Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Jobson, Simon A.; Hopker, James G.; Korff, Thomas; Passfield, Louis (2012)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: RC1200
Efficiency, the ratio of work generated to the total metabolic energy cost, has been suggested to be a key determinant of endurance cycling performance. The purpose of this brief review is to evaluate the influence of gross efficiency on cycling power output and to consider whether or not gross efficiency can be modified. In a re-analysis of data from five separate studies, variation in gross efficiency explained ~30% of the variation in power output during cycling time-trials. Whilst other variables, notably VO2max and lactate threshold, have been shown to explain more of the variance in cycling power output, these results confirm the important influence of gross efficiency. Case study, cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention research designs have all been used to demonstrate that exercise training can enhance gross efficiency. Whilst improvements have been seen with a wide range of training types (endurance, strength, altitude), it would appear that high intensity training is the most potent stimulus for changes in gross efficiency. In addition to physiological adaptations, gross efficiency might also be improved through biomechanical adaptations. However, ‘intuitive’ technique and equipment adjustments may not always be effective. For example, whilst ‘pedalling in circles’ allows pedalling to become mechanically more effective, this technique does not result in short term improvements in gross efficiency.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Bailey SJ, Fulford J, Vanhatalo A, Winyard P, Blackwell JR, Dimenna FJ, Wilkerson DP, Benjamin N, Jones AM (2010) Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during kneeextensor exercise in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 109: 135 148.
    • 2. Bailey SJ, Winyard P, Vanhatalo A, Blackwell JR, Dimenna FJ, Wilkerson DP, Tarr J, Benjamin N, Jones A.M. (2009) Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 107: 1144 1155.
    • 3. Barratt PR, Korff T, Elmer SJ, Martin JC (2011) Effect of crank length on joint-specific power during maximal cycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(9): 1689 1697.
    • 4. Böhm H, Siebert S, Walsh M (2008) Effects of shortterm training using SmartCranks on cycle work distribution and power output during cycling. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 103(2): 225 232.
    • 5. Böning D, Gönen Y, Maassen N (1984) Relationship between work load, pedal frequency, and physical fitness. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 5: 92 97.
    • 6. Coast JR, Welch HG (1985) Linear increase in optimal pedal rate with increased power output in cycle ergometry. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 53: 339 42.
    • 7. Coyle EF, Sidossis LS, Horowitz JF, Beltz JD (1992) Cycling efficiency is related to the percentage of type I muscle fibers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24: 782 788.
    • 8. Curran LS, Zhuang J, Droma T, Moore L-G (1998) Superior exercise performance in lifelong Tibetan residents of 4,400 m compared with Tibetan residents of 3,658 m. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 105: 21 31.
    • 9. Edwards LM, Jobson SA, George SR, Day SH, Nevill AM (2009) Whole-body efficiency is negatively correlated with minimum torque per duty cycle in trained cyclists. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(4): 319 325.
    • 10. Elmer SJ, Barratt PR, Korff T, Martin JC (2011) Jointspecific power production during submaximal and maximal cycling. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(10): 1940 1947.
    • 11. Erzurum SC, Ghosh S, Janocha AJ, Xu W, Bauer S, Bryan NS, Tejero J, Hemann C, Hille R, Stuehr DJ, Feelisch M, Beall CM (2007) Higher blood flow and circulating NO products offset high-altitude hypoxia among Tibetans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104: 17593 17598.
    • 12. Ettema G, Lorås HW (2009) Efficiency in cycling: a review. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 106(1): 1 14.
    • 13. Ge RL, Chen QH, Wang LH, Gen D, Yang P, Kubo K, Fujimoto K, Matsuzawa Y, Yoshimura K, Takeoka M (1994) Higher exercise performance and lower VO2max in Tibetan than Han residents at 4,700 m altitude. Journal of Applied Physiology, 77: 684 691.
    • 14. Gore CJ, Hahn AG, Aughey RJ, Martin DT, Ashenden MJ, Clark SA, Garnham AP, Roberts AD, Slater GJ, McKenna MJ (2001) Live high:train low increases muscle buffer capacity and submaximal cycling efficiency. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 173(3): 275 286.
    • 15. Green HJ, Roy B, Grant S, Hughson R, Burnett M, Otto C, Pipe A, McKenzie D, Johnson M (2000) Increases in submaximal cycling efficiency mediated by altitude acclimatization. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89: 1189 1197.
    • 16. Hagberg JM, Mullin JP, Giese MD, Spitznagel E (1981) Effect of pedaling rate on submaximal exercise responses of competitive cyclists. Journal of Applied Physiology, 51(2): 447 451.
    • 17. Hill AV (1925) The physiological basis of athletic records. Lancet, 5: 481 486.
    • 18. Höchtl F, Böhm H, Senner V (2010) Prediction of energy efficient pedal forces in cycling using musculoskeletal simulation models. Procedia Engineering, 2: 3211 3215.
    • 19. Hopker JG, Coleman DA, Wiles JD (2007) Differences in efficiency between trained and recreational cyclists. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 32: 1036 1042.
    • 20. Hopker J, Coleman D, Passfield L (2009) Changes in cycling efficiency during a competitive season. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41: 912 919.
    • 21. Hopker J, Coleman D, Passfield L, Wiles J (2010) The effect of training volume and intensity on competitive Metabolism, 35: 17 22.
    • 22. Hopker JG, Jobson SA, Coleman D, Passfield L (2012) Inverse relationship between VO2max and gross efficiency. International Journal of Sports Medicine. In press.
    • 23. Horowitz JF, Sidossis LS, Coyle EF (1994) High efficiency of type I muscle fibers improves performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 15: 152 157.
    • 24. Jobson SA, Nevill AM, George SR, Jeukendrup AE, Passfield L (2008) Influence of body position when considering the ecological validity of laboratory timetrial cycling performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26: 1269 1278.
    • 25. Joyner MJ, Coyle EF (2008) Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions. Journal of Physiology, 586(1): 35 44.
    • 26. Korff T, Romer LM, Mayhew I, Martin JC (2007) Effect of pedaling technique on mechanical effectiveness and efficiency in cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(6): 991 995.
    • 27. Larson FJ, Weitzberg E, Lundberg JO, Ekblom B (2007) Effects of dietary nitrate on oxygen cost during exercise. Acta Physiologica, 191: 59 66.
    • 28. Larson FJ, Weitzberg E, Lundberg JO, Ekblom B (2010) Dietary nitrate reduces maximal oxygen consumption while maintaining work performance in maximal exercise. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 191: 59 66.
    • 29. Larson FJ, Schiffer TA, Borniquel S, Sahlin K, Ekblom B, Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E (2011) Dietary inorganic nitrate improves mitochondrial efficiency in humans. Cell Metabolism, 13: 149 159.
    • 30. Leirdal S, Ettema G (2011) The relationship between cadence, pedalling technique and gross efficiency in cycling. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(12): 2885 2893.
    • 31. Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Gladwin MT (2008) The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in physiology and therapeutics. Nature Reviews: Drug Discovery, 7: 156 167.
    • 32. Luttrell MD, Potteiger JA (2003) Effects of short-term training using powercranks on cardiovascular fitness and cycling efficiency. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17(4): 785 791.
    • 33. Marsh AP, Martin PE, Sanderson DJ (2000) Is a joint moment-based cost function associated with preferred cycling cadence? Journal of Biomechanics, 33(2): 173 180.
    • 34. Martin JC, Spirduso WW (2001) Determinants of maximal cycling power: crank length, pedaling rate and pedal speed. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 84(5): 413 418.
    • 35. MacLean BD, Lafortune MA (1991) Optimum pedaling cadence determined by joint torque parameters and oxygen cost. In: Book of Abstracts of the XIII th International Congress of Biomechanics, 102 104.
    • 36. Marsh AP, Martin PE, Sanderson DJ (2000) Is a joint moment-based cost function associated with preferred cycling cadence. Journal of Biomechanics, 33: 173 180.
    • 37. McDaniel J, Durstine JL, Hand GA, Martin JC (2002) Determinants of metabolic cost during submaximal cycling. Journal of Applied Physiology, 93(3): 823 828.
    • 38. Neptune RR, Herzog W (1999) The association between negative muscle work and pedaling rate. Journal of Biomechanics, 32: 1021 1026.
    • 39. Neptune RR, Hull ML (1999) A theoretical analysis of preferred pedaling rate selection in endurance cycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 32(4): 409 415.
    • 40. Passfield L, Doust JH (2000) Changes in cycling efficiency and performance after endurance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32: 1935 1941.
    • 41. Paton CD, Hopkins WG (2005) Combining explosive and high-resistance training improves performance in competitive cyclists. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(4): 826 830.
    • 42. Redfield R, Hull ML (1986) On the relation between joint moments and pedalling rates at constant power in bicycling. Journal of Biomechanics, 19: 317 329.
    • 43. Ronnestad BR, Hansen EA, Raastad T (2011) Strength training improves 5-min all-out performance following 185 min of cycling. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 21(2): 250 259.
    • 44. Santalla A, Naranjo J, Terrados N (2009) Muscle efficiency improves over time in world-class cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41: 1096 1101.
    • 45. Seabury JJ, Adams WC, Ramey MR (1977) Influence of pedaling rate and power output on energy expenditure during bicycle ergometry. Ergonomics, 20: 491 498.
    • 46. Sidossis LS, Horowitz JF, Coyle EF (1992) Load and velocity of contraction influence gross and delta mechanical efficiency. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 13: 407 411.
    • 47. Sunde A, Storen O, Bjerkaas M, Larsen MH, Hoff J, Helgerud J (2010) Maximal strength training improves cycling economy in competitive cyclists. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(8): 2157 2165.
    • 48. Williams AD, Raj IS, Stucas KL, Fell JW, Dickenson D, Gregory JR (2009) Cycling efficiency and performance following short-term training using uncoupled cranks. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 4(1): 18 28.
    • 49. Zameziati K, Mornieux G, Rouffet D, Belli A (2006) Relationship between the increase of effectiveness indexes and the increase of muscular efficiency with cycling power. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 96(3): 274 281.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Download from

Cite this article