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Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: H
This thesis surveys the origins and development of the moves to introduce journalism education courses into British universities between 1880 and 1970. It examines the arguments presented for, and against, such moves and describes the various courses introduced to meet the demands of education for journalism. These include the first, 4 commercial, London School of Journalism of 1887, the syllabus agreed at the University of Birmingham in 1908, and the work of the Institute of Journalists in developing a syllabus, with the University of London, which eventually began in 1919 for returning ex-Servicemen. The thesis also follows the attempts of the National Union of Journalists, from 1920 onwards,- to secure university co-operation in the education of its members. Particular attention is given to the last five years of the University of London Diploma for Journalism when it had its first full-time Director of Practical Journalism, 4 Mr Tom Clarke,3 from 1935 to 1939. This research quotes extensively from the minutes of the Journalism Committee of the University of London and, from 1935 to 1939, from the similar committee in King's College, where the journalism course developed its own centre. Mr Tom Clarke's lecture notes are used to illustrate attitudes towards news-gathering and reporting of someone who had been a news editor on the Daily Mail and editor of the News Chronicle, prior to his appointment as Director of Practical Journalism - the first person to hold such a post. Lecture notes of former students, staff reports on students' work, as well as students' journalistic assignments, former students and staff. Correspondence with the former Tutor to Journalism Students at King's College, 4 Dr G.B. Harrison, now retired in New Zealand, has added a useful dimension to the archival study of Journalism Department papers, as well as giving me the advantage of Dr Harrison's comments on my research. The academic work of students has been harder to assess as staff and students had little contact outside of lecture room or examination room. The Examination Papers of the Diploma for Journalism are also studied for the light they throw on the development of the course throughout its 20-year existence. Attitudes towards the Diploma for Journalism were culled from contemporary correspondence, the archives of the Newspaper Society and of the Royal Commission on the Press,4 1947-1949, 4 now in the Public Record Office. The Oral Evidence of the Commission reveals close questioning of newspapermen about the course. Finally the thesis briefly introduces possible areas of\ud synthesis between academia and journalism.
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    • 1. a. Cattanach, Norman. 1977. A History of Journalism Training in Britain up to the Formation of the Printing and Publishing Industry Training Board. M.Ed. thesis, University of Wales. Some of Cattanach's remarks about the Diploma for Journalism reflect his journalistic approach and, as such, are unreliable.
    • b. Peacodke, E. 1936. Writing for Women. Miss Peacocke served on the Journalism Committee of London University in its later years.
    • 2. a. Dawson, John. 1885. Practical Journalism and How to Enter Thereon and Succeed.
    • c. Reade, A. Arthur. 1885 Literary Success. Being a Guide to Practical Journalism.
    • 3. a. Birkhead (Herbert) Douglas. 1982. Presenting the Press: Journalism and the Professional Project. Ph.D dissertation University of Iowa.
    • b. Boyd-Barrett, Oliver. 1970. Journalism Recruitment and Training Problems in Professionalisation, in Tunstall, J.Media Sociology.
    • C. Boyd-Barrett, Oliver. 1980. The Politics of Socialisation: Recruitment and Training for Journalists, in, Christian, H. The Sociology of Journalism and the Press (see (d)).
    • d. Christian, H. 1980. Journalists' Occupational Ideologies and Press Commercialisation. In Christian (c, above).
    • e. Elliott, Philip. 1978. Professional ideology and organisation change: the journalist since 1800. In Boyce, G (ed) Newspaper History.
    • f. Smith, A. 1978. The long road to objectivity and back again: the kinds of truth we get in journalism. In Boyce (e, above)
    • g. McBarnet, Andrew. 1979. Disciplining the Journalist: an Investigation of Training Methods. Media, Culture and Society, 1 (2) 181-93.
    • h. Tunstall, J. 1971. Journlists at Work. The author dismisses the Diploma for Journalism in one line.
    • 4. Wolff, Michael. 1980. Urbanity and Journalism. Victorian Connection (Leicester)
    • 5. Schudson, Micheal. 1978. Discovering the News. A Social History of American Newspapers.
    • 6. Birkhead, ibid. xvi. An example of the "unexamined assumption" was noted when Alan Watkins, in The Observer, once used the expression "what my news editor taught me" referring to the concept of news being "what people are talking about." This can be found, attributed to Northcliffe, in Clarke's 1931 My Northcliffe Diary, but, in America, Charles Dana is usually credited with authorship.
    • 7. Journalism Educator, Vol. 34, No.4. January, 1980: 71,594 enrolments Vol. 36, No.4. January, 1982: 77,540 enrolments.
    • 8. a. Diamond, Edwin. 1978. Good News. Bad News. Diamond was science editor of Newsweek from 1958 to 1962 and senior editor from 1962 to 1970.
    • b. Hohenberg, John. 1968. The News Media: A Journalist Looks at His Profession. Hohenberg was a New York political writer for 25 years and has served as professor at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism.
    • c. Johnston, Donald H. 1979. Journalism and the Media. He was a reporter, writer, and editor for United Press International and the New York Times before joining the Graduate School of Journalism at Columbia University, New York.
    • 9. Professor Walter Williams visited in 1908 and Professor Cunliffe in 1919. Clarke's files at King's College, London, include an obituary of Williams from The Times.
    • 10. James, Clive. 1980. Book review in The London Review of Books 2 (6) April 3.
    • 6. Modern English Literature from 1850:
    • 1903.6 Daily Mail & Chicago Tribune Special Correspondent in the-TaT East
    • 1907 Special writer Daily Disp- & Manchester Evening Chronicle in Manch . ster. ATTicle on a flying meeting at Blackpool won him his next job:
    • 1934-6 Attended the Diploma for Journalism at King's College,with Clarke joining as Director in her second year.
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