LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Journal: PLoS ONE
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Q, R, Research Article, wa_309, Science, Medicine, ws_460, wp_100
Background\ud \ud Keeping girls in school offers them protection against early marriage, teen pregnancy, and sexual harms, and enhances social and economic equity. Studies report menstruation exacerbates school-drop out and poor attendance, although evidence is sparse. This study qualitatively examines the menstrual experiences of young adolescent schoolgirls.\ud \ud Methods and Findings\ud \ud The study was conducted in Siaya County in rural western Kenya. A sample of 120 girls aged 14–16 years took part in 11 focus group discussions, which were analysed thematically. The data gathered were supplemented by information from six FGDs with parents and community members. Emergent themes were: lack of preparation for menarche; maturation and sexual vulnerability; menstruation as an illness; secrecy, fear and shame of leaking; coping with inadequate alternatives; paying for pads with sex; and problems with menstrual hygiene. Girls were unprepared and demonstrated poor reproductive knowledge, but devised practical methods to cope with menstrual difficulties, often alone. Parental and school support of menstrual needs is limited, and information sparse or inaccurate. Girls’ physical changes prompt boys and adults to target and brand girls as ripe for sexual activity including coercion and marriage. Girls admitted ‘others’ rather than themselves were absent from school during menstruation, due to physical symptoms or inadequate sanitary protection. They described difficulties engaging in class, due to fear of smelling and leakage, and subsequent teasing. Sanitary pads were valued but resource and time constraints result in prolonged use causing chafing. Improvised alternatives, including rags and grass, were prone to leak, caused soreness, and were perceived as harmful. Girls reported ‘other girls’ but not themselves participated in transactional sex to buy pads, and received pads from boyfriends.\ud \ud Conclusions\ud \ud In the absence of parental and school support, girls cope, sometimes alone, with menarche in practical and sometimes hazardous ways. Emotional and physical support mechanisms need to be included within a package of measures to enable adolescent girls to reach their potentia
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Viner RM, Ozer EM, Denny S, Marmot M, Resnick M, et al. (2012) Adolescence and the social determinants of health. Lancet 379: 1641-1652.
    • 2. Blum RW, Bastos FI, Kabiru CW, Le LC (2012) Adolescent health in the 21st century. Lancet 379: 1567-1568.
    • 3. Bundy D (2011) Rethinking school health: A key component of education for all. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.
    • 4. Jukes M, Simmons S, Bundy D (2008) Education and vulnerability: the role of schools in protecting young women and girls from HIV in southern Africa. AIDS 22 Suppl 4: S41-56.
    • 5. Hargreaves J, Morison L, Kim J, Bonell C, Porter J, et al. (2008) The association between school attendance, HIV infection and sexual behaviour among young people in rural South Africa. J Epidemiol Community Health 62: 113-119.
    • 6. Biddlecom A, Gregory R, Lloyd CB, Mensch BS (2008) Associations between premarital sex and leaving school in four sub-Saharan African countries. Stud Fam Plann 39: 337-350.
    • 7. Baird SJ, Garfein RS, McIntosh CT, Ozler B (2012) Effect of a cash transfer programme for schooling on prevalence of HIV and herpes simplex type 2 in Malawi: a cluster randomised trial. Lancet 379: 1320-1329.
    • 8. Patton GC, Coffey C, Sawyer SM, Viner RM, Haller DM, et al. (2009) Global patterns of mortality in young people: a systematic analysis of population health data. Lancet 374: 881-892.
    • 9. Bearinger LH, Sieving RE, Ferguson J, Sharma V (2007) Global perspectives on the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents: patterns, prevention, and potential. Lancet 369: 1220-1231.
    • 10. WHO (2008) Why is giving special attention to adolescents important for achieving MD Goal 5? : Geneva: World Health Organization.
    • 11. Ten V (2007) Menstrual Hygiene: A Neglected Condition for the Achievement of Several Millennium Development Goals.
    • 12. Sommer M (2010) Where the education system and women's bodies collide: The social and health impact of girls' experiences of menstruation and schooling in Tanzania. J Adolesc 33: 521-529.
    • 13. Severy LJ, Thapa S, Askew I, Glor J (1993) Menstrual experiences and beliefs: a multicountry study of relationships with fertility and fertility regulating methods. Women Health 20: 1-20.
    • 14. Marvan ML, Islas M, Vela L, Chrisler JC, Warren EA (2008) Stereotypes of women in different stages of their reproductive life: data from Mexico and the United States. Health Care Women Int 29: 673-687.
    • 15. Buckley T, Gottlieb A (1988) Blood magic: The anthropology of menstruation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    • 16. Szarewski A, von Stenglin A, Rybowski S (2012) Women's attitudes towards monthly bleeding: results of a global population-based survey. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 17: 270-283.
    • 17. Burrows A, Johnson S (2005) Girls' experiences of menarche and menstruation. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 23: 235-249.
    • 18. Stubbs ML (2008) Cultural perceptions and practices around menarche and adolescent menstruation in the United States. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1135: 58-66.
    • 19. Scott CS, Arthur D, Owen R, Panizo MI (1989) Black adolescents' emotional response to menarche. J Natl Med Assoc 81: 285-290.
    • 20. Liu HL, Chen KH, Peng NH (2012) Cultural practices relating to menarche and menstruation among adolescent girls in Taiwan-qualitative investigation. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 25: 43-47.
    • 21. Sommer M (2009) Ideologies of sexuality, menstruation and risk: girls' experiences of puberty and schooling in northern Tanzania. Cult Health Sex 11: 383-398.
    • 22. Kariuki M, Kakonge E (2000) Case study on the impact of institutional management of menstruation on girls' participation in primary school. Nairobi: Quest, Kenya.
    • 23. McMahon SA, Winch PJ, Caruso BA, Obure AF, Ogutu EA, et al. (2011) 'The girl with her period is the one to hang her head' Reflections on menstrual management among schoolgirls in rural Kenya. BMC Int Health Hum Rights 11: 7.
    • 24. Montgomery P, Ryus CR, Dolan CS, Dopson S, Scott LM (2012) Sanitary pad interventions for girls' education in Ghana: a pilot study. PLoS One 7: e48274.
    • 25. WorldBank (2005) Toolkit on Hygiene Sanitation & Water in Schools: Gender Roles & Impact. Available: http://www.wsp.org/wsp/Hygiene-SanitationWater-Toolkit/index.html. Accessed 1 Oct 2013.
    • 26. Oster E, Thornton R (2011) Menstruation, Sanitary Products and School Attendance: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation. Am Econ J: Appl Economics 3: 91-100.
    • 27. APHRC (2010) Policy Brief: Attitudes towards, and acceptibility of, menstrual cups as a method for managing menstruation. Nairobi: African Population and Health Research Center. Available: https://www.aphrc.org/download/?id = 4. Accessed 1 June 2013.
    • 28. Odhiambo FO, Laserson KF, Sewe M, Hamel MJ, Feikin DR, et al. (2012) Profile: The KEMRI/CDC Health and Demographic Surveillance SystemWestern Kenya. Int J Epidemiol 41: 977-987.
    • 29. Phillips-Howard PA, Nahlen BL, Alaii JA, ter Kuile FO, Gimnig JE, et al. (2003) The efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and morbidity in western Kenya I. Development of infrastructure and description of study site. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68: 3-9.
    • 30. Cohen D, Atieno-Odhiambo E (1989) Siaya: The Historical Anthropology of an African Landscape. London: James Currey, Ltd.
    • 31. Adazu K, Lindblade KA, Rosen DH, Odhiambo F, Ofware P, et al. (2005) Health and demographic surveillance in rural western Kenya: a platform for evaluating interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 1151-1158.
    • 32. UWESO (2012) Are Our Children Learning? Annual Learning Assessment Report 2011. Nairobi, Kenya. Available: http://www.uwezo.net/publications/ reports/. Accessed 1 June 2013.
    • 33. Mensch BS, Clark WH, Lloyd CB, Erulkar AS (2001) Premarital sex, schoolgirl pregnancy, and school quality in rural Kenya. Stud Fam Plann 32: 285-301.
    • 34. Mensch BS, Lloyd CB (1998) Gender differences in the schooling experiences of adolescents in low-income countries: the case of Kenya. Stud Fam Plann 29: 167-184.
    • 35. Phillips-Howard PA, Odhiambo FO, Hamel M, Adazu K, Ackers M, et al. (2012) Mortality Trends from 2003 to 2009 among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural Western Kenya Using a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. PLoS One 7: e47017.
    • 36. KNBS (2010) Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-09. Nairobi: Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) and ICF Macro.
    • 37. Krippendorff K (1980) Content Analysis; An Introduction to its Methodology. Beverly Hills, CA, USA: Sage.
    • 38. CARE (2000) Community initiatives for Child Survival Siaya (CICSS-II): Detailed Implementation Plan. CARE Kenya, Submitted to USAID/BHR/ PVC.
    • 39. Meltzer MI, Terlouw DJ, Kolczak MS, Odhacha A, ter Kuile FO, et al. (2003) The household-level economics of using permethrin-treated bed nets to prevent malaria in children less than five years of age. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68: 149-160.
    • 40. Orringer K, Gahagan S (2010) Adolescent girls define menstruation: a multiethnic exploratory study. Health Care Women Int 31: 831-847.
    • 41. Burrows A, Johnson S (2005) Girls' experiences of menarche and menstruation. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 23: 235-249.
    • 42. Abioye-Kuteyi EA (2000) Menstrual knowledge and practices amongst secondary school girls in Ile Ife, Nigeria. J R Soc Promot Health 120: 23-26.
    • 43. Irinoye OO, Ogungbemi A, Ojo AO (2003) Menstruation: knowledge, attitude and practices of students in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Niger J Med 12: 43-51.
    • 44. Khanna A, Bhawsar R (2005) Menstrual practices and reproductive problems: A study of adolescent girls in Rajasthan. Journal Health Management 7: 91-107.
    • 45. Ali TS, Rizvi SN (2010) Menstrual knowledge and practices of female adolescents in urban Karachi, Pakistan. J Adolesc 33: 531-541.
    • 46. Rodriguez White L (2012) The Function of Ethnicity, Income Level, and Menstrual Taboos in Postmenarcheal Adolescents' Understanding of Menarche and Menstruation Sex Roles.
    • 47. Vandenhoudt H, Miller KS, Ochura J, Wyckoff SC, Obong'o CO, et al. (2010) Evaluation of a U.S. evidence-based parenting intervention in rural Western Kenya: from parents matter! To families matter! AIDS Educ Prev 22: 328-343.
    • 48. Ahmed R, Yesmin K (2008) Beyond construction: Use by all, A collection of case studies from sanitation and hygiene promotion practitioners in South Asia. Menstrual hygiene: breaking the silence. London: WaterAid.
    • 49. Gautam O (2010) Is menstrual hygiene and management an issue for adolescent school girls in Nepal? May 19-21 2010 Kathmandu, Nepal.
    • 50. El-Gilany AH, Badawi K, El-Fedawy S (2005) Menstrual hygiene among adolescent schoolgirls in Mansoura, Egypt. Reprod Health Matters 13: 147-152.
    • 51. Forde S (2009) Playing by Their Rules: Coastal Teenage Girls in Kenya on Life, Love and Football Createspace. 250 p.
    • 52. Dasgupta A, Sarkar M (2008) Menstrual Hygiene: How Hygienic is the Adolescent Girl? Indian J Community Med 33: 77-80.
    • 53. Balamurugan SS, Bendigeri N (2012) Community-based study of reproductive tract infections among women of the reproductive age group in the urban health training centre area in hubli, karnataka. Indian J Community Med 37: 34-38.
    • 54. Bhatia JC, Cleland J (1995) Self-reported symptoms of gynecological morbidity and their treatment in south India. Stud Fam Plann 26: 203-216.
    • 55. Czerwinski BS, Wardell DW, Yoder LH, Connelly LM, Ternus M, et al. (2001) Variations in feminine hygiene practices of military women in deployed and noncombat environments. Mil Med 166: 152-158.
    • 56. Demba E, Morison L, van der Loeff MS, Awasana AA, Gooding E, et al. (2005) Bacterial vaginosis, vaginal flora patterns and vaginal hygiene practices in patients presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia, West Africa. BMC Infect Dis 5: 12.
    • 57. Tanfer K, Oral S (1996) Sexual intercourse during menstruation and self reported sexually transmitted disease history among women. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 23: 395-401.
    • 58. Allen CF, Desmond N, Chiduo B, Medard L, Lees SS, et al. (2010) Intravaginal and menstrual practices among women working in food and recreational facilities in Mwanza, Tanzania: implications for microbicide trials. AIDS Behav 14: 1169-1181.
    • 59. Lloyd C, Mensch B (2008) Marriage and childbirth as factors in dropping out from school: an analysis of DHS data from sub-Saharan Africa. Popul Stud (Camb) 62: 1-13.
    • 60. Mahon T, Fernandes M (2010) Menstrual hygiene in South Asia: a neglected issue for WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) programmes. Gender & Development 18: 99-113.
    • 61. Lee JS (2009) Bodies at Menarche: Stories of Shame, Concealment and Maturation. Sex Roles 60: 615-627.
    • 62. Rembeck GI, Moller M, Gunnarsson RK (2006) Attitudes and feelings towards menstruation and womanhood in girls at menarche. Acta Paediatr 95: 707-714.
    • 63. Adudans MK, Montandon M, Kwena Z, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR (2011) Prevalence of forced sex and associated factors among women and men in Kisumu, Kenya. Afr J Reprod Health 15: 87-97.
    • 64. Erulkar AS (2004) The experience of sexual coercion among young people in Kenya. Int Fam Plan Perspect 30: 182-189.
    • 65. Hewett PC, Mensch BS, Erulkar AS (2004) Consistency in the reporting of sexual behaviour by adolescent girls in Kenya: a comparison of interviewing methods. Sex Transm Infect 80 Suppl 2: ii43-48.
    • 66. Zierler S, Feingold L, Laufer D, Velentgas P, Kantrowitz-Gordon I, et al. (1991) Adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse and subsequent risk of HIV infection. Am J Public Health 81: 572-575.
    • 67. Kilonzo N, Taegtmeyer M, Molyneux C, Kibaru J, Kimonji V, et al. (2008) Engendering health sector responses to sexual violence and HIV in Kenya: results of a qualitative study. AIDS Care 20: 188-190.
    • 68. Njue C, Voeten HA, Remes P (2011) Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya. BMC Public Health 11: 635.
    • 69. Nobelius AM, Kalina B, Pool R, Whitworth J, Chesters J, et al. (2010) ''You still need to give her a token of appreciation'': the meaning of the exchange of money in the sexual relationships of out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda. J Sex Res 47: 490-503.
  • Inferred research data

    The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    Title Trust
    66
    66%
    73
    73%
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects

  • WT

Cite this article