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Raphael N'Guessan; Abibatou Odjo; Corine Ngufor; David Malone; Mark Rowland
Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Journal: PLoS ONE
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Research Article, Population Metrics, Anatomy, Infectious Disease Control, Infectious Diseases, Analytical Chemistry, Malaria, Agriculture, Epidemiology, Physical Sciences, Agrochemicals, People and Places, Demography, Animals, Insecticides, Disease Vectors, Mosquitoes, Chemistry, Biology and Life Sciences, Insect Vectors, Arthropoda, Physiology, Medicine, Body Fluids, Tropical Diseases, Insects, Blood, Chemical Analysis, Q, Hematology, R, Population Biology, Science, Organisms, Anopheles Gambiae, Death Rates, Medicine and Health Sciences, Invertebrates

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: parasitic diseases
Background Malaria control through use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN) is threatened by the selection of anopheline mosquitoes strongly resistant to pyrethroid insecticides. To sustain future effectiveness it is essential to identify and evaluate novel insecticides suitable for nets. Mixtures of two insecticides with contrasting mode of action have the potential to kill resistant vectors and restore transmission control provided the formulation can withstand regular washing over the net’s life span. Method The efficacy of a novel mixture LN, Interceptor® G2, that combines the pyrrole chlorfenapyr and pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin was evaluated under controlled household conditions (experimental hut trial) and by laboratory bioassay against pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae in Benin before and after standardized washing. Comparison arms included standard alpha-cypermethrin LN, nets hand-treated with chlorfenapyr-only and untreated nets. Results The chlorfenapyr-alphacypermethrin LN demonstrated improved efficacy and wash resistance compared to a standard alpha-cypermethrin LN against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes (resistance ratio 207). In experimental hut trial alpha-cypermethrin LN killed only 20% (95% CI 15–26%) of host-seeking An. gambiae whilst mixture LN killed 71% (95% CI 65–77%). Mixture LN washed 20 times killed 65% (95% CI 58–71%), and thus intensive washing reduced efficacy by only 6% (95% CI 1.3–11%). The chlorfenapyr net killed 76% (95% CI 70–81%). Personal protection and blood feeding inhibition did not differ between mixture and pyrethroid LN; however, the mixture LN was 2.5 (95% CI: 2.1–3.1) times more protective than untreated nets. Standard WHO cone bioassays conducted during day time hours failed to anticipate field efficacy but overnight tunnel tests successfully predicted mixture LN and chlorfenapyr net efficacy in field trials. Conclusion Interceptor® G2 LN demonstrates the potential to control transmission and provide community protection over the normal lifespan of long lasting nets where standard pyrethroid LN show signs of failing due to resistance.

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