Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: Frontiers
Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Original Research, Psychology, behavioral inhibition, neuroticism, behavioral activation, conditioned inhibition
Conditioned inhibition (CI) is demonstrated in classical conditioning when a stimulus is used to signal the omission of an otherwise expected outcome. This basic learning ability is involved in a wide range of normal behavior – and thus its disruption could produce a correspondingly wide range of behavioral deficits. The present study employed a computer-based task to measure conditioned excitation and inhibition in the same discrimination procedure. CI by summation test was clearly demonstrated. Additionally summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning (difference scores) were calculated in order to explore how performance related to individual differences in a large sample of normal participants (n = 176 following exclusion of those not meeting the basic learning criterion). The individual difference measures selected derive from two biologically based personality theories, Gray’s (1982) reinforcement sensitivity theory and Eysenck and Eysenck (1991) psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism theory. Following the behavioral tasks, participants completed the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) scales and the Eysenck personality questionnaire revised short scale (EPQ-RS). Analyses of the relationship between scores on each of the scales and summary measures of excitatory and inhibitory learning suggested that those with higher BAS (specifically the drive sub-scale) and higher EPQ-RS neuroticism showed reduced levels of excitatory conditioning. Inhibitory conditioning was similarly attenuated in those with higher EPQ-RS neuroticism, as well as in those with higher BIS scores. Thus the findings are consistent with higher levels of neuroticism being accompanied by generally impaired associative learning, both inhibitory and excitatory. There was also evidence for some dissociation in the effects of behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition on excitatory and inhibitory learning respectively.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Avila, C., Parcet, M. A., and BarrosLoscertales, A. (2008). A cognitive neuroscience approach to individual differences in sensitivity to reward. Neurotox. Res. 14, 191-203.
    • Barlow, D. H. (2000). Unraveling the mysteries of anxiety and its disorders from the perspective of emotion theory. Am. Psychol. 55, 1247-1263.
    • Beaver, J. D., Lawrence, A. D., Van Ditzhuijzen, J., Davis, M. H., Woods, A., and Calder, A. J. (2006). Individual differences in reward drive predict neural responses to images of food. J. Neurosci. 26, 5160-5166.
    • Benjamini, Y., and Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. B Stat. Methodol. 57, 289-300.
    • Buss, A. H., and Plomin, R. (1975). A Temperament Theory of Personality Development. New York: WileyInterscience.
    • Carver, C. S., and White, T. L. (1994). Behavioural inhibition, behavioural activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: the BIS/BAS scales. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 67, 319-333.
    • Claes, L., Nederkoorn, C., Vandereycken, W., Guerrieri, R., and Vertommen, H. (2006). Impulsiveness and lack of inhibitory control in eating disorders. Eat. Behav. 7, 196-203.
    • Corr, P. J. (2010). The psychoticismpsychopathy continuum: a neuropsychological model of core deficits. Pers. Individ. Dif. 48, 695-703.
    • Corr, P. J., Pickering, A. D., and Gray, J. A. (1995). Personality and reinforcement in associative and instrumental learning. Pers. Individ. Dif. 19, 47-71.
    • Costa, P. T., and McCrae, R. R. (1992). Four ways five factors are basic. Pers. Individ. Dif. 13, 653-665.
    • Davey, G. C. L. (1992). Classical conditioning and the acquisition of human fears and phobias: a review and synthesis of the literature. Adv. Behav. Res. Ther. 14, 29-66.
    • Daw, N. D., Kakade, S., and Dayan, P. (2002). Opponent interactions between serotonin and dopamine. Neural Netw. 15, 603-616.
    • Enticott, P. G., Ogloff, J. R. P., and Bradshaw, J. L. (2006). Associations between laboratory measures of executive inhibitory control and self-reported impulsivity. Pers. Individ. Dif. 41, 285-294.
    • Eysenck, H. J. (1957). Dynamics of Anxiety and Hysteria. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    • Eysenck, H. J. (1967). The Biological Basis of Personality. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
    • Eysenck, H. J. (1981). A Model for Personality. Berlin: Springer.
    • Eysenck, H. J. (1992). The definition and measurement of psychoticism. Pers. Individ. Dif. 13, 757-785.
    • Eysenck, H. J., and Eysenck, S. B. G. (1976a). Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
    • Eysenck, H. J., and Eysenck, S. B. G. (1976b). Psychoticism as a Dimension of Personality. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
    • Eysenck, H. J., and Eysenck, S. B. G. (1991). Manual of the Eysenck Personality Scales. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
    • Eysenck, S. B. G., Eysenck, H. J., and Barrett, P. (1985). A revised version of the psychoticism scale. Pers. Individ. Dif. 6, 21-29.
    • Ferguson, E., Ward, J. W., Skatova, A., Cassaday, H. J., Bibby, P. A., and Lawrence, C. (2012). Health specific traits beyond the Five Factor Model, cognitive processes and trait expression: replies to Watson (2012), Matthews (2012) and Haslam, Jetten, Reynolds and Reicher (2012). Health Psychol. Rev. doi:10.1080/17437199.2012.701061 Fowles, D. C. (1980). The three arousal model: implications of Gray's twofactor learning theory for heart rate, electrodermal activity, and psychopathy. Psychophysiology 17, 87-104.
    • Fowles, D. C. (1987). Application of a behavioural theory of motivation to the concepts of anxiety and impulsivity. J. Res. Pers. 21, 417-435.
    • Fowles, D. C. (1993). “Biological variables in psychopathology: a psychobiological perspective,” in Comprehensive Handbook of Psychopathology, 2nd Edn, eds P. B. Sutker and H. E. Adams (New York: Plenum), 57-82.
    • Francis, L. J. (1993). The dual nature of the Eysenckian neuroticism scales: a question of sex differences. Pers. Individ. Dif. 15, 43-49.
    • Gray, J. A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversionextraversion. Behav. Res. Ther. 8, 249-266.
    • Gray, J. A. (1971). Sex differences in emotional behaviour in mammals including man: endocrine bases. Acta Psychol. (Amst.) 35, 29-46.
    • Gray, J. A. (1972). “The psychophysiological basis of introversionextraversion: a modification of Eysenck's theory,” in The Biological Bases of Individual Behaviour, eds V. D. Nebylitsyn and J. A. Gray (San Diego, CA: Academic Press), 182-205.
    • Gray, J. A. (1981). “A critique of Eysenck's theory of personality,” in A Model for Personality, ed. H. J. Eysenck (Berlin: Springer-Verlag), 246-276.
    • Gray, J. A. (1982). The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal System. New York: Oxford University Press.
    • Gray, J. A. (1985). “Issues in the neuropsychology of anxiety,” in Anxiety and the Anxiety Disorders, eds A. H. Tuma and J. D. Maser (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum), 5-25.
    • Gray, J. A. (1990). Brain systems that mediate both emotion and cognition. Cogn. Emot. 4, 269-288.
    • Gray, J. A., and McNaughton, N. (2000). The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal System, 2nd Edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Grillon, C. (2002). Associative learning deficits increase symptoms of anxiety in humans. Biol. Psychiatry 51, 851-858.
    • Hare, R. D. (1991). Manual for the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems.
    • Hare, R. D., Hart, S. D., and Harpur, T. J. (1991). Psychopathy and the proposed DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 100, 391-398.
    • Haslam, S. A., Jetten, J., Reynolds, K. J., and Reicher, S. D. (2012). The dangers of isolating the individual: the need for a dynamic and socially structured model of personality - commentary on Ferguson (2011). Health Psychol. Rev. doi:10.1080/17437199.2011.606097 He, Z., Cassaday, H. J., Howard, R. C., Khalifa, N., and Bonardi, C. M. (2011). Impaired Pavlovian conditioned inhibition in offenders with personality disorders. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 64, 2334-2351.
    • He, Z., Cassaday, H. J., Park, S. B. G., and Bonardi, C. M. (2012). When to hold that thought: an experimental study showing reduced inhibition of pre-trained associations in schizophrenia. PLoS ONE 7:e42175. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042175 Helmers, K. F., Young, S. N., and Pihl, R. O. (1995). Assessment of measures of impulsivity in healthy male volunteers. Pers. Individ. Dif. 19, 927-935.
    • Helmers, K. F., Young, S. N., and Pihl, R. O. (1997). Extraversion and behavioral impulsivity. Pers. Individ. Dif. 23, 441-452.
    • Heym, N., Ferguson, E., and Lawrence, C. (2008). An evaluation of the relationship between Gray's revised RST and Eysenck's PEN: distinguishing BIS and FFFS in Carver and White's BIS/BAS scales. Pers. Individ. Dif. 45, 709-715.
    • Heym, N., and Lawrence, C. (2010). The role of Gray's revised RST in the P-psychopathy continuum: the relationships of Psychoticism with a lack of fear and anxiety, and increased impulsivity (2010). Pers. Individ. Dif. 49, 874-879.
    • Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scand. J. Stat. 6, 65-70.
    • Jennions, M. D., and Møller, A. P. (2003). A survey of the statistical power of research in behavioural ecology and animal behaviour. Behav. Ecol. 14, 438-445.
    • Jorm, A. F. (1987). Sex differences in neuroticism: a quantitative synthesis of published research. Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 21, 501-506.
    • Kantini, E., Cassaday, H. J., Hollis, C., and Jackson, G. M. (2011a). The normal inhibition of associations is impaired by clonidine in Tourette Syndrome. J. Can. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 20, 96-106.
    • Kantini, E., Cassaday, H. J., Batty, M. J., Hollis, C., and Jackson, G. M. (2011b). Associative learning in ADHD: improved expression under methylphenidate. Open J. Psychiatry 1, 20-29.
    • Kay, S. R., Fiszbein, A., and Opler, L. (1987). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 13, 261-276.
    • Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., and Cuthbert, B. N. (2005). International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Instruction Manual and Affective Ratings. Technical Report A-6. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida.
    • Larzelere, R. E., and Mulaik, S. A. (1977). Single-sample tests for many correlations. Psychol. Bull. 84, 557-569.
    • Logan, G. D., Schachar, R. J., and Tannock, R. (1997). Impulsivity and inhibitory control. Psychol. Sci. 8, 60-64.
    • Loranger, A. W., Sartorius, N., Andreoli, A., Berger, P., Buchheim, P., Channabasavanna, S. M., et al. (1994). The international personality disorder examination, IPDE. The WHO/ADAMHA International Pilot Study of personality disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 51, 215-224.
    • Lynn, R., and Martin, T. (1997). Gender differences in extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism in 37 nations. J. Soc. Psychol. 137, 369-373.
    • Migo, E. M., Corbett, K., Graham, J., Smith, S., Tate, S., Moran, P. M., et al. (2006). A novel test of conditioned inhibition correlates with personality measures of schizotypy and reward sensitivity. Behav. Brain Res. 168, 299-306.
    • Milich, R., and Kramer, J. (1984). “Reflections on impulsivity: an empirical investigation of impulsivity as a construct,” in Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, Vol. 3, ed. K. Gadow (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press), 57-93.
    • Munro, G., Dywan, J., Harris, G., McKee, S., Unsal, A., and Segalowitz, S. (2007). Response inhibition in psychopathy: the frontal N2 and P3. Neurosci. Lett. 418, 149-153.
    • Nakagawa, S. (2004). A farewell to Bonferroni: the problems of low statistical power and publication bias. Behav. Ecol. 15, 1044-1045.
    • Paulsen, K., and Johnson, M. (1980). Impulsivity: a multidimensional concept with developmental aspects. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 8, 269-277.
    • Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned Reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.
    • Perneger, T. V. (1998). What's wrong with Bonferroni adjustments. Br. Med. J. 316, 1236-1238.
    • Pickering, A. D. (1997). The conceptual nervous system and personality: from Pavlov to neural networks. Eur. Psychol. 2, 139-163.
    • Pickering, A. D., and Gray, J. A. (1999). “The neuroscience of personality,” in Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, eds L. A. Pervin and O. P. John (New York: Guilford Press), 277-299.
    • Pierò, A. (2010). Personality correlates of impulsivity in subjects with generalized anxiety disorders. Compr. Psychiatry 51, 538-545.
    • Putman, P., Hermans, E., and van Honk, J. (2004). Emotional Stroop performance for masked angry faces: it's BAS, not BIS. Emotion 4, 305-311.
    • Rescorla, R. A. (1969). Pavlovian conditioned inhibition. Psychol. Bull. 72, 77-94.
    • Rescorla, R. A., and Wagner, A. R. (1972). “A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement,” in Classical Conditioning II, eds A. H. Black, and W. F. Prokasy (New York: AppletonCentury-Crofts), 64-99.
    • Rice, W. R. (1989). Analyzing tables of statistical tests. Evolution 43, 223-225.
    • Scholten, M. R. M., van Honk, J., Aleman, A., and Kahn, R. S. (2006). Behavioural inhibition system (BIS), behavioural activation system (BAS) and schizophrenia: relationship with psychopathology and physiology. J. Psychiatr. Res. 40, 638-645.
    • Smillie, L. D., Pickering, A. D., and Jackson, C. J. (2006). The new reinforcement sensitivity theory: implications for personality measurement. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 10, 320-335.
    • Snorrason, ´l., Smári, J., and Ólafsson, R. P. (2011). The interaction effect of impulsivity and responsibility in relation to obsessive - compulsive symptoms. Cognit. Ther. Res. 35, 79-86.
    • Tobler, P. N., Dickinson, A., and Schultz, W. (2003). Coding of predicted reward omission by dopamine neurons in a conditioned inhibition paradigm. J. Neurosci. 23, 10402-10410.
    • Visser, M., Das-Smaal, E., and Kwakman, H. (1996). Impulsivity and negative priming: evidence for diminished cognitive inhibition in impulsive children. Br. J. Psychol. 87, 131-140.
  • Inferred research data

    The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    Title Trust
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article