnar moisture observations. J. Climate, 13, 4180-4195.
    • --, --, --, --, C. D. Kummerow, and J. Simpson, 2001: Improving global analysis and short-range forecast using rainfall and moisture observations derived from TRMM and SSM/I passive microwave instruments. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 659-679.
    • --, --, and O. Reale, 2004: Variational continuous assimilation of TMI and SSM/I rain rates: Impact on GEOS-3 hurricane analyses and forecasts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 2094-2109.
    • Houze, R. A., Jr., 1989: Observed structure of mesoscale convective systems and implications for large-scale heating. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 115, 425-461.
    • Huffman, G. J., 1997: Estimates of root-mean-square random error for finite samples of estimated precipitation. J. Appl. Meteor., 36, 1191-1201.
    • Johnson, D. E., W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, and C.-H. Sui, 2002: A study of the response of deep tropical clouds to large-scale thermodynamic forcings. Part I: Modeling strategies and simulations of TOGA COARE convective systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 3492-3518.
    • Kedem, B., L. S. Chiu, and G. R. North, 1990: Estimation of mean rain rate: Application to satellite observations. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 1965-1972.
    • Krishnamurti, T. N., and Coauthors, 2001: Real-time multianalysis-multimodel superensemble forecasts of precipitation using TRMM and SSM/I products. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 2861- 2883.
    • Kummerow, C., W. S. Olson, and L. Giglio, 1996: A simplified scheme for obtaining precipitation and vertical hydrometeor profiles from passive microwave sensors. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 34, 1213-1232.
    • --, and Coauthors, 2001: The evolution of the Goddard profiling algorithm (GPROF) for rainfall estimation from passive microwave sensors. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 1801-1820.
    • Laughlin, C. R., 1981: On the effect of temporal sampling on the observation of rainfall. Precipitation Measurements from Space Workshop Report, NASA Publication, D-59-D-66.
    • Li, Q., R. Ferraro, and N. Grody, 1998: Detailed analysis of the error associated with the rainfall retrieved by the NOAA/ NESDIS SSM/I algorithm. 1. Tropical oceanic rainfall. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 11 419-11 427.
    • Lin, X., and R. H. Johnson, 1996: Heating, moistening, and rainfall over the Western Pacific Warm Pool during TOGA COARE. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 3367-3383.
    • Lin, Y.-L., R. D. Farley, and H. D. Orville, 1983: Bulk parameterization of the snow field in a cloud model. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 22, 1065-1092.
    • Oki, R., and A. Sumi, 1994: Sampling simulation of TRMM rainfall estimation using radar-AMeDAS composites. J. Appl. Meteor., 33, 1597-1608.
    • Olson, W. S., C. D. Kummerow, Y. Hong, and W.-K. Tao, 1999: Atmospheric latent heating distributions in the Tropics derived from passive microwave radiometer measurements. J. Appl. Meteor., 38, 633-664.
    • --, P. Bauer, N. F. Viltard, D. E. Johnson, W.-K. Tao, L. Liao, and R. Meneghini, 2001a: A melting layer model for passive/ active microwave remote sensing applications. Part I: Model formulation and comparison with observations. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 1145-1163.
    • --, --, C. D. Kummerow, Y. Hong, and W.-K. Tao, 2001b: A melting layer model for passive/active microwave remote sensing applications. Part II: Simulation of TRMM observations. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 1164-1179.
    • --, Y. Hong, C. D. Kummerow, and J. Turk, 2001c: A texturepolarization method for estimating convective-stratiform precipitation area coverage from passive microwave radiometer data. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 1577-1591.
    • Petty, G. W., 1994a: Physical retrieval of over-ocean rain rate from multichannel microwave imagery. Part I: Theoretical characteristics of normalized polarization and scattering indices. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 54, 79-100.
    • --, 1994b: Physical retrieval of over-ocean rain rate from multichannel microwave imagery. Part II: Algorithm implementation. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 54, 101-121.
    • Pruppacher, H. R., and J. D. Klett, 1997: Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation. 2d ed. Kluwer Academic, 954 pp.
    • Rasmussen, E. M., and P. A. Arkin, 1993: A global view of largescale precipitation variability. J. Climate, 6, 1495-1522.
    • Rickenbach, T. M., and S. A. Rutledge, 1998: Convection in TOGA COARE: Horizontal scale, morphology, and rainfall production. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 2715-2729.
    • Rutledge, S. A., and P. V. Hobbs, 1984: The mesoscale and microscale structure and organization of clouds and precipitation in midlatitude clouds. Part XII: A diagnostic modeling study of precipitation development in narrow cold frontal rainbands. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 2949-2972.
    • Shin, K.-S., and G. R. North, 1988: Sampling error study for rainfall estimate by satellite using a stochastic model. J. Appl. Meteor., 27, 1218-1231.
    • Simpson, J., R. F. Adler, and G. R. North, 1988: A proposed Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 69, 278-295.
    • Steiner, M., T. L. Bell, Y. Zhang, and E. F. Wood, 2003: Comparison of two methods for estimating sampling-related uncertainty of satellite rainfall averages based on a large radar dataset. J. Climate, 16, 3759-3778.
    • Tao, W.-K., 2003a: Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model: Application for understanding precipitation processes. Cloud Systems, Hurricanes, and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM): A Tribute to Dr. Joanne Simpson, Meteor. Monogr., No. 51, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 103-138.
    • --, 2003b: Regional-scale modeling at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Recent Dev. Atmos. Sci., 2, 1-52.
    • --, and J. Simpson, 1993: The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model. Part I: Model description. Terr. Atmos. Oceanic Sci., 4, 19-54.
    • --, S. Lang, J. Simpson, and R. Adler, 1993: Retrieval algorithms for estimating the vertical profiles of latent heat release. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 71, 685-700.
    • Xie, P., and P. A. Arkin, 1997: Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model output. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 2539-2558.
    • Xu, K.-M., 1995: Partitioning mass, heat, and moisture budgets of explicitly simulated cumulus ensembles into convective and stratiform components. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 551-573.
    • Yanai, M., S. Esbensen, and J.-H. Chu, 1973: Determination of bulk properties of tropical cloud clusters from large-scale heat and moisture budgets. J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 611-627.
    • Yang, S., and E. A. Smith, 1999a: Moisture budget analysis of TOGA-COARE using SSM/I retrieved latent heating and large scale Q2 estimates. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16, 633- 655.
    • --, and --, 1999b: Four-dimensional structure of monthly latent heating derived from SSM/I satellite measurements. J. Climate, 12, 1016-1037.
    • --, and --, 2000: Vertical structure and transient behavior of convective-stratiform heating in TOGA COARE from combined satellite-sounding analysis. J. Appl. Meteor., 39, 1491- 1513.
    • --, W. S. Olson, J.-J. Wang, T. L. Bell, E. A. Smith, and C. D. Kummerow, 2006: Precipitation and latent heating distributions from satellite passive microwave radiometry. Part II: Evaluation of estimates using independent data. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45, 721-739.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article