Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: QK

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: food and beverages, fungi
The biochemical principles underlining carbohydrate metabolism of ornamental geophytes such as hyacinth and the lily are poorly understood. The present studies were therefore undertaken to investigate the regulation and partitioning of carbohydrates, as well as growth and development of these flower bulbs. Results indicated that starch was the major storage carbohydrate in these bulbs. Starch degradation occurred through amylolysis rather than phosphorolysis. The flower accumulated the highest amount of the reserves in hyacinth, following the depletion of these substances in the bulb scales, whilst in the case of the lily; it was the stem and roots, which accumulated the highest amount of reserves. The isolation of gene fragments of starch phosphorylase and starch synthase from hyacinth as well as the sequences generated for these enzymes implies that primers which are specific to hyacinth can be designed, and full characterisation of the genes can be made in the future by making and probing genomic libraries and isolating clones from cDNA libraries. In general, peeling of bulbs prior to planting resulted in a delay in emergence and reductions in vegetative growth as well as flower quality. Hyacinth plants subjected to defoliation did not show any compensation for leaf loss because growth was always reduced whilst flowering was unaffected, however, the lily responded positively to complete shoots removal especially when herbivory occurred at the beginning of their growth. Plants produced from large bulbs, just like those from the shallow planting regimes performed better in terms of growth and flower quality as compared to those of small bulbs and deep planting. Also, the application of (NH4)2SO4 enhanced more vigorous growth and bulb yield in both species of flower bulbs than did Na2HPO4, but in hyacinth it was Na2HPO4 that produced better flower quality than the former. Varieties such as Sky Jackets and Purple Voice produced the highest vegetative growth and bulb yield, whilst Fondant and Blue Jacket recorded the highest flower quality.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Adams, C. A., Broman, T. H., Norby, S. W. and Rinne, R. W. (1981). Occurence of multiple forms of α-amylase and absence of starch phosphorylase in Soya bean seeds. Ann. Bot. 48, 895-903.
    • Afonja, B. (1967). An analysis of an experiment with plots of different sizes. Trop. Agric., Trin. 44, 39-44.
    • Afrozi, S. and Hassan, A. M. D. (2008). Systematic studies in the family Liliaceae. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 15(2): 115-128.
    • Akazawa, T. and Hara-Nishimura, I. (1985). Topographical aspects of biosynthesis, extracellular secretion and intracellular storage of proteins in plant cells. Annu. Rev. Plant. Physiol. 36: 441-472.
    • Alam, Z. and Locascio, S. J. (1965). Effect of seed size and depth of planting on broccoli and beans. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 78:107-112.
    • Alekseev, A. M. (1950). Probl. Botan., 1 (1950).
    • Ali, M. K., Alam, M. N., Islam, M. S., Islam, M. K., and Baree, M. A. (2008). Effect of cowdung at different level of phosphorus on growth, yield and quality seed production of onion. Research J. Agric. and Biol. Sc., 4(1): 86-93, 2008.
    • Badanova, K. A. (1960). Trudy konferenzii po fiziologil usloichivosti rastenii (Izdat. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moskva, 1960).
    • Banaski, L. and Saniewski, M. (1979). Activity of invertase as related to IAA-induced shoot growth in comparison to intact tulips. Acta. Hort. 91: 235-240.
    • Banaski, L., Rudnicki, R. M., and Saniewski, M. (1980). Studies on the physiology of hyacinth bulb; the distribution of alpha amylase and acid phosphatase activities and starch grains in hyacinth bulb. Acta Physiol. Plant. 2: (2) 145-156.
    • Bartels, D., Furini, A., Ingram, J. and Salamini, F. (1996). Responses of plants to dehydration stress: a molecular analysis. Plant Growth Regul. 20: 111-118.
    • Batal, K. M., Bondari, K., Granberry, D. M. and Mullinix, B. G. (1994). Effects of source, rate, and frequency of N application on yield, marketable grades and rot incidence of sweet onion (Allium cepa L. cv. Granex-33). J. Hort. Sci. 69:1043-1051.
    • Beck, E. and Ziegler, P. (1989). Biosynthesis and degradation of starch in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol. Biol. 40: 95- 117.
    • Beattie, D.J. and White, J.W. (1993). Lilium-hybrids and species. In: De Hertogh, A. A., Le Nard, M. (Eds.), The Physiology of Flower Bulbs. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 423-454.
    • Beijer, J. J. 1947. Het ‗spouwen' der hyacinten Meded. LandbHoogesch. Wageningen 48 (5), 185-225.
    • Beijer, J.J. 1963. Het mechanisch spouwen van hyacinten. Versl. Werkzaamh. Lab. BloembOnderz. Lisse 1963, 27-8.
    • Bennett, W. F. (1993). Plant nutrient utilization and diagnostic plant symptoms. In W.F.Bennett (Ed). Nutrient deficiencies and toxicities in crop plants. APS Press, St Paul, Minnesota.
    • Bergmann, W. (1992). Nutritional disorders of plants: development, visual and analytical diagnosis. Gustav Fisher Verlag Jena, New York.
    • Bewley J. D. (1995). Physiological aspects of desiccation tolerance --a retrospect. Int J. Plant Sci 156, 393-403.
    • Bewley J. D. (2002). Root storage proteins, with particular reference to taproots. Can. J. Bot. 80: 321-329.
    • Blaauw A. H. 1920. Over de perioddiciteit van Hyacinthus orientalis. Meded. Landb.Hoogesch. Wageningen 18: 1 - 82.
    • Black, J. N. (1959). Seed size in herbage legumes. Herb. Abstr. 29, 235-41.
    • Blaney, L. T. and Roberts, A. N. (1966). Growth and development of the Easter lily bulb, Lilium longiflorum Thunb. ‗Croft' Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 89, 643-50.
    • Blum, A. and Ebercon, A. (1981). Cell membrane stability as a measure of drought and heat tolerance in wheat. Crop Sci 21: 43-47.
    • Burkepile, D., Emmett Duffy, J. (2009). "Herbivory." In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland, Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information.
    • Burton, W. G. (1966). The Potato. Veeman, Wageningen.
    • Caldwell, M. M., Richards, J. H., Manwaring, J. H. and Eissenstat, D. M. (1987). Rapid shift in phosphate acquisition show direct competition between neighbouring plants. Nature 327; 615-616.
    • Canadell, J. and L´opez-Soria, L. (1998). Lignotuber reserves support regrowth following clipping of two Mediterranean shrubs. Funct Ecol. 12:31-38.
    • Cannabis Hydroponics (2010). Medical marijuana-mentor.com, http://www.medicalmarijuana-mentor.com/cannabis_hydroponics.html.
    • Carlson, G. E. (1966). Growth of clover leaves after complete or partial leaf removal. Crop Sci. 6, 419-422.
    • Chapin, F. S. III, Schulze, E.-D. and Mooney, H. A. (1990). The ecology and economics of storage in plants. Annu Rev Ecol Systemat. 21: 423-447.
    • Chen, S. (1960). Carbohydrate metabolism in the narcissus leaf. J. Exp. Bot. 20, 302- 316.
    • Chen, S. (1969). Carbohydrate metabolism in the narcissus leaf. J. Exp. Bot. 30, 721- 725.
    • Chittendon, F. (1956). Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. Oxford University Press 1951.
    • Chopra, R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. (1986). Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
    • Clemens, J., Dennis, D. J., Butler, R. C., Thomas, M. B., Ingle, A. and Welsh, T. E. (1998). Mineral nutrition of Zantedeschia plants affects plant survival, tuber yield, and flowering upon replanting. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 73:755-762.
    • Close, T. J. (1997). Dehydrins: a commonality in the response of plants to dehydration and low temperature. Physiol Plant. 100: 291-296.
    • Dafni, A., Cohen, D. and Noy-Meir, E. (1981). Life cycle variation in geophytes. Ann Missouri Bot. Garden, 68, 652-660.
    • Davies, H. V. (1990). Carbohydrate metabolism during sprouting. Am potato J, 67: 815- 827.
    • De Hertogh, A. and Le Nard, M. (1993). The physiology of flowering bulbs. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Pp 53-69.
    • De Munk, W.J. and Schipper, J. (1993). Iris-Bulbous and Rhizomatous. In: The Physiology of flower bulbs. De Hertogh, A. Le NARD, M. (Editors). Elsevier Scentia Publishers. Amsterdam: 349-379.
    • Diaz-Perez, P. J., Purvis, A. C. and Paulk, J. T. (2003). Bolting, yield, and bulb decay of sweet onion as affected by nitrogen fertilization. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci 128: 144-149.
    • Dickinson D. and Preiss, J. (1969). ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase from maize endosperm. Arch Biochem Biophys 130: 119-128.
    • Dimock, A. W. and Tammen, J. (1967). Diseases. In ‗Easter Lilies' (D. C. Kiplinger and R.W. Langhans, eds), pp. 107-110. New York and Ohio Lily Schools.
    • Die, J. Van, Leeuwangh, P. and Hoekstra, S. M. R. (1970). Translocation of assimilates in Fritillaria imperilis L. I. The secretion of 14C- Labelled sugars by the nectarines in relation to phyllotaxis. Acta bot. Neerl. 19, 16; 23.
    • Doyle J., Joy, H. and Glenn, Z. (1995). Field-Grown Bulb Crops: An economic assessment of the feasibility of providing multiple-peril crop insurance. A report by the Economic Research Service, USDA for the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, April 28, 1995.
    • Duffus, C. M. (1984): Metabolism of reserve starch. Pp. 231-252 in: Storage carbohydrates in vascular plants: distribution, physiology and metabolism. Lewis, D. H. ed. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
    • Facciola, S. (1990). Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications ISBN0-9628087-0-9.
    • Fernandez, J. A., Penapareja, D., Lopez, J., Gonzalez, A. and Banon, S. (2009). The effects of bulb size and temperature storage treatments on flowering of Iris xiphium. Acta Hort. 813, ISHS, 605-608.
    • Fox. D. (1985). Growing Lilies. Croom Helm. The cultivation of the genus Lilium.
    • Gadd, M. E., Young, T. P. and Palmer, T. M. (2001). Effects of simulated shoot and leaf herbivory on vegetative growth and plant defense in Acacia drepanolobium, Okios 92: 515-521.
    • Galil, J. (1961). Kinetics of geophytes (bulbs and corms). Hakkibutz Hameuchad Ltd. Israel 224p. (in Hebrew with English summary).
    • Garwood, E. A. and Sinclair, J. (1979). Use of water by six grass species, II, roots distribution and use of soil water, J. Agric Sc, Cambridge 93: 25-35.
    • Genders, R. (1994). Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. ISBN 0-7090- 5440-8.
    • Ghaffoor, A., Ghulam Khaliq , Kashif Waseem and Muhammad Saleem Jilani. (2003). Effect of Different NPK Levels on the Growth and Yield of Three Onion (Allium cepa L.) Varieties, Asian J Plant Sci (2), issue 3, 342-346.
    • Gorer, R. (1970). The Development of Garden Flowers. London, Eyre and Spottiswode.
    • Hamit Altay, Canan Öztokat, Mürsel Güven. (2001). Effect on Yield and Quality of varying Applications of nitrogen and phosphorus to Greenhouse Cultivation of Freesia Hybrida. Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University.
    • Hanks, G. R. (2002). Production of Narcissus bulbs. In: Narcissus and Daffodils, the Genus Narcissus (Ed Gordon R. Hanks), pp 59-117.
    • Han S. Susan., Abraham H. Halevy, Roy M. Sachs, and Michael S. Reid. (1991). Flowering and Corm Yield of Brodiaea in Response to Temperature, Photoperiod, Corm Size, and Planting Depth. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 116 (1):19-22. 1991.
    • Haper, J. L. (1969). The role of predation in vegetational diversity, Diversity and stability in Ecological Systems (Ed. By G. M. Woodwell and H. H. Smith), pp 48-62.
    • Brookhaven Symposium in Biology, No. 22.
    • Havlin, J. L., Beaton, J. D., Tisdale, S. L., and Nelson, W. L. (1999). Soil fertility and fertilizers: an introduction to nutrient management, 6th edition, Practice Hall, London.
    • Hedrick, U.P. (1972). Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications ISBN0-486-20459-6.
    • Henckel, P. A. (1946). Tr. Inst. Fiziol. Rast., 5, I (1946).
    • Heins, R. D., Liu, B. and Runkle, E. S. (2000). Regulation of crop growth and development based on environmental factors. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 514:13-24.
    • Hidekazu, T., Hironori T., Kenji, I., Masaki, T., Takao M. and Fumio, K. (1998). Effect of seed tuber size on the growth and development of Yam (Dioscorea alata L.). Jpn J Trop Agric. 42 (4), 282-287.
    • Hsiao, T.C. (1973). Plant responses to water stress. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 4: 519- 570.
    • Huxley. A. (1992). The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening.. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN0-333-47494-5.
    • Kim, Iee-Jun., Dong-Chil Choi., Jeong-Man Kim., Sang-Young Seo., Joung-Sik Choi and Yeong-Geun Choi. (2003). Effect of bulb scale removal on vegetative growth, flowering and flower quality of Lilium spp. Acta Hort. 620, ISHS 2003.
    • Ilyin, W. A. (1957). Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 8, 257 (1957).
    • Ismail, A. M., Hall, A. E. and Close, T. J. (1999). Purification and partial characterization of a dehydrin involved in chilling tolerance during seedling emergence of cowpea. Plant Physiol 120: 237-244.
    • Jilani, M. S. and Ghaffoor, A. (2003). Screening of Local Varieties of Onion for Bulb Formation Int. J. Agri. Biol., Vol. 5, No. 2, 129-133.
    • Kalin, E. W. (1954). Flower removal in the field and its effect on bulb production and forcing quality of Narcissus pseudonarcissus var. King Alfred. Proc. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 63, 473-487.
    • Kim, H. H., Ohkawa, K. and Nitta, E. (1998). Effects of bulb weight on the growth and flowering of Leucocoryne coquimbensis F. Phill. Acta Hort. 454: 341-346.
    • Kim, S-H., Hamada, T., Otani, M. and Shimada, T. (2005). Cloning and characterisation of sweet potato isoamylase gene (IbIsa 1) isolated from tuberous root. Breeding Science 55: 453-458.
    • Koch, K.E. (1996). Carbohydrate-modulated gene expression in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 1996. 47:509-40.
    • Leopold, A. C., Musgrave, M. E., Williams, K. M. (1981). Solute leakage resulting from leaf desiccation. Plant Physiol 68: 1222-1225.
    • Lepeschkin, V. V. (1938). Kolloidchemle des Protoplasmas Wisse, Forschun~sberichte Natur. Rcihel, 47, 1938).
    • Mabberley, D. J. (1997). The Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of the vascular plants. 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Mahgoub, H. M., Rawia, A. Eid. and Abou Leila Bedour, H. (2006). Response of Iris Bulbs Grown in Sandy Soil to Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilization. J Appl Sci. Res. 2(11): 899-903, 2006.
    • Maier, N. A., Dahlenburg, A. P. and Twigden, T. K. (1990). Effect of nitrogen on the yield and quality of irrigated onions (Allium cepa L.) cv. Cream Gold grown on siliceous sands. Aust. J. Exper. Agric . 30: 845-851.
    • Manners, D. J. (1985). Starch. In: Biochemistry of storage carbohydrate in green plants. Dey, P.M.; Dixon, R. A. ed. London, Academic Press.
    • McKersie, B. D. and Leshem, Y. Y. (1994). Stress and Stress Coping in Cultivated Plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, pp 132-144.
    • McNaughton, S. J. (1979). Grazing as an optimization process: grass-ungulate relationship in the Serengeti. Am Nat 113, 691-703.
    • Nakamura, Y., Yuki, K., Park, S-Y. and Ohya, T. (1989). Carbohydrate metabolism in the developing endosperm of rice grains. Plant Cell Physiol 30: 833-839.
    • Oluoha, U., and Ugochukwu, E. N. (1991). Isolation and Kinetic Properties of Phosphorylase from Yellow Yam Tuber (Dioscorea cayenensis). Biol Plantarum (Praha). 33 (4) 246-261.
    • Rees, A. R. (1969). Effect of Bulb Size on the Growth of Tulips. Ann. Bot. 33, 133-42, 1969.
    • Rees, A. R. (1971). The growth of bulbs. Applied aspects of the physiology of ornamental bulbous crop plants. Academic Press, London, pp 33 - 35.
    • Rees, A. R. (1985). Ornamental bulbous plants, p. 259-307. In: A.H. Halevy (cd.). Handbook of flowering. vol. I. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
    • Sowokinos, J. R. (2007). The Canon of Potato Science: Carbohydrate Metabolism. Potato Research (2007) 50:367-370.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Download from

Cite this article