Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Di Minin, Enrico; Fraser, Iain M; Slotow, Rob; MacMillan, Douglas C. (2013)
Publisher: ZSL, London
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: G, H, QL
The ‘Big Five’ charismatic megafauna concept is considered key for financial competitiveness of protected areas in South Africa. However, this Western colonial concept is also leading to an underappreciation of wider biodiversity and the recovery of other endangered species. This study assessed the heterogeneity of tourist preferences for big game species in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, using a choice experiment approach, employing latent class modelling, in order to identify tourists' segments not necessarily drawn to the Big Five. The latent class segmentation identified two segments for both international and national tourists, largely defined by socio-economic characteristics. Less experienced and wealthier tourists were mostly interested in charismatic megafauna, while more experienced, but lower income tourists showed preferences for a broader range of species. Exploring viewing preferences in this way illustrates the potential to realign conservation businesses to achieve biodiversity conservation objectives. In the short term, managing protected areas for the Big Five and other favourite species will continue to deliver significant financial benefits to local stakeholders, but policy makers should consider using financial mechanisms to subsidize conservation actions for less charismatic species and develop the biodiversity base of safari tourism in South Africa.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Adamowicz, W., Boxall, P., Williams, M. & Louviere, J. (1998). Stated preferences approaches to measuring passive use values. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 80, 64-75.
    • Aylward, B. & Lutz, E. (2003). Nature tourism, conservation and development in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
    • Balmford, A., Beresford, J., Green, J., Naidoo, R., Walpole, M. & Manica, A. (2009). A global perspective on trends in nature-based tourism. PLoS Biol. 7, 1-6.
    • Bookbinder, M.P., Dinerstein, E., Arun, R., Cauley, H. & Arup, R. (1998). Ecotourism's support of biodiversity conservation. Conserv. Biol. 12, 1399-1404.
    • Boxall, P. & Adamowicz, W. (2002). Understanding heterogeneous preferences in random utility models: a latent class approach. Environ. Resour. Econ. 23, 421-446.
    • Boxall, P., Adamowicz, W., Swait, J., Williams, M. & Louviere, J. (1996). A comparison of stated preference methods for environmental valuation. Ecol. Econ. 18, 243-253.
    • Bush, G., Colombo, S. & Hanley, N. (2009). Should all choices count? Using the cut-offs approach to edit responses in a choice experiment. Environ. Resour. Econ. 44, 397-414.
    • Caro, T.M. & O'Doherty, G. (1999). On the use of surrogate species in conservation biology. Conserv. Biol. 13, 805-814.
    • Christie, M., Hanley, N., Warren, J., Murphy, K., Wright, R. & Hyde, T. (2006). Valuing the diversity of biodiversity. Ecol. Econ. 58, 304-317.
    • Creel, S. & Creel, N.M. (2002). The African wild dog: behavior, ecology, and conservation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    • DEAT (2007). National environmental management: biodiversity act. Lists of critically endangered, endangered, vulnerable and protected species. Pretoria, RSA: Government Gazette.
    • Ferraro, P.J. & Kiss, A. (2002). Direct payments to conserve biodiversity. Science 298, 1718-1719.
    • Fredline, E. & Faulkner, B. (2001). International market analysis of wildlife tourism. Gold Coast, Australia: Wildlife Tourism Research Report Series: No. 22, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
    • Freeman, A.M. (2003). The measurement of environmental and resource values. Theory and methods. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
    • Goodman, P.S. (2003). Assessing management effectiveness and setting priorities in protected areas in KwaZuluNatal. BioScience 53, 843-850.
    • Goodwin, H. & Leader-Williams, N. (2000). Tourism and protected areas - distorting conservation towards charismatic megafauna? In Priorities for the conservation of mammalian diversity: has the panda had its day?: 257-275. Entwhistle, A. & Dunstone, N. (Eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Greene, W. (2007). NLOGIT version 4.0: reference guide. Econometric Software, Inc., Plainview, NY.
    • Greene, W. & Hensher, D.A. (2003). A latent class model for discrete choice analysis: contrasts with mixed logit. Transp. Res. B-Meth 37, 681-698.
    • Gusset, M., Maddock, A.H., Gunther, G.J., Szykman, M., Slotow, R., Walters, M. & Somers, M.J. (2008). Conflicting human interests over the re-introduction of endangered wild dogs in South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 17, 83-101.
    • Hanley, N., Wright, R. & Adamowicz, V. (1998). Using choice experiments to value the environment. Environ. Resour. Econ. 11, 413-428.
    • Hanley, N., Wright, R.E. & Alvarez-Farizo, B. (2006). Estimating the economic value of improvements in river ecology using choice experiments: an application to the water framework directive. J. Environ. Manage. 78, 183- 193.
    • Hearne, R.R. & Salinas, Z.M. (2002). The use of choice experiments in the analysis of tourist preferences for ecotourism development in Costa Rica. J. Environ. Manage. 65, 153-163.
    • Huntly, P.M., Van Noort, S. & Hamer, M. (2005). Giving increased value to invertebrates through ecotourism. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 35, 53-62.
    • IUCN (2008). IUCN red list of threatened species. Available from http://www.iucnredlist.org (accessed August 2012).
    • Jacobsen, J.B., Lundhede, T.H. & Thorsen, B.J. (2012). Valuation of wildlife populations above survival. Biodivers. Conserv. 2, 543-563.
    • Kerley, G.I.H., Geach, B.G.S. & Vial, C. (2003). Jumbos or bust: do tourists' perceptions lead to an underappreciation of biodiversity? S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res. 33, 13-21.
    • Kiss, A. (2004). Is community-based ecotourism a good use of biodiversity conservation funds? Trends. Ecol. Evol. 19, 232-237.
    • Krinsky, I. & Robb, R. (1986). On approximating the statistical properties of elasticities. Rev. Econ. Stat. 68, 715- 719.
    • Krüger, O. (2005). The role of ecotourism in conservation: panacea or Pandora's box? Biodivers. Conserv. 14, 579- 600.
    • Lindberg, K., James, B. & Goodman, P. (2003). Tourism's contribution to conservation in Zululand: an ecological survey of private reserves and public protected areas. In Nature tourism, conservation, and development in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: 203-240. Aylward, B. & Lutz, E. (Eds). Washington, DC: The World Bank.
    • Lindsey, P., Alexander, R., Mills, M., Woodroffe, R. & Romanach, S. (2007). Wildlife viewing preferences of visitors to protected areas in South Africa: implications for the role of ecotourism in conservation. J. Ecotourism 6, 19-33.
    • Lindsey, P.A., Alexander, R.R., du Toit, J.T. & Mills, M.G.L. (2005). The potential contribution of ecotourism to African wild dog Lycaon pictus conservation in South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 123, 339-348.
    • Louviere, J.J., Hensher, D.A. & Swait, J.F. (2000). Stated choice methods and analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Mellon, J. (1975). African hunter. Long Beach, CA: Safari Press.
    • Naidoo, R. & Adamowicz, W.L. (2005). Biodiversity and nature-based tourism at forest reserves in Uganda. Environ. Dev. Econ. 10, 159-178.
    • Reynolds, P. & Braithwaite, D. (2001). Towards a conceptual framework for wildlife tourism. Tourism Manage. 22, 31-42.
    • Sandbrook, C. (2010). Local economic impact of different forms of nature-based tourism. Conserv. Lett. 3, 21-28.
    • Scholes, R.J. & Biggs, R. (2004). Ecosystem services in southern Africa: a regional perspective. Pretoria, RSA: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research.
    • Spenceley, A. (2010). Tourism product development interventions and best practices in sub-Saharan Africa: part 2: case studies. Report to the World Bank. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
    • Steenkamp, Y., Van Wyk, B., Victor, J., Hoare, D., Smith, G., Dold, A. & Cowling, R. (2004). Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany. In Hotspots revisited: earth's biologically richest and most endangered ecoregions: 219-228. Mittermeier, R.A., Robles-Gil, P., Hoffmann, M., Pilgrim, J.D., Brooks, T., Mittermeier, C.G. & da Fonseca, G.A.B. (Eds). Mexico City: Cemex.
    • Street, D., Burgess, L. & Louviere, J. (2005). Quick and easy choice sets: constructing optimal and nearly optimal stated choice experiments. Int. J. Res. Mark. 22, 459-470.
    • Swait, J.R. (1994). A structural equation model of latent segmentation and product choice for cross-sectional revealed preference choice data. J. Retail. Consum. Serv. 1, 77-89.
    • Williams, P.H., Burgess, N.D. & Rahbek, C. (2000). Flagship species, ecological complementarity and conserving the diversity of mammals and birds in sub-Saharan Africa. Anim. Conserv. 3, 249-260.
  • Inferred research data

    The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    Title Trust
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article