Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Orton, Sophie; Jones, Laura L.; Cooper, Sue; Lewis, Sarah; Coleman, Tim (2014)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Journal: PLoS ONE
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Habits, Research Article, Biology and Life Sciences, Medicine, Child Health, Q, Smoking Legislation, R, Psychology, Public and Occupational Health, Social Sciences, Science, Pediatrics, Medicine and Health Sciences, Behavior, Tobacco Control, Smoking Habits

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: complex mixtures, humanities
BACKGROUND: Children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) has been causally linked to a number of childhood morbidities and mortalities. Over 50% of UK children whose parents are smokers are regularly exposed to SHS at home. No previous review has identified the factors associated with children's SHS exposure in the home.\ud \ud \ud AIM: To identify by systematic review, the factors which are associated with children's SHS exposure in the home, determined by parent or child reports and/or biochemically validated measures including cotinine, carbon monoxide or home air particulate matter. \ud \ud \ud METHODS: Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and Web of Knowledge to July 2014, and hand searches of reference lists from publications included in the review were conducted. \ud \ud \ud FINDINGS: Forty one studies were included in the review. Parental smoking, low socioeconomic status and being less educated were all frequently and consistently found to be independently associated with children's SHS exposure in the home. Children whose parents held more negative attitudes towards SHS were less likely to be exposed. Associations were strongest for parental cigarette smoking status; compared to children of non-smokers, those whose mothers or both parents smoked were between two and 13 times more likely to be exposed to SHS. \ud \ud \ud CONCLUSION: Multiple factors are associated with child SHS exposure in the home; the best way to reduce child SHS exposure in the home is for smoking parents to quit. If parents are unable or unwilling to stop smoking, they should instigate smoke-free homes. Interventions targeted towards the socially disadvantaged parents aiming to change attitudes to smoking in the presence of children and providing practical support to help parents smoke outside the home may be beneficial.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Royal College of Physicians (2010) Passive smoking and children. A report of the Tobacco Advisory Group of the Royal College of Physicians. London: Royal College of Physicians.
    • 2. US Surgeon General (2006) The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, US: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.
    • 3. Oberg M, Jaakkola M, Woodward A, Peruga A, Pruss-Ustun A (2011) Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: a retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries. Lancet 377: 139-146.
    • 4. Jarvis MJ, Mindell J, Gilmore A, Feyerabend C, West R (2009) Smoke-free homes in England: prevalence, trends and validation by cotinine in children. TobControl 18: 491-495.
    • 5. Sims M, Tomkins S, Judge K, Taylor G, Jarvis M, et al. (2010) Trends in and predictors of second-hand smoke exposure indexed by cotinine in children in England from 1996 to 2006. Addiction 105: 543-553.
    • 6. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2012) Global Progress Report on Implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Available: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/79170/1/ 9789241504652_eng.pdf?ua=1.
    • 7. Adgate JL, Church TR, Ryan AD, Ramachandran G, Fredrickson AL, et al. (2004) Outdoor, indoor, and personal exposure to VOCs in children. Environmental Health Perspectives 112: 1386.
    • 8. Irvine L, Crombie IK, Clark RA, Slane PW, Goodman KE, et al. (1997) What determines levels of passive smoking in children with asthma? Thorax 52: 766- 769.
    • 9. Matt GE, Quintana PJE, Hovell MF, Bernert JT, Song S, et al. (2004) Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposures. Tobacco Control 13: 29-37.
    • 10. Jarvis M, Sims M, Gilmore A, Mindell J (2012) Impact of smoke-free legislation on children's exposure to secondhand smoke: cotinine data from the Health Survey for England. Tobacco Control 21: 18-23.
    • 11. Control CfD, Prevention (2007) Exposure to secondhand smoke among students aged 13-15 years-worldwide, 2000-2007. MMWR Morbidity and mortality weekly report 56: 497.
    • 12. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Annals of internal medicine 151: 264-269.
    • 13. Silvers A, Florence B, Rourke D, Lorimor R (1994) How children spend their time: a sample survey for use in exposure and risk assessments. Risk analysis 14: 931-944.
    • 14. Farrow A, Taylor H, Golding J (1997) Time Spent in the Home by Different Family Members. Environmental Technology 18: 605-613.
    • 15. Klepeis NE, Nelson WC, Ott WR, Robinson JP, Tsang AM, et al. (2001) The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): a resource for assessing exposure to environmental pollutants. Journal of exposure analysis and environmental epidemiology 11: 231-252.
    • 16. Fried PA, Perkins SL, Watkinson B, McCartney JS (1995) Association between creatinine-adjusted and unadjusted urine cotinine values in children and the mother's report of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Clinical biochemistry 28: 415-420.
    • 17. Matt GE, Wahlgren DR, Hovell MF, Zakarian JM, Bernert JT, et al. (1999) Measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposure in infants and young children through urine cotinine and memory-based parental reports: empirical findings and discussion. Tobacco Control 8: 282-289.
    • 18. Matt GE, Hovell MF, Zakarian JM, Bernert JT, Pirkle JL, et al. (2000) Measuring secondhand smoke exposure in babies: The reliability and validity of mother reports in a sample of low-income families. Health Psychology 19: 232- 241.
    • 19. Wells G, Shea B, O'Connell D, Peterson J, Welch V, et al. The NewcastleOttawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in metaanalyses.
    • 20. Herzog R, A´lvarez-Pasquin MJ, D´ıaz C, Del Barrio JL, Estrada JM, et al. (2013) Are healthcare workers' intentions to vaccinate related to their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes? a systematic review. BMC public health 13: 1-17.
    • 21. Jones LL, Hassanien A, Cook DG, Britton J, Leonardi-Bee J (2012) Parental Smoking and the Risk of Middle Ear Disease in Children A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 166: 18-27.
    • 22. Leonardi-Bee J, Pritchard D, Britton J (2006) Asthma and current intestinal parasite infection: systematic review and meta-analysis. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 174: 514-523.
    • 23. Myung S-K, Ju W, McDonnell DD, Lee YJ, Kazinets G, et al. (2009) Mobile phone use and risk of tumors: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Oncology 27: 5565-5572.
    • 24. Alwan N, Siddiqi K, Thomson H, Cameron I (2010) Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the home: A household survey in the North of England. Health & Social Care in the Community 18: 257-263.
    • 25. Delpisheh A, Kelly Y, Brabin B (2006) Passive cigarette smoke exposure in primary school children in Liverpool. Public Health 120: 65-69.
    • 26. Whitrow MJ, Harding S, Maynard MJ (2010) The influence of parental smoking and family type on saliva cotinine in UK ethnic minority children: a cross sectional study. BMC public health 10: 262.
    • 27. Akhtar PC, Haw SJ, Currie DB, Zachary R, Currie CE (2009) Smoking restrictions in the home and secondhand smoke exposure among primary schoolchildren before and after introduction of the Scottish smoke-free legislation. Tobacco Control 18: 409-U103.
    • 28. Akhtar PC, Haw SJ, Levin KA, Currie DB, Zachary R, et al. (2010) Socioeconomic differences in second-hand smoke exposure among children in Scotland after introduction of the smoke-free legislation. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 64: 341-346.
    • 29. Mills LM, Semple SE, Wilson IS, MacCalman L, Amos A, et al. (2012) Factors Influencing Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Preschool Children Living With Smoking Mothers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 14: 1435-1444.
    • 30. Jarvis MJ, Strachan DP, Feyerabend C (1992) Determinants of passive smoking in children in Edinburgh, Scotland. American Journal of Public Health 82: 1225-1229.
    • 31. Moore GF, Holliday JC, Moore LAR (2011) Socioeconomic Patterning in Changes in Child Exposure to Secondhand Smoke After Implementation of Smoke-Free Legislation in Wales. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 13: 903-910.
    • 32. Cook DG, Whincup PH, Jarvis MJ, Strachan DP, Papacosta O, et al. (1994) Passive exposure to tobacco smoke in children aged 5-7 years: individual, family, and community factors. Bmj 308: 384-389.
    • 33. Soliman S, Pollack H, Warner K (2004) Decrease in the prevalence of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in the home during the 1990s in families with children. American Journal of Public Health 94: 314-320.
    • 34. Gonzales M, Malcoe LH, Kegler MC, Espinoza J (2006) Prevalence and predictors of home and automobile smoking bans and child environmental tobacco smoke exposure: a cross-sectional study of US and Mexico-born Hispanic women with young children. Bmc Public Health 6.
    • 35. Hawkins S, Berkman L (2013) Identifying infants at high-risk for second-hand smoke exposure. Child: care, health and development.
    • 36. Bleakley A, Hennessy M, Mallya G, Romer D (2014) Home smoking policies in urban households with children and smokers. Prev Med 62: 30-34.
    • 37. Chen X, Stanton B, Hopper J, Khankari N (2011) Sources, Locations, and Predictors of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Among Young Children From Inner-city Families. Journal of Pediatric Healthcare 25: 365-372.
    • 38. Singh GK, Siahpush M, Kogan MD (2010) Disparities in children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the United States, 2007. Pediatrics 126: 4-13.
    • 39. Mannino DM, Caraballo R, Benowitz N, Repace J (2001) Predictors of Cotinine Levels in US ChildrenData From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. CHEST Journal 120: 718-724.
    • 40. Ren Y, Chen X, Stanton B (2012) Are urban low-income children from unplanned pregnancy exposed to higher levels of environmental tobacco smoke? J Pediatr Health Care 26: 174-181.
    • 41. Bolte G, Fromme H, Grp GMES (2009) Socioeconomic determinants of childrens environmental tobacco smoke exposure and familys home smoking policy. European Journal of Public Health 19: 52-58.
    • 42. Scherer G, Kra¨mer U, Meger-Kossien I, Riedel K, Heller W-D, et al. (2004) Determinants of children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS): a study in Southern Germany. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 14: 284-292.
    • 43. Ulbricht S, Holdys J, Meyer C, Kastirke N, Haug S, et al. (2014) Predictors of indoor smoking at young children's homes-a cross-sectional study. Eur J Pediatr.
    • 44. Bakoula C, Kafritsa Y, Kavadias G, Haley N, Matsaniotis N (1997) Factors modifying exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in children (Athens, Greece). Cancer Causes & Control 8: 73-76.
    • 45. Mantziou V, Vardavas CI, Kletsiou E, Priftis KN (2009) Predictors of childhood exposure to parental secondhand smoke in the house and family car. Int J Environ Res Public Health 6: 433-444.
    • 46. Rachiotis G, Siziya S, Muula AS, Rudatsikira E, Papastergiou P, et al. (2010) Determinants of exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) among non smoking adolescents (aged 11-17 years old) in Greece: results from the 2004- 2005 GYTS Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7: 284-290.
    • 47. Yi O, Kwon H-J, Kim D, Kim H, Ha M, et al. (2012) Association Between Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure of Children and Parental Socioeconomic Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Korea. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 14: 607-615.
    • 48. Hughes SC, Corcos IA, Hofstetter CR, Hovel MF, Irvin VL, et al. (2008) Children's exposure to secondhand smoke at home in Seoul, Korea. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 9: 491-495.
    • 49. Pisinger C, Hammer-Helmich L, Andreasen AH, Jørgensen T, Glu¨ mer C (2012) Social disparities in children's exposure to second hand smoke at home: a repeated cross-sectional survey. Environmental Health 11: 1-8.
    • 50. Johansson A, Hermansson G, Ludvigsson J (2004) How should parents protect their children from environmental tobacco-smoke exposure in the home? Pediatrics 113: E291-E295.
    • 51. Raisamo SU, Doku DT, Heloma A, Rimpela¨ AH (2013) Persistence of socioeconomic differences in adolescents' environmental tobacco smoke exposure in Finland: 1991-2009. Scandinavian journal of public health: 1403494813514301.
    • 52. Rise J, Lund KE (2005) Predicting children's level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke based on two national surveys in Norway in 1995 and 2001. Addict Behav 30: 1267-1271.
    • 53. Dell'Orco V, Forastiere F, Agabiti N, Corbo GM, Pistelli R, et al. (1995) Household and community determinants of exposure to involuntary smoking: a study of urinary cotinine in children and adolescents. Am J Epidemiol 142: 419- 427.
    • 54. Jurado D, Munoz C, Luna Jde D, Fernandez-Crehuet M (2004) Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: parental perception of smokiness at home and other factors associated with urinary cotinine in preschool children. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 14: 330-336.
    • 55. Preston AM, Ramos LJ, Calderon C, Sahai H (1997) Exposure of Puerto Rican children to environmental tobacco smoke. Preventive Medicine 26: 1-7.
    • 56. Longman JM, Passey ME (2013) Children, smoking households and exposure to second-hand smoke in the home in rural Australia: analysis of a national crosssectional survey. BMJ open 3.
    • 57. Abidin EZ, Semple S, Omar A, Rahman HA, Turner SW, et al. (2011) A survey of schoolchildren's exposure to secondhand smoke in Malaysia. BMC Public Health 11: 634.
    • 58. Rudatsikira E, Siziya S, Dondog J, Muula AS (2007) Prevalence and correlates of environmental tobacco smoke exposure among adolescents in Mongolia. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 74: 1089-1093.
    • 59. Peltzer K (2011) Determinants of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among current non-smoking in-school adolescents (aged 11-18 years) in South Africa: results from the 2008 GYTS study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 8: 3553-3561.
    • 60. Raute LJ, Pednekar MS, Mistry R, Gupta PC, Pimple SA, et al. (2012) Determinants of exposure to second-hand smoke at home and outside the home among students aged 11-17 years: results from the Mumbai Student Tobacco Survey 2010. Indian J Cancer 49: 419-424.
    • 61. Liao Y-M, Chen Y-T, Kuo L-C, Chen P-L (2013) Factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of school-aged children: a cross-sectional study. BMC public health 13: 819.
    • 62. Anuntaseree W, Mo-Suwan L, Ma ALA, Choprapawon C (2008) Prevalence and associated factors of passive smoking in Thai infants. Prev Med 47: 443- 446.
    • 63. Baheiraei A, Kharaghani R, Mohsenifar A, Kazemnejad A, Mota A, et al. (2010) Factors associated with secondhand smoke exposure in infants. Tanaffos 9: 43- 49.
    • 64. Preston AM, Rodriguez C, Rivera CE, Sahai H (2001) Determinants of environmental tobacco smoke in a population of Puerto Rican children. Nicotine Tob Res 3: 61-70.
    • 65. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (1990) Standard occupational classification. London: HMSO.
    • 66. Currie CE, Elton RA, Todd J, Platt S (1997) Indicators of socioeconomic status for adolescents: the WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey. Health education research 12: 385-397.
    • 67. Townsend P, Phillimore P, Beattie A (1988) Health and deprivation: inequality and the North: Croom Helm London.
    • 68. Deeks JJ, T HJP, G AD (2008) Chapter 9: Analysing data and undertaking metaanalyses. In: Higgins JPT, S G, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions Version 501 [updated September 2008]. The Cochrane Collaboration. Available: www.cochrane-handbook.org.
    • 69. Buscemi N, Hartling L, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L, Klassen TP (2006) Single data extraction generated more errors than double data extraction in systematic reviews. Journal of clinical epidemiology 59: 697-703.
    • 70. Glover M, Hadwen G, Chelimo C, Scragg R, Bullen C, et al. (2012) Parent versus child reporting of tobacco smoke exposure at home and in the car. The New Zealand medical journal 126: 37-47.
    • 71. Jarvis MJ, Goddard E, Higgins V, Feyerabend C, Bryant A, et al. (2000) Children's exposure to passive smoking in England since the 1980s: cotinine evidence from population surveys. British Medical Journal 321: 343-345.
    • 72. Leong JW, Dore ND, Shelly K, Holt EJ, Laing IA, et al. (1998) The elimination half-life of urinary cotinine in children of tobacco-smoking mothers. Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 11: 287-290.
    • 73. Adler NE, Newman K (2002) Socioeconomic disparities in health: pathways and policies. Health affairs 21: 60-76.
    • 74. Ross CE, Wu C-l (1995) The links between education and health. American sociological review: 719-745.
    • 75. Giskes K, Kunst AE, Benach J, Borrell C, Costa G, et al. (2005) Trends in smoking behaviour between 1985 and 2000 in nine European countries by education. Journal of epidemiology and community health 59: 395-401.
    • 76. Pierce JP, Fiore MC, Novotny TE, Hatziandreu EJ, Davis RM (1989) Trends in cigarette smoking in the United States: educational differences are increasing. Jama 261: 56-60.
    • 77. Montgomery LE, Kiely JL, Pappas G (1996) The effects of poverty, race, and family structure on US children's health: data from the NHIS, 1978 through 1980 and 1989 through 1991. American Journal of Public Health 86: 1401- 1405.
    • 78. Dawson DA (1991) Family structure and children's health and well-being: Data from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey on Child Health. Journal of Marriage and the Family: 573-584.
    • 79. Blackwell DL (2010) Family structure and children's health in the United States: findings from the National Health Interview Survey, 2001-2007. Vital and health statistics Series 10, Data from the National Health Survey: 1-166.
    • 80. Schmeer KK (2011) The child health disadvantage of parental cohabitation. Journal of Marriage and Family 73: 181-193.
    • 81. Prady S, Kiernan K, Bloor K, Pickett K (2012) Do Risk Factors for Post-partum Smoking Relapse Vary According to Marital Status? Maternal & Child Health Journal 16: 1364-1373.
    • 82. Lindstro¨m M (2010) Social capital, economic conditions, marital status and daily smoking: a population-based study. Public health 124: 71-77.
    • 83. Lifestyle Statistics, Health and Social Care Information Centre (2013) Statistics on Smoking: England, 2013. Health and Social Care Information Centre.
    • 84. Baxi R, Sharma M, Roseby R, Polnay A, Priest N, et al. (2014) Family and carer smoking control programmes for reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 3.
    • 85. Armitage CJ, Conner M (2000) Social cognition models and health behaviour: A structured review. Psychology and Health 15: 173-189.
    • 86. Winkelstein ML, Tarzian A, Wood RA (1997) Parental smoking behavior and passive smoke exposure in children with asthma. Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 78: 419.
    • 87. Wakefield M, Banham D, Martin J, Ruffin R, McCaul K, et al. (2000) Restrictions on smoking at home and urinary cotinine levels among children with asthma. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 19: 188-192.
    • 88. Blackburn C, Spencer N, Bonas S, Coe C, Dolan A, et al. (2003) Effect of strategies to reduce exposure of infants to environmental tobacco smoke in the home: cross sectional survey. BMJ 327: 257.
    • 89. Ajzen I, Albarracin D (2007) Chapter 1. Predicting and Changing Behavior: A Reasoned Action Approach. In: Ajzen I, Albarracin D, Hornik R, editors. Prediction and Change of Health Behaviour, Applying the Reasoned Action Approach. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    • 90. Jones L, Atkinson O, Longman J, Coleman T, McNeill A, et al. (2011) The Motivators and Barriers to a Smoke-Free Home Among Disadvantaged Caregivers: Identifying the Positive Levers for Change. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 13: 479-486.
    • 91. Fleming S, Thompson M, Stevens R, Heneghan C, Plu¨ ddemann A, et al. (2011) Normal ranges of heart rate and respiratory rate in children from birth to 18 years of age: a systematic review of observational studies. The Lancet 377: 1011- 1018.
    • 92. Moya J, Bearer CF, Etzel RA (2004) Children's behavior and physiology and how it affects exposure to environmental contaminants. Pediatrics 113: 996- 1006.
    • 93. Burri PH (1984) Fetal and postnatal development of the lung. Annual review of physiology 46: 617-628.
    • 94. Carlsen K-H, Carlsen KCL (2008) Respiratory effects of tobacco smoking on infants and young children. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews 9: 11-20.
    • 95. Kwok MK, Schooling CM, Ho LM, Leung SSL, Mak KH, et al. (2008) Early life second-hand smoke exposure and serious infectious morbidity during the first 8 years: evidence from Hong Kong's ''Children of 1997'' birth cohort. Tobacco control 17: 263-270.
    • 96. Haberg SE, Stigum H, Nystad W, Nafstad P (2007) Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to parental smoking on early childhood respiratory health. American Journal of Epidemiology 166: 679-686.
    • 97. Gergen PJ, Fowler JA, Maurer KR, Davis WW, Overpeck MD (1998) The burden of environmental tobacco smoke exposure on the respiratory health of children 2 months through 5 years of age in the United States: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1994. Pediatrics 101: art. no.-e8.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article