Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Ahmad, Syed Munir
Languages: English
Types: Unknown
This qualitative study explores parent-teacher relations in public secondary schools in Pakistan in order to understand the interaction and communication between parents and teachers. The study is guided by Bourdieu’s conceptual and analytical tools of capital, habitus and field and uses these to disentangle the underlying structures and practices of parents and teachers. The thesis argues that the relations and practices of parents and teachers are not inert entities; rather they are dynamic and multidimensional in character. In this, class and culture, power and structures are significant, as are the dynamics of reproduction and stratification. Chapters Five through Eight draw heavily on empirical data from parents and teachers to explore the dynamics of teachers’ communication with parents. The thesis demonstrates that teachers’ communication with parents is individually and collectively underpinned by the teachers’ habitus and the field influence of the schools. The thesis argues that the underlying influences and structures of the teachers’ habitus and the schools lead most teachers to portray parents as uninterested in school visits and present them as homogenised. However, there are variations in the way teachers share their experiences. The pattern that emerges suggests that generally schools do not have formalised and institutionalised procedures for contact with parents. However, teachers’ communication with parents emerges as a complex, dynamic and patterned process, which is not only engrained in specific situations but is also underpinned by the power and class dynamics of the stakeholders. The parents’ data show them to be deeply attuned to their children’s world, through which they demonstrate that they are not ‘hard to reach’. Rather the schools themselves are hard to access. The thesis illustrates the variety and richness of the parents’ lives by examining the interplay between their habitus and field. The thesis demonstrates that whilst parents differ individually in terms of their habitus, the role of culture and field implicitly determine and collectively shape and inform parental practices and the realities around them. The interplay between parental habitus and the dynamics of the field provides a structuring structure that shapes and in some ways redefines parental habitus. The thesis also demonstrates that the interplay between parental habitus and capital, field and class provide a deep, rich and complex structure of thought and practices of parents. This interplay results in a paradox for most parents, as on the one hand, they see no bounds in harnessing their ideals and potentials but on the other hand, they do not possess the right amount and quality of structures to be able to realise these ideals. Finally, the thesis considers the implications and limitations of the study and offers recommendations designed specifically for teachers, parents and policy makers. The discussion focuses on the originality of the research and on the justification of the contribution to knowledge, which is followed by reflections on the research experience and suggestions for further research.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Pichler, F. and Wallace, C. (2009) Social Capital and Social Class in Europe: The Role of Social Networks in Social Stratification, European Sociological Review, 25(3):319-332.
    • Plowden Report (1967) Children and their Primary Schools, Report of the Central Advisory Council on Education, London, HMSO.
    • Plummer, G. (2000) Failing Working-Class Girls, Stoke-on-Trent, Trentham Books.
    • Pomerantz, E.M. Moorman, E.A. and Litwack, S.D. (2007) The How, Whom, and Why of Parents' Involvement in Children's Academic Lives: More Is Not Always Better, Review of Educational Research, 77(3): 373-410.
    • Portes, A. (1998) Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology, Annual Review of Sociology, 24:1-24.
    • Portes, A. (2000) The Two Meanings of Social Capital, Sociological Forum, 15(1):1- 12.
    • Potter, G. (2000) For Bourdieu, Against Alexander: Reality and Reduction, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 30(2):229-246.
    • Potter, G. (2000) The Philosophy of Social Science: New Perspectives, Harlow, Pearson.
    • Potter, S. (2006) Getting Going, in S. Potter (Ed.), Doing Postgraduate Research (2nd ed.) (pp. 20-53), London, SAGE.
    • Prosser, J. (1998) The Status of Image-based Research, in J. Prosser (Ed.), ImageBased Research: A Sourcebook for Qualitative Researchers (pp. 97-112), London, Falmer Press.
    • Prosser, J. and Warburton, T. (1999) Visual Sociology and School Culture, in J. Prosser (Ed.), School Culture (pp. 82-97), London, Paul Chapman.
    • Pugh, G. (1989) Parents and Professionals in Pre-School Services: Is Partnership Possible?, in S. Wolfendale (Ed.), Parental Involvement: Developing Networks between, School, Home and Community (pp. 1-19), London, Cassell.
    • Pugh, G., Aplin, G., De'Ath, E. and Moxon, M. (1987a) Partnership in Action: Working with Parents in Preschool Centres (Volume 1), London, National Children's Bureau.
    • Pugh, G., Aplin, G., De'Ath, E. and Moxon, M. (1987b) Partnership in Action: Working with Parents in Preschool Centres (Volume 2), London, National Children's Bureau.
    • Punch, K.F. (1998) Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches, London, Sage.
    • Punch, K.F. (2005) Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches (2nd ed.), London, Sage.
    • Putnam, R. (1995) Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital, Journal of Democracy 6(1):65-78.
    • Putnam, R. (2000) Bowling Alone-the Collapse and Revival of American Community, New York, Simon and Schuster.
    • Putnam, R. (2001) Social Capital: Measurement and Consequences, Canadian Journal of Policy Research 2(1):41-51.
    • Rahman, T. (2004) Denizens of Alien Worlds: A Study of Education, Inequality and Polarization in Pakistan, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
    • Ranson, S., Martin, J. and Vincent, C. (2004) Storming Parents, Schools and Communicative Inaction, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 25(3):259- 274.
    • Rashid A. (Ed.) (2001) Engaging with Basic Education in Pakistan: SAHE Education Watch Report 2000, Lahore, Society for the Advancement of Education.
    • Räty, H. and Kasanen, K. (2007) Parents' Perceptions of their Children's Schools: Findings from a Five-Year Longitudinal Study, Educational Studies, 33(3):339- 351.
    • Ream, R.K. and Palardy, G.J. (2008) Reexamining Social Class Differences in the Availability and the Educational Utility of Parental Social Capital, American Educational Research Journal, 45(2):238-273.
    • Reay, D. (1995a) Mothers' Involvement in Primary Schooling: The Influence of Social Class on Home-School Relations, unpublished PhD Thesis, London, South Bank University.
    • Reay, D. (1995b) ‗They Employ Cleaners to Do That': Habitus in the Primary Classroom, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 16(3):353-371.
    • Reay, D. (1998a) Class Work: Mothers' Involvement in their Children's Primary Schooling, London, UCL Press.
    • Reay, D. (1998b) Rethinking Social Class: Qualitative Perspectives on Class and Gender, Sociology, 32(2):259-275.
    • Reay, D. (1999) Linguistic Capital and Home-School Relationships: Mothers' Interactions with their Children's Primary School Teachers, Acta Sociologica, 42(2):159-168.
    • Reay, D. (2001a) ‗Spice Girls', ‗Nice Girls', ‗Girlies', and ‗Tomboys': Gender Discourses, Girls' Cultures and Femininities in the Primary Classroom, Gender and Education, 13(2):153-166.
    • Reay, D. (2001b) Finding or Losing Yourself?: Working-Class Relationships to Education, Journal of Education Policy, 16(4):333-346.
    • Reay, D. (2004a) Gendering Bourdieu's Concept of Capitals?: Emotional Capital, Women and Social Class, Sociological Review, 52(s2):57-74.
    • Reay, D. (2004b) Education and Cultural Capital: The Implications of Changing Trends in Education Policies, Cultural Trends, 13(2):73-86.
    • Reay, D. (2004c) Exclusivity, Exclusion and Social Class in Urban Educational Markets in the UK, Urban Education, 39(5):537-560.
    • Reay, D. (2004d) ‗It's all becoming a Habitus': Beyond the Habitual Use of Pierre Bourdieu's Concept of Habitus in Educational Research, Special Issue of British Journal of Sociology of Education on Pierre Bourdieu, 25(4):431-444.
    • Reay, D. (2004e) ‗Mostly Roughs and Toughs': Social Class, Race and Representation in Inner City Schooling, Sociology, 38(5):1005-1023.
    • Reay, D. (2004f) Qualitative Perspectives on Gender and Social Class, in S. Nagy Hess-Biber and M. Yaiser (Eds.), Feminist Perspectives on Social Research, New York, Oxford University Press.
    • Reay, D. (2005a) Beyond Consciousness?: The Psychic Landscape of Social Class, Sociology Special Issue of Class, Culture and Identity, 39(5):911-928.
    • Reay, D. (2005b) Doing the Dirty Work of Social Class? Mothers' Work in Support of their Children's Schooling, Sociological Review, 53(s2):104-116.
    • Reay, D. (2005c) Thinking Class, Making Class, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 26(1):139-143.
    • Reay, D. (2006) The Zombie Stalking English Schools: Social Class and Educational Inequality, British Journal of Educational Studies, 54(3):288-307.
    • Reay, D. (2007) Unruly Places: Inner-City Comprehensives, Middle-Class Imaginaries and Working-Class Children, Urban Studies Special Issue on The Geography of Education, 44(7):1191-1203.
    • Reay, D., Crozier, G. and Clayton, J. (2009) ‗Strangers in Paradise'? Working-Class Students in Elite Universities, Sociology, 43(6):1103-1121.
    • Reay, D., Crozier, G., James, D., Hollingworth, S., Williams, K., Jamieson, F. and Beedell, P. (2008) Re-Invigorating Democracy?: White Middle Class Identities and Comprehensive Schooling, Sociological Review, 56(2):238-256.
    • Reay, D., David, M.E. and Ball, S. (2005) Degrees of Choice: Social Class, Race and Gender in Higher Education, Stoke-on-Trent, Trentham Books.
    • Reay, D., Hollingworth, S., Williams, K., Crozier, G., Jamieson, F., James, D. and Beedell, P. (2007) ‗A Darker Shade of Pale?' Whiteness, the Middle Classes and Multi-Ethnic Inner City Schooling, Sociology, 41(6):1041-1060.
    • Reed-Danahay, D. (2005) Locating Bourdieu, Bloomington, Ind., Indiana University Press.
    • Reimers, F. (1992) Influences on Student Achievement in Pakistan, paper presented at the BRIDGES/lEES Conference on Schooling Effectiveness: Cross National Findings, Harvard University.
    • Rizvi, M. (2008) The Role of School Principals in Enhancing Teacher Professionalism: Lessons from Pakistan, Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 36(1):85-100.
    • Roberts, K. (1980) Schools, Parents and Social Class, in M. Craft, J. Raynor, and L. Cohen (Eds.), Linking Home and School (3rd ed.) (pp. 41-55), London, Harper & Row.
    • Robson, M. (2004) Pakistan: Investigating Corporal Punishment, Education Update, 7(1):6-7.
    • Roscigno, V.J. and Ainsworth-Darnell, J.W. (1999) Race, Cultural Capital, and Educational Resources: Persistent Inequalities and Achievement Returns, Sociology of Education, 72(3):158-178.
    • Rose, A. (2008) How Can We Characterise Family Literacy Programmes in England, Ireland and Malta: A Comparative Case Study, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.
    • Russell, K. and Granville S. (2005) Parents' Views on Improving Parental Involvement in Children's Education, Edinburgh, Scottish Executive.
    • Salfi, N.A. and Saeed, M. (2007) Relationship among School Size, School Culture and Students' Achievement at Secondary Level in Pakistan, International Journal of Educational Management, 21(7):606-620.
    • Sallaz, J.J. and Zavisca, J. (2007) Bourdieu in American Sociology, 1980-2004, Annual Review of Sociology, 33:21-41.
    • Sarason, S.B. (2003) The Skeptical Visionary: A Seymour Sarason Education Reader, R.L. Fried (Ed.), Philadelphia, Temple University Press.
    • Sarwar, M.B. (2006) Documenting Educational Innovations: Sharing Practices for Educational Change, Karachi, Sindh Education Foundation.
    • Sathar, Z.A. and Lloyd, C.B. (1994) Who Gets Primary Schooling in Pakistan: Inequalities Among and Within Families, The Pakistan Development Review, 33(2):103-134.
    • Sawada, Y. and Lokshin, M. (2001) Household Schooling Decisions in Rural Pakistan, World Bank Policy Research, Working Paper No. 2541, from http://go.worldbank.org/KVX79OG5W0.
    • Sayer, A. (1999) Bourdieu, Smith and Disinterested Judgement, Sociological Review, 47(3):403-431.
    • Schneider, B. and Coleman, J.S. (Eds.) (1993) Parents, Their Children, and Schools, Oxford, Westview Press.
    • Scott-Jones, D. (1993) Families as Educators in a Pluralistic Society, in N.F. Chavkin (Ed.), Families and Schools in a Pluralistic Society (pp. 245-254), Albany, NY, SUNY Press.
    • Shah, D. (2003) Country Report on Decentralization in the Education System of Pakistan: Policies and Strategies, Islamabad, Academy of Educational Planning and Management.
    • Shah, D. (2009) Monitoring the Quality of Secondary Education in the Context of Decentralization in Pakistan, Bulletin of Education and Research, 31(1):1-25.
    • Shah, G.H., Bari, F. and Ejaz, N. (2005) The Role of NGOs in Basic and Primary Education in Pakistan: NGO Pulse Report, LUMS-McGill Social Enterprise Development Programme, Lahore, Lahore University of Management Sciences.
    • Shami, P.A. and Hussain K.S. (2005a) Access and Equity in Basic Education (Research study No. 188), Islamabad, AEPM, Ministry of Education, GoP.
    • Shami, P.A. and Hussain, K.S. (2005b) Basic Education in Pakistan (Research Study No. 181), Islamabad, AEPM, Ministry of Education, GoP.
    • Shami, P.A. and Hussain, K.S. (2006) Development of Education in Pakistan, Islamabad, AEPM, Ministry of Education, GoP.
    • Shamim, F. (1993) Teacher-Learner Behaviour and Classroom Processes in Large ESL Classes in Pakistan, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Leeds.
    • Shams, F. (2001) Adopt a School Programs in Punjab and Sindh, in A. Rashid (Ed.), Engaging with Basic Education in Pakistan: SAHE Education Watch Report 2000 (pp. 65-78), Lahore, Society for the Advancement of Education.
    • Sheldon, S.B. (2003) Linking School-Family-Community Partnerships in Urban Elementary Schools to Student Achievement on State Tests, Urban Review, 35(2):149-165.
    • Sheldon, S.B. (2007) Improving Student Attendance with School, Family, and Community Partnerships, Journal of Educational Research, 100(5):267-275.
    • Sheldon, S.B. and Epstein, J.L. (2002) Improving Student Behavior and School Discipline with Family and Community Involvement, Education and Urban Society, 35(1):4-26.
    • Sheldon, S.B. and Epstein, J.L. (2004) Getting Students to School: Using Family and Community Involvement to Reduce Chronic Absenteeism, School Community Journal, 14(2):39-56.
    • Sheppard, A. (2009) School Attendance and Attainment: Poor Attenders' Perceptions of Schoolwork and Parental Involvement in their Education, British Journal of Special Education, 36(2):105-111.
    • Shorish-Shamley, Z. (n.d.) Women's Position, Role, and Rights in Islam, available at http://www.afghan-web.com/articles/womenrights.html, accessed 1/12/2009.
    • Shumow, L. (1997) Parents' Educational Beliefs: Implications for Parent Participation in School Reforms, School Community Journal, 7(1):205-217.
    • Siegel, R.J., Choldin, S. and Orost, J.H. (1995) The Impact of Three Patriarchal Religions on Women, in J.C. Chrisler and A.H. Hemstreet (Eds.), Variations on a Theme: Diversity and the Psychology of Women (pp. 107-144), Albany, NY, SUNY Press.
    • Silva, E.B. (2005) Gender, Home and Family in Cultural Capital Theory, British Journal of Sociology, 56(1):83-103.
    • Silverman, D. (2001) Interpreting Qualitative Data: Methods for Analysing Talk, Text and Interaction (2nd ed.), London, Sage.
    • Simkins, T., Garrett, V., Memon, M. and Nazir Ali, R. (1998) The Role Perceptions of Government and Non-Government Head Teachers in Pakistan, Educational Management and Administration, 26(2):131-146.
    • Simkins, T., Sisum, C. and Memon, M. (2003) School Leadership in Pakistan: Exploring the Headteacher's Role, School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 14(3):275-291.
    • Siraj-Blatchford, I. (2010) Learning in the Home and at School: How Working-Class Children ‗Succeed against the Odds,' British Educational Research Journal, 36(3):463-482.
    • Skeggs, B. (2004) Class, Self, Culture, London, Routledge.
    • Smith, M.K. (2007) Social Capital, The Encyclopedia of Informal Education, www.infed.org/biblio/social_capital.htm.
    • Spera, C. (2005) A Review of the Relationship Among Parenting Practices, Parenting Styles, and Adolescent School Achievement, Educational Psychology Review, 17(2):125-146.
    • Spillane, J.P., Hallett, T. and Diamond, J.B. (2003) Forms of Capital and the Construction of Leadership: Instructional Leadership in Urban Elementary Schools, Sociology of Education, 76(1):1-17.
    • Stake, R.E. (1995) The Art of Case Study Research, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.
    • Stake, R.E. (2005) Qualitative Case Studies, in N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research (3rd. ed.) (pp. 443-466), Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.
    • Stake, R.E. (2010) Qualitative Research: Studying How Things Work, Spring Street, NY, Guilford Press.
    • Stattin, H. and Kerr, M. (2000) Parental Monitoring: A Reinterpretation, Child Development, 71(4):1072-1085.
    • Stewart, S.M., Bond, M.H., Ho, L.M., Zaman, R.M., Dar, R. and Anwar, M. (2000) Perceptions of Parents and Adolescent Outcomes in Pakistan, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 18:335-352 Stokke, K. (2002) Habitus, Capital and Field: Conceptualizing the Capacity of Actors in Local Politics, unpublished paper, Seminar on Local Politics and Democratisation in Developing Countries, Oslo, University of Oslo.
    • Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1998) Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (2nd ed.), Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.
    • Stromquist, N. and Murphy, P. (1996) Leveling the Playing Field: Giving Girls an Equal Chance for Basic Education-Three Countries' Efforts, EDI Learning Resources Series, Washington, D.C., The World Bank.
    • Sui-Chu, E.H. and Willms, J.D. (1996) Effects of Parental Involvement on EighthGrade Achievement, Sociology of Education, 69(2):126-141.
    • Sunder, D. and Uddin, L. (2007) A Comparative Analysis of Bangladeshi and Pakistani Educational Attainment in London Secondary Schools, InterActions: UCLA Journal of Education and Information Studies, 3(2):1-43.
    • Swartz, D. (1997) Culture and Power: The Sociology of Pierre Bourdieu, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.
    • Swartz, D.L. (2008) Bringing Bourdieu's Master Concepts into Organizational Analysis, Theory and Society, 37(1):45-52.
    • Swindler, A. (1986) Culture in Action: Symbols and Strategies, American Sociological Review, 51(2):273-286.
    • Symeou, L. (2007) Cultural Capital and Family Involvement in Children's Education: Tales from Two Primary Schools in Cyprus, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 28(4):473-487.
    • Symeou, L. (2008) From School-Family Links to Social Capital: Urban and Rural Distinctions in Teacher and Parent Networks in Cyprus, Urban Education, 43(6):696-722.
    • Tahira, B. and Braathe, H.J. (2007) Review of Basic Education Improvement Programme (BEIP) NWFP, Pakistan, LINS/Review 2007-2.
    • Tatli, A. (2008) Understanding the Agency of Diversity Managers: A Relational Multilevel Investigation, unpublished PhD thesis, Queen Mary, University of London.
    • Thomson, P. (2008) Field, in M. Grenfell (Ed.), Pierre Bourdieu: Key Concepts (pp. 67-81), Stocksfield, Acumen Publishing Limited.
    • Thorley, W. (2009) Employing Bourdieu's Notion of Habitus and Capital to Investigate Student Experience within the Field of Further Education Provision, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne.
    • Tim, W., Masroor, A. and Samantha, S. (2005) Improving Devolved Social Service Delivery in NWFP and Punjab, Islamabad, Asian Development Bank.
    • Tischler, H.L. (1996) Introduction to Sociology (5th ed.), Fort Worth, London, Harcourt Press.
    • Tizard, B., Mortimore, J. and Burchell, B. (1981) Involving Parents in Nursery and Infant Schools, London, Grant McIntyre Limited.
    • Todd, E.S. and Higgins, S. (1998) Powerlessness in Professional and Parent Relationships, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 19(2):227-236.
    • Todd, L. (2007) Partnership for Inclusive Education: A Critical Approach to Collaborative Working, Abingdon, Oxon, RoutledgeFalmer.
    • Tomlinson, A. (2004) Pierre Bourdieu and the Sociological Study of Sport: Habitus, Capital and Field, in R. Giulianotti (Ed.), Sport and Modern Social Theorists (pp. 161-72), Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.
    • Tomlinson, S. (1991) Teachers and Parents: Home-School Partnership, London, Institute for Public Policy Research.
    • Trafford, V. and Leshem, S. (2008) Stepping Stones to Achieving Your Doctorate: Focusing on your Viva from the Start, Maidenhead, Open University Press.
    • Turney, K. and Kao, G. (2009) Barriers to School Involvement: Are Immigrant Parents Disadvantaged?, Journal of Educational Research, 102(4):257-271.
    • Uludag, A. (2008) Elementary Preservice Teachers' Opinions about Parental Involvement in Elementary Children's Education, Teaching and Teacher Education, 24:807-817.
    • Webb, J., Schirato, T. and Danaher, G. (2002) Understanding Bourdieu, London, SAGE.
    • Weininger, E.B. and Lareau, A. (2003) Translating Bourdieu into the American Context: The Question of Social Class and Family-School Relations, Poetics, 31:375-402.
    • Westbrook, J., Shah, N., Durrani, N., Tikly, C. Khan, W. and Dunne, M. (2009) Becoming a Teacher: Transitions from Training to the Classroom in the NWFP, Pakistan, International Journal of Educational Development, 29(4):437-444.
    • Williams, B., Williams, J. and Ullman, A. (2002) Parental Involvement in Education (Research Report RR332), London, DfES.
    • Winkler, D. and Hatfield, R. (2002) The Devolution of Education in Pakistan, Policy Dialogues on Key Issues in Education, Washington, DC, World Bank.
    • Winkvist, A. and Akhtar, H.Z. (2000) God Should Give Daughters to Rich Families Only: Attitudes towards Childbearing among Low-Income Women in Punjab, Pakistan, Social Science & Medicine, 51:73-81.
    • Wolfendale, S. (1992) Empowering Parents and Teachers: Working for Children, London, Cassell.
    • Wong, R.S. (1998) Multidimensional Influences of Family Environment in Education: The Case of Socialist Czechoslovakia, Sociology of Education, 71(1):1-22.
    • Woods, P. (1986) Inside Schools: Ethnography in Educational Research, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    • Woolcock, M. (2001) The Place of Social Capital in Understanding Social and Economic Outcomes, Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2(1):11-17.
    • 8 children-2 sons & 6 daughters
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article