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Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: H
This thesis surveys the origins and development of the moves to introduce journalism education courses into British universities between 1880 and 1970. It examines the arguments presented for, and against, such moves and describes the various courses introduced to meet the demands of education for journalism. These include the first, 4 commercial, London School of Journalism of 1887, the syllabus agreed at the University of Birmingham in 1908, and the work of the Institute of Journalists in developing a syllabus, with the University of London, which eventually began in 1919 for returning ex-Servicemen. The thesis also follows the attempts of the National Union of Journalists, from 1920 onwards,- to secure university co-operation in the education of its members. Particular attention is given to the last five years of the University of London Diploma for Journalism when it had its first full-time Director of Practical Journalism, 4 Mr Tom Clarke,3 from 1935 to 1939. This research quotes extensively from the minutes of the Journalism Committee of the University of London and, from 1935 to 1939, from the similar committee in King's College, where the journalism course developed its own centre. Mr Tom Clarke's lecture notes are used to illustrate attitudes towards news-gathering and reporting of someone who had been a news editor on the Daily Mail and editor of the News Chronicle, prior to his appointment as Director of Practical Journalism - the first person to hold such a post. Lecture notes of former students, staff reports on students' work, as well as students' journalistic assignments, former students and staff. Correspondence with the former Tutor to Journalism Students at King's College, 4 Dr G.B. Harrison, now retired in New Zealand, has added a useful dimension to the archival study of Journalism Department papers, as well as giving me the advantage of Dr Harrison's comments on my research. The academic work of students has been harder to assess as staff and students had little contact outside of lecture room or examination room. The Examination Papers of the Diploma for Journalism are also studied for the light they throw on the development of the course throughout its 20-year existence. Attitudes towards the Diploma for Journalism were culled from contemporary correspondence, the archives of the Newspaper Society and of the Royal Commission on the Press,4 1947-1949, 4 now in the Public Record Office. The Oral Evidence of the Commission reveals close questioning of newspapermen about the course. Finally the thesis briefly introduces possible areas of\ud synthesis between academia and journalism.
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    • b. Peacodke, E. 1936. Writing for Women. Miss Peacocke served on the Journalism Committee of London University in its later years.
    • c. Steed, Wickham. 1938. The Press. Very scathing about Clarke's "commercial" journalism. Steed says things in this book about Northcliffe which are not revealed in his correspondence with him while Steed edited The Times.
    • d. Newell, Eric. 1978. Letter to the author. Newell is critical of the London course, but, as he was based at University College and the Journalism teaching was centred at King's College, perhaps he was cut off from the mainstream of journalism as experienced in King's (see (e))
    • e. Pinnington, Geoffrey. 1978. Interview with the author. Strongly in favour of the course as it was run at King's. He was there between 1937 and 1939.
    • 3. a. Birkhead (Herbert) Douglas. 1982. Presenting the Press: Journalism and the Professional Project. Ph.D dissertation University of Iowa.
    • b. Boyd-Barrett, Oliver. 1970. Journalism Recruitment and Training Problems in Professionalisation, in Tunstall, J.Media Sociology.
    • C. Boyd-Barrett, Oliver. 1980. The Politics Socialisation: Recruitment and Training Journalists, in, Christian, H. The Sociology of Journalism and the Press (see (d)).
    • f. Smith, A. 1978. The long road to objectivity and back again: the kinds of truth we get in journalism. In Boyce (e, above)
    • g. McBarnet, Andrew. 1979. Disciplining the Journalist: an Investigation of Training Methods. Media, Culture and Society, 1 (2) 181-93.
    • h. Tunstall, J. 1971. Journlists at Work. The author dismisses the Diploma for Journalism in one line.
    • 4. Wolff, Michael. 1980. Urbanity and Journalism. Victorian Connection (Leicester)
    • 5. Schudson, Micheal. 1978. Discovering the News. A Social History of American Newspapers.
    • 6. Birkhead, ibid. xvi. An example of the "unexamined assumption" was noted when Alan Watkins, in The Observer, once used the expression "what my news editor taught me" referring to the concept of news being "what people are talking about." This can be found, attributed to Northcliffe, in Clarke's 1931 My Northcliffe Diary, but, in America, Charles Dana is usually credited with authorship.
    • 8. a. Diamond, Edwin. 1978. Good News. Bad News. Diamond was science editor of Newsweek from 1958 to 1962 and senior editor from 1962 to 1970.
    • 1923-6 Assistant editor, Melbourne Herald for his old friend and Northcliffe protege,Keith Murdoch
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