Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:

OpenAIRE is about to release its new face with lots of new content and services.
During September, you may notice downtime in services, while some functionalities (e.g. user registration, login, validation, claiming) will be temporarily disabled.
We apologize for the inconvenience, please stay tuned!
For further information please contact helpdesk[at]openaire.eu

fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Ahmad, Muhammad Waseem; Mourshed, Monjur; Mundow, David; Sisinni, Mario; Rezgui, Yacine
Publisher: Elsevier
Journal: Energy and Buildings
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: TD, Mechanical Engineering, TH, Building and Construction, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Civil and Structural Engineering
Buildings are responsible for 40% of global energy use and contribute towards 30% of the total CO2 emissions. The drive to reduce energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions from buildings has acted as a catalyst in the increasing installation of meters and sensors for monitoring energy use and indoor environmental conditions in buildings. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in building energy metering and environmental monitoring, including their social, economic, environmental and legislative drivers. The integration of meters and sensors with existing building energy management systems (BEMS) is critically appraised, especially with regard to communication technologies and protocols such as ModBus, M-Bus, Ethernet, Cellular, ZigBee, WiFi and BACnet. Findings suggest that energy metering is covered in existing policies and regulations in only a handful of countries. Most of the legislations and policies on energy metering in Europe are in response to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), 2002/91/EC. However, recent developments in policy are pointing towards more stringent metering requirements in future, moving away from voluntary to mandatory compliance. With regards to metering equipment, significant developments have been made in the recent past on miniaturisation, accuracy, robustness, data storage, ability to connect using multiple communication protocols, and the integration with BEMS and the Cloud – resulting in a range of available solutions, selection of which can be challenging. Developments in communication technologies, in particular in low-power wireless such as ZigBee and Bluetooth LE (BLE), are enabling cost-effective machine to machine (M2M) and internet of things (IoT) implementation of sensor networks. Privacy and data protection, however, remain a concern for data aggregators and end-users. The standardization of network protocols and device functionalities remains an active area of research and development, especially due to the prevalence of many protocols in the BEMS industry. Available solutions often lack interoperability between hardware and software systems, resulting in vendor lock-in. The paper provides a comprehensive understanding of available technologies for energy metering and environmental monitoring; their drivers, advantages and limitations; factors affecting their selection and future directions of research and development – for use a reference, as well as for generating further interest in this expanding research area.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • [1] P.H. Shaikh, N.B.M. Nor, P. Nallagownden, I. Elamvazuthi, T. Ibrahim, A review on optimized control systems for building energy and comfort management of smart sustainable buildings, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 34 (2014) 409-429.
    • [2] A. Costa, M.M. Keane, J.I. Torrens, E. Corry, Building operation and energy performance: monitoring, analysis and optimisation toolkit, Appl. Energy 101 (2013) 310-316.
    • [3] J. Grözinger, T. Boermans, A. John, F. Wehringer, J. Seehusen, Overview of Member States information on NZEBs: Background paper - final report, ECOFYS GmbH, Cologne, Germany, 2014.
    • [4] DECC, 2013 UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Provisional Figures and 2012 UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Final Figures by Fuel Type and End-User, Department of Energy and Climate Change, London, UK, 2014.
    • [5] The World Bank, World Development Indicators 1960-2013, The World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014.
    • [6] IPCC, Climate Change 2013 - The Physical Science Basis: Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 2013.
    • [7] International Energy Agency, Redrawing the Energy Climate Map - World Energy Outlook Special Report, 2013 http://www.iea.org/publications/ freepublications/publication/WEO Special Report 2013 Redrawing the Energy Climate Map.pdf (accessed 01.10.15).
    • [8] R.M. Dowd, M. Mourshed, Low carbon buildings: sensitivity of thermal properties of opaque envelope construction and glazing, Energy Procedia 75 (2015) 1284-1289, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.189.
    • [9] T. Oreszczyn, R. Lowe, Challenges for energy and buildings research: objectives, methods and funding mechanisms, Build. Res. Inf. 38 (1) (2010) 107-122, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09613210903265432.
    • [10] European Commission, Energy Efficiency Directive, http://ec.europa.eu/ energy/efficiency/eed/eed en.htm (accessed 01.10.15), 2014.
    • [11] Internal Code Council, International Energy Conservation Code.
    • [12] J. Genet, C. Schubert, Designing a metering system for small and medium-sized buildings, Technical Report SEMED310007EN, SE, 2011.
    • [13] N.M.G. Strategy, Advanced Metering Infrastructure, US Department of Energy Office of Electricity and Energy Reliability.
    • [14] , in: A survey on advanced metering infrastructure, Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 63 (2014) 473-484.
    • [15] S. Smith, How sub-metering changed the way Nissan, Smyrna plant does business, in: Future of Instrumentation International Workshop (FIIW), vol. 20, 2011.
    • [16] EC, State of the Energy Union 2015, COM(2015) 572, European Commission, Brussels, BE, 2015.
    • [17] M.W. Ahmad, M. Mourshed, B. Yuce, Y. Rezgui, in: Computational intelligence techniques for HVAC systems: a review, Build. Simul. (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12273-016-0285-4.
    • [18] EU, Common Vision for the Renewable Heating & Cooling Sector in Europe, European Union, Brussels, BE, 2011.
    • [19] B. Juul-Kristensen, Efficiency in Energy Supply, High Efficiency CHP and Heating/Cooling, CA-EED, Brussels, BE, 2014.
    • [20] M. Mourshed, S. Robert, A. Ranalli, T. Messervey, D. Reforgiato, R. Contreau, A. Becue, K. Quinn, Y. Rezgui, Z. Lennard, in: Smart grid futures: perspectives on the integration of energy and ICT services, Energy Procedia 75 (2015) 1132-1137, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.531.
    • [21] DECC, Smart Meters - A Guide, Department of Energy and Climate Change, London, UK, 2016.
    • [22] P. Chalmers, Climate Change: Implications for Building, 2014, pp. 1-20 http://www.cisl.cam.ac.uk/business-action/low-carbon-transformation/ ipcc-briefings/pdfs/briefings/IPCC AR5 Implications for Buildings Briefing WEB EN.pdf.
    • [23] M.R. Brambley, P. Haves, S.C. McDonald, P.A. Torcellini, D. Hansen, D. Holmberg, K. Roth, Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways, Citeseer, 2005.
    • [24] European Council, Directive 2002/91/EC of the European parliament and of the council of 16 December 2002 on the energy performance of buildings, Official Journal of the European Communities. DIRECTIVE 91.
    • [25] EU Parliament, Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the council, 2010.
    • [26] Department of Energy & Climate Change, Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme, 2013 https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/energysavings-opportunity-scheme (accessed 01 September).
    • [27] S. Darby, in: The effectiveness of feedback on energy consumption, a review for DEFRA of the literature on metering, Billing Direct Disp. 486 (2006) 1-24.
    • [28] S. Junnila, in: The potential effect of end users on energy conservation in office buildings, Facilities 25 (7/8) (2007) 329-339, http://dx.doi.org/10. 1108/02632770710753352.
    • [29] A. Cox, T. Higgins, R. Gloster, B. Foley, A. Darnton, The Impact of Workplace Initiatives on Low Carbon Behaviours, Scottish Government Social Research, Edinburgh.
    • [30] The Carbon Trust, Advanced metering for SMEs - Carbon and cost savings.
    • [31] M. Evans, B. Shui, T. Takagi, Country report on building energy codes in Japan, 2009 http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical reports/PNNL-17849.pdf.
    • [32] Mark and Spencer, M&S Plan A Report, 2014 http://planareport. marksandspencer.com/downloads/M&S-PlanA-2014.pdf (accessed 01 September).
    • [33] P. Marian, 14 Steps to becoming an M&S eco-factory, 2011 http://www.juststyle.com/analysis/14-steps-to-becoming-an-ms-eco-factory id112528. aspx (accessed 01.09.14).
    • [34] Santander, Corporate Social Responsibility, 2014 http://www.santander.co. uk/uk/about-santander-uk/csr.
    • [35] D. Fugate, P. Fuhr, T. Kuruganti, Instrumentation systems for commercial building energy efficiency, in: Future of Instrumentation International Workshop (FIIW), 2011, pp. 21-24.
    • [36] P.O. Fanger, et al., Thermal comfort. Analysis and applications in environmental engineering.
    • [37] K. Parsons, Human Thermal Environments: The Effects of Hot, Moderate, and Cold Environments on Human Health, Comfort, and Performance, Making Sense of, Taylor and Francis, 2014, ISBN 9781466595996.
    • [38] F.R.d. Alfano, M. Dell´Isola, B.I. Palella, G. Riccio, A. Russi, in: On the measurement of the mean radiant temperature and its influence on the indoor thermal environment assessment, Build. Environ. 63 (2013) 79-88.
    • [39] Edison Electric Institute, Handbook for Electricity Metering, EEI Publication, Edison Electric Institute, 2002, ISBN 9780931032523, http://books.google. co.uk/books?id=ZmPyPQAACAAJ.
    • [40] G. Sullivan, W. Hunt, R. Pugh, W. Sandusky, T. Koehler, B. Boyd, Metering Best Practices: A Guide to Achieving Utility Resource Efficiency, http:// energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/10/f3/mbpg.pdf.
    • [41] E. O'Driscoll, G.E. O'Donnell, in: Industrial power and energy metering - a state-of-the-art review, J. Clean. Prod. 41 (2013) 53-64.
    • [42] T. Khalifa, K. Naik, A. Nayak, in: A survey of communication protocols for automatic meter reading applications, IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 13 (2) (2011) 168-182.
    • [43] M.P. McHenry, in: Technical and governance considerations for advanced metering infrastructure/smart meters: technology, security, uncertainty, costs, benefits, and risks, Energy Policy 59 (2013) 834-842.
    • [44] F. Cascetta, P. Vigo, Flowmeters: A Comprehensive Survey and Guide to Selection, Instrument Society of America, 1988, ISBN 9781556170997.
    • [45] G. Buonanno, in: On field characterisation of static domestic gas flowmeters, Measurement 27 (4) (2000) 277-285.
    • [46] I. ÓSullivan, W. Wright, in: Ultrasonic measurement of gas flow using electrostatic transducers, Ultrasonics 40 (1-8) (2002) 407-411.
    • [47] J.G. Drenthen, G. de Boer, in: The manufacturing of ultrasonic gas flow meters, Flow Meas. Instrum. 12 (2) (2001) 89-99.
    • [48] K. Sakai, M. Okabayasi, K. Yasuda, in: The fluidic flowmeter - a gas flowmeter based on fluidic dynamic oscillation, Flow Meas. Instrum. 1 (1) (1989) 44-50.
    • [49] M. Anklin, W. Drahm, A. Rieder, in: Coriolis mass flowmeters: overview of the current state of the art and latest research, Flow Meas. Instrum. 17 (6) (2006) 317-323.
    • [50] S. Kearney, The age of advanced metering arrives, in: Rural Electric Power Conference, 2005, pp. 1-4, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/REPCON.2005. 1436328.
    • [51] A. Foy, Remote metering device, http://google.com/patents/ EP2318809A1?cl=zh-cn, eP Patent App. EP20,090,785,727, 2011.
    • [52] P.R.N. Childs, J.R. Greenwood, C.A. Long, in: Review of temperature measurement, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71 (8) (2000) 2959-2978.
    • [53] CIBSE, Guide H: Building control systems, ISBN: 9781906846008.
    • [54] ISO, ISO Standard 7726: Ergonomics of the Thermal Environment - Instruments for Measuring Physical Quantities, 1998, pp. 1-52.
    • [55] X. Chen, K. Kamimura, A. Katoh, M. Miura, in: Measurement of the indoor thermal environment using a radiant temperature sensor, ASHRAE Trans. 108 (1) (2002) 341-348.
    • [56] D. McIntyre, in: Preferred air speed for comfort in warm conditions, ASHRAE Trans. 84 (2) (1978) 263-277.
    • [57] L. Hill, H. Vernon, D. Hargood-Ash, in: The kata-thermometer as a measure of ventilation, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B, Contain. Pap. Biol. Character 93 (651) (1922) 198-206.
    • [58] S. Corrsin, in: Extended applications of the hot-wire anemometer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 18 (7) (1947) 469-471.
    • [59] J. Wilson, Sensor Technology Handbook Electronics & Electrical, vol. 1, Elsevier, 2005, ISBN 9780750677295.
    • [60] M. Loomans, A.v. Schijndel, in: Simulation and measurement of the stationary and transient characteristics of the hot sphere anemometer, Build. Environ. 37 (2) (2002) 153-163.
    • [61] H.B. Awbi, Ventilation of Buildings, Taylor & Francis, 2003.
    • [62] H. Koskela, J. Heikkinen, R. Niemel, T. Hautalampi, in: Turbulence correction for thermal comfort calculation, Build. Environ. 36 (2) (2001) 247-255.
    • [63] J. Fraden, Handbook of Modern Sensors: Physics, Designs, and Applications, Handbook of Modern Sensors, Springer, 2004, ISBN 9780387007502.
    • [64] E. Traversa, in: Ceramic sensors for humidity detection: the state-of-the-art and future developments, Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 23 (2-3) (1995) 135-156.
    • [65] K. Arshak, K. Twomey, in: Investigation into a novel humidity sensor operating at room temperature, Microelectron. J. 33 (3) (2002) 213-220.
    • [66] L.J. Golonka, B.W. Licznerski, K. Nitsch, H. Teterycz, in: Thick-film humidity sensors, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8 (1) (1997) 92.
    • [67] B. Brooks, Understanding Indoor Air Quality, Telford Press S, Taylor & Francis, 1991, ISBN 9780849388460.
    • [68] CEN, Ventilation for Buildings: Design Criteria for the Indoor Environment, Brussels, European Committee for Standardization.
    • [69] J. Kwon, G. Ahn, G. Kim, J.C. Kim, H. Kim, A study on NDIR-based CO2 sensor to apply remote air quality monitoring system, in: ICCAS-SICE, 2009, pp. 1683-1687.
    • [70] M. Griffiths, M. Eftekhari, in: Control of CO2 in a naturally ventilated classroom, Energy Build. 40 (4) (2008) 556-560.
    • [71] D. Preethichandra, Design of a smart indoor air quality monitoring wireless sensor network for assisted living, in: IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), 2013, pp. 1306-1310.
    • [72] K. Zakrzewska, in: Mixed oxides as gas sensors, Thin Solid Films 391 (2) (2001) 229-238.
    • [73] J. Ge˛ bicki, A. Kloskowski, in: Electrochemical sensor for measurement of volatile organic compounds employing square wave perturbation voltage, Metrol. Meas. Syst. 17 (4) (2010) 637-649.
    • [74] A. Yasuda, T. Shimidzu, in: Electrochemical carbon monoxide sensor with a Nafion® film, React. Funct. Polym. 41 (1-3) (1999) 235-243.
    • [75] M.W. Ahmad, M. Mourshed, J.-L. Hippolyte, Y. Rezgui, H. Li, Optimising the scheduled operation of window blinds to enhance occupant comfort, in: Proceedings of BS2015: 14th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Hyderabad, India, 2015, pp. 2393-2400.
    • [76] M.A. ul Haq, M.Y. Hassan, H. Abdullah, H.A. Rahman, M.P. Abdullah, F. Hussin, D.M. Said, in: A review on lighting control technologies in commercial buildings, their performance and affecting factors, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 33 (2014) 268-279.
    • [77] F. Oldewurtel, D. Sturzenegger, M. Morari, in: Importance of occupancy information for building climate control, Appl. Energy 101 (2013) 521-532.
    • [78] X. Guo, D. Tiller, G. Henze, C. Waters, in: The performance of occupancy-based lighting control systems: a review, Light. Res. Technol. 42 (4) (2010) 415-431.
    • [79] New Buildings Institute, Inc, J. Benya, D.E. Weigand, Advanced Lighting Guidelines, New Buildings Institute, 2003.
    • [80] V. Magori, H. Walker, in: Ultrasonic presence sensors with wide range and high local resolution, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 34 (2) (1987) 202-211.
    • [81] D.H. Li, K. Cheung, S. Wong, T.N. Lam, in: An analysis of energy-efficient light fittings and lighting controls, Appl. Energy 87 (2) (2010) 558-567.
    • [82] A.-S. Choi, K.-D. Song, Y.-S. Kim, in: The characteristics of photosensors and electronic dimming ballasts in daylight responsive dimming systems, Build. Environ. 40 (1) (2005) 39-50.
    • [83] M.I. Directive, Directive 2004/22/EC, European Council.
    • [84] National Measurement Office, MID Approved Gas and Electricity Meters, 2014 https://www.gov.uk/mid-approved-gas-and-electricity-meters (accessed 01.09.15).
    • [85] International Electrotechnical Commission, Electricity Metering Equipment (AC) - General Requirements, Tests and Test Conditions - Part 11: Metering Equipment, Geneva, Switzerland.
    • [86] International Electrotechnical Commission, Electricity Metering Equipment (AC) - Particular Requirements - Part 21: Static Meters for Active Energy Class 1 and 2, Geneva, Switzerland.
    • [87] International Electrotechnical Commission, Electricity Metering Equipment (AC) - Particular Requirements, Tests and Test Conditions - Part 11: Metering Equipment, Geneva, Switzerland.
    • [88] British Standards Institution, Electrical Static Meters for Secondary Metering and Sub-metering. Specification, ISBN: 978 0 580 68095 3.
    • [89] International Electrotechnical Commission, Alternating Current Static Watt-hour Meters for Active Energy (Classes 1 and 2).
    • [90] International Electrotechnical Commission, International Standard for Alternating Current Static Watt-hour Meter for Active Energy (Classes 0.2 S and 0.5 S).
    • [91] ANSI, American National Standard for Electricity Meters - 0.2 and 0.5 Accuracy Classes.
    • [92] W. Koon, Current sensing for energy metering, in: IIC-China/ESC-China, 2002, pp. 321-324.
    • [93] EDF Energy, Understanding changes to the meter class, 2014 http://www. edfenergy.com/products-services/large-business/PDF/B2B ePublications/ B2B-MBC-040.pdf (accessed 01.10.14).
    • [94] M. Kintner-Meyer, in: Opportunities of wireless sensors and controls for building operation, Energy Eng. 102 (5) (2005) 27-48.
    • [95] M. Milenkovic, O. Amft, An opportunistic activity-sensing approach to save energy in office buildings, in: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Future Energy Systems, 2013.
    • [96] S. Lanzisera, S. Dawson-Haggerty, H.I. Cheung, J. Taneja, D. Culler, R. Brown, in: Methods for detailed energy data collection of miscellaneous and electronic loads in a commercial office building, Build. Environ. 65 (2013) 170-177.
    • [97] S.S.S.R. Depuru, L. Wang, V. Devabhaktuni, in: Smart meters for power grid: challenges, issues, advantages and status, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15 (6) (2011) 2736-2742.
    • [98] V. Sood, D. Fischer, J. Eklund, T. Brown, Developing a communication infrastructure for the smart grid, in: Electrical Power Energy Conference (EPEC), Montreal, 2009, pp. 1-7, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EPEC.2009. 5420809.
    • [99] IEEE, Approved Draft Amendment to IEEE Standard for Information technology-Telecommunications and information exchange between systems-PART 15.4:Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs): Amendment to add alternate PHY (Amendment of IEEE Std 802.15.4), IEEE Approved Std P802.15.4a/D7, 2007, pp. 1-26.
    • [100] Q. Zhang, Y. Sun, Z. Cui, Application and analysis of ZigBee technology for smart grid, in: International Conference on Computer and Information Application (ICCIA), 2010, pp. 171-174.
    • [101] D. Xu, J. Liu, in: IPv6-based smart metering network for monitoring building electricity, Adv. Mech. Eng. (2013) 1-8.
    • [102] S. Lin, J. Liu, Y. Fang, ZigBee based wireless sensor networks and its applications in industrial, in: IEEE International Conference on Automation and Logistics, 2007, pp. 1979-1983.
    • [103] W.-T. Sung, Y.-C. Hsu, in: Designing an industrial real-time measurement and monitoring system based on embedded system and ZigBee, Expert Syst. Appl. 38 (4) (2011) 4522-4529.
    • [104] J. Cheng, T. Kunz, A survey on smart home networking, Carleton University, Systems and Computer Engineering, Technical Report, SCE-09-10.
    • [105] S.-W. Luan, J.-H. Teng, S.-Y. Chan, L.-C. Hwang, Development of a smart power meter for AMI based on ZigBee communication, in: International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS), 2009, pp. 661-665, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PEDS.2009.5385726.
    • [106] D.M. Han, J.H. Lim, in: Smart home energy management system using IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 56 (3) (2010) 1403-1410, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCE.2010.5606276, ISSN 0098-3063.
    • [107] D.M. Han, J.H. Lim, in: Design and implementation of smart home energy management systems based on ZigBee, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 56 (3) (2010) 1417-1425, ISSN 0098-3063.
    • [108] S.-W. Luan, J.H. Teng, S.-Y. Chan, L.-C. Hwang, Development of an automatic reliability calculation system for advanced metering infrastructure, in: 8th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2010, pp. 342-347, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/INDIN.2010.5549395.
    • [109] L. Cao, J. Tian, Y. Liu, Remote wireless automatic meter reading system based on wireless mesh networks and embedded technology, in: Fifth IEEE International Symposium on Embedded Computing, 2008. SEC '08, 2008, pp. 192-197, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SEC.2008.57.
    • [110] M.S. Kang, Y.L. Ke, J.S. Li, Implementation of smart loading monitoring and control system with ZigBee wireless network, in: 6th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), 2011, pp. 907-912.
    • [111] N. Batista, R. Melício, J. Matias, J. Catalao, in: Photovoltaic and wind energy systems monitoring and building/home energy management using ZigBee devices within a smart grid, Energy 49 (2013) 306-315, http://dx.doi.org/10. 1016/j.energy.2012.11.002, ISSN 0360-5442.
    • [112] G. Deconinck, An evaluation of two-way communication means for advanced metering in Flanders (Belgium), in: Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference Proceedings, 2008. IMTC 2008. IEEE, ISSN 1091-5281, 2008, pp. 900-905, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IMTC.2008. 4547164.
    • [113] S. Marvin, H. Chappells, S. Guy, in: Pathways of smart metering development: shaping environmental innovation, Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. 23 (2) (1999) 109-126, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0198- 9715(99)00011-3, ISSN 0198-9715, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/pii/S0198971599000113.
    • [114] D.S. Kim, S.Y. Lee, K.Y. Wang, J.C. Choi, D.J. Chung, in: A power line communication modem based on adaptively received signal detection for networked home appliances, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 53 (3) (2007) 864-870, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCE.2007.4341558, ISSN 0098-3063.
    • [115] T.S. Choi, K.R. Ko, S.C. Park, Y.S. Jang, Y.T. Yoon, S.K. Im, Analysis of energy savings using smart metering system and IHD (in-home display), in: Transmission Distribution Conference Exposition: Asia and Pacific, 2009, 2009, pp. 1-4, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TD-ASIA.2009.5356956.
    • [116] D. gang Peng, H. Zhang, L. Yang, H. Li, Design and realization of ModBus protocol based on embedded Linux system, in: International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems Symposia, 2008. ICESS Symposia '08, 2008, pp. 275-280.
    • [117] S. Le Blond, T. Lewis, M. Sooriyabandara, Towards an integrated approach to building energy efficiency: drivers and enablers, in: 2nd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), 2011, pp. 1-8.
    • [118] Y. Mo, T.-H. Kim, K. Brancik, D. Dickinson, H. Lee, A. Perrig, B. Sinopoli, in: Cyber - Physical security of a smart grid infrastructure, Proc. IEEE 100 (1) (2012) 195-209, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2011.2161428, ISSN 0018-9219.
    • [119] I. Modicon, Modicon ModBus Protocol Reference Guide, North Andover, Massachusetts, 1996, pp. 28-29.
    • [120] J.G. Bhatt, H. Verma, RS-485/MODBUS based intelligent building automation system using LabVIEW, in: 4th International Conference on Computer Applications in Electrical Engineering-Recent Advances (CERA-09), IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, India, 2010, pp. 19-21, Section-A1: instrumentation, Paper no. 04 (abstract).
    • [121] Collaborative recommender systems for building automation, in: 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2009, HICSS '09, 2009, pp. 1-10, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2009.114, ISSN 1530-1605.
    • [122] A. Usman, S.H. Shami, in: Evolution of communication technologies for smart grid applications, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19 (2013) 191-199.
    • [123] A. Tan, C. Lee, V.H. Mok, Automatic power meter reading system using GSM network, in: International Power Engineering Conference (IPEC), 2007, pp. 465-469.
    • [124] K. Ashna, S. George, GSM based automatic energy meter reading system with instant billing, in: International Multi-Conference on Automation, Computing, Communication, Control and Compressed Sensing (iMac4s), 2013, pp. 65-72.
    • [125] A.R. Al-Ali, M. Rousan, M. Mohandes, GSM-based wireless home appliances monitoring control system, in: International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications, 2004, pp. 237-238.
    • [126] A. Alheraish, in: Design and implementation of home automation system, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 50 (4) (2004) 1087-1092.
    • [127] P.-K. Cuvelier, P. Sommereyns, Proof of concept smart metering, in: 2009 20th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, 2009.
    • [128] CEN, Communication systems for meters and remote reading of meters, Part 2: Physical and link layer, in: EN 13757-2, 2004, pp. 1-32, ISBN: 0 580 44959 9.
    • [129] CEN, Communication systems for meters and remote reading of meters, Part 3: Dedicated application layer, in: EN 13757-3, 2004, pp. 1-58, ISBN: 0 580 44960 2.
    • [130] S. Squartini, L. Gabrielli, M. Mencarelli, M. Pizzichini, S. Spinsante, F. Piazza, Wireless M-Bus sensor nodes in smart water grids: the energy issue, in: Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Control and Information Processing (ICICIP), 2013, 2013, pp. 614-619, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ ICICIP.2013.6568148.
    • [131] A. Flammini, S. Rinaldi, A. Vezzoli, The sense of time in open metering system, in: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Smart Measurements for Future Grids (SMFG), 2011, pp. 22-27.
    • [132] T. Sauter, M. Lobashov, in: End-to-end communication architecture for smart grids, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 58 (4) (2011) 1218-1228, http://dx. doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2010.2070771, ISSN 0278-0046.
    • [133] J. Hosek, P. Masek, D. Kovac, M. Ries, F. Kropfl, Universal smart energy communication platform, in: 2014 International Conference on Intelligent Green Building and Smart Grid (IGBSG), 2014, pp. 1-4, http://dx.doi.org/10. 1109/IGBSG.2014.6835232.
    • [134] H. Lunzer, Intelligent metering, in: 5th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, vol. 2, 2007, pp. 1215-1219, http://dx.doi.org/10. 1109/INDIN.2007.4384949, ISSN 1935-4576.
    • [135] S. Spinsante, S. Squartini, L. Gabrielli, M. Pizzichini, E. Gambi, F. Piazza, in: Wireless M-Bus sensor networks for smart water grids: analysis and results, Int. J. Distrib. Sens. Netw. 2014 (2014).
    • [136] O. Strobel, J. Lubkoll, Fiber-optic communication - an overview, in: 20th International Crimean Conference on Microwave and Telecommunication Technology (CriMiCo), 2010, 2010, pp. 16-20.
    • [137] E. O'Driscoll, G.E. O'Donnell, in: Industrial power and energy metering - a state-of-the-art review, J. Clean. Prod. 41 (2013) 53-64.
    • [138] M. Bertoluzzo, G. Buja, S. Vitturi, Ethernet networks for factory automation, in: Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2002, vol. 1, 2002, pp. 175-180.
    • [139] EPSG, POWERLINK, 2014 http://www.ethernet-powerlink.org/en/ powerlink/technology/ (accessed 01 September).
    • [140] ETG, EtherCAT - The Ethernet Fieldbus, 2016 http://www.ethercat.org (accessed 01 March).
    • [141] PI, PROFIBUS, http://www.profibus.com/technology/profibus (accessed 01 September), 2014.
    • [142] A. Mushtaq, Wireless network security vulnerabilities and concerns, in: Security Technology, Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity, Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol. 122, 2010, pp. 207-219.
    • [143] A. ElShafee, K.A. Hamed, in: Design and implementation of a WIFI based home automation system, World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol. 68 (2012) 2177-2180.
    • [144] C. Martani, D. Lee, P. Robinson, R. Britter, C. Ratti, in: ENERNET: Studying the dynamic relationship between building occupancy and energy consumption, Energy Build. 47 (2012) 584-591, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. enbuild.2011.12.037, ISSN 0378-7788, http://www.sciencedirect.com/ science/article/pii/S0378778811006566.
    • [145] B. Balaji, J. Xu, A. Nwokafor, R. Gupta, Y. Agarwal, Sentinel: occupancy based HVAC actuation using existing WiFi infrastructure within commercial buildings, in: Proceedings of the 11th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, SenSys '13, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2013, pp. 17:1-17:14, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2517351.2517370, ISBN 978-1-4503-2027-6.
    • [146] S. Wang, Z. Xu, J. Cao, J. Zhang, in: A middleware for web service-enabled integration and interoperation of intelligent building systems, Autom. Constr. 16 (1) (2007) 112-121.
    • [147] C. Reinisch, W. Kastner, G. Neugschwandtner, W. Granzer, Wireless technologies in home and building automation, in: 5th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, vol. 1, 2007, pp. 93-98, http://dx.doi. org/10.1109/INDIN.2007.4384737, ISSN 1935-4576.
    • [148] D.G. Holmberg, S.T. Bushby, BACnet® and the Smart grid, ASHRAE.
    • [149] S.H. Hong, S.H. Kim, G.M. Kim, H.L. Kim, in: Experimental evaluation of BZ-GW (BACnet-ZigBee smart grid gateway) for demand response in buildings, Energy 65 (2014) 62-70, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2013. 12.008, ISSN 0360-5442, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0360544213010657.
    • [150] P. Haves, P. Xu, The building controls virtual test bed - a simulation environment for developing and testing control algorithms, strategies and systems, in: Building Simulation '07, Bejing, China, 2007 http://www.ibpsa. org/proceedings/BS2007/p748 final.pdf.
    • [151] T. Nouidui, M. Wetter, Z. Li, X. Pang, P. Bhattacharya, P. Haves, BacNet and analog/digital interfaces of the building controls virtual testbed, in: Building Simulation Conference, 2011.
    • [152] X. Pang, M. Wetter, P. Bhattacharya, P. Haves, in: A framework for simulation-based real-time whole building performance assessment, Build. Environ. 54 (2012) 100-108, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.02. 003, ISSN 0360-1323.
    • [153] Y.-C. Li, S.H. Hong, in: BACnet-EnOcean Smart Grid Gateway and its application to demand response in buildings, Energy Build. 78 (2014) 183-191, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.04.022, ISSN 0378-7788, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378778814003326.
    • [154] A. Krioukov, S. Dawson-Haggerty, L. Lee, O. Rehmane, D. Culler, A living laboratory study in personalized automated lighting controls, in: Proceedings of the Third ACM Workshop on Embedded Sensing Systems for Energy-Efficiency in Buildings, BuildSys '11, ACM, New York, NY, USA, 2011, pp. 1-6, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2434020.2434022, ISBN 978-1-4503-0749-9.
    • [155] M. Mourshed, Interoperability-based optimisation of architectural design, Ph.D. thesis, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland, 2006.
    • [156] U.S. Departmemt of Commerce, NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, 2012, Release 2.0, http://www.nist.gov/ smartgrid/upload/NIST Framework Release 2-0 corr.pdf.
    • [157] Y. Yan, Y. Qian, H. Sharif, D. Tipper, in: A survey on smart grid communication infrastructures: motivations, Requir. Chall. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 15 (1) (2013) 5-20.
    • [158] F. Cleveland, Cyber security issues for advanced metering infrasttructure (AMI), in: 2008 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting - Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, 2008.
    • [159] IEEE, IEEE Standard for Information technology-Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks-Specific requirements. Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, IEEE Std 802. 11-2012 (Revision of IEEE Std 802.11-2007), 2012, pp. 1-2793.
    • [160] IEEE, IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks. Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems Amendment 2: Physical and Medium Access Control Layers for Combined Fixed and Mobile Operation in Licensed Bands and Corrigendum 1, IEEE Std 802.16e-2005 and IEEE Std 802.16-2004/Cor 1-2005 (Amendment and Corrigendum to IEEE Std 802.16-2004), 2006, pp. 1-822.
    • [161] DECC, Domestic Renewable Heat Icentive, 2013 https://www.gov.uk/ government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment data/file/212089/ Domestic RHI policy statement.pdf (accessed 01.10.15).
    • [162] P. Stanislav, K. Bryan, M. Tihomir, Smart grids better with integrated energy system, in: 2009 IEEE Electrical Power Energy Conference (EPEC), 2009, pp. 1-8.
    • [163] M. MacDonald, Appraisal of costs & benefits of smart meter roll out options, Final Report. Report for Department of Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform, London, accessed 17, 2007, pp. 08-11.
    • [164] Y.-J. Wen, J. Granderson, A. Agogino, Towards embedded wireless-networked intelligent daylighting systems for commercial buildings, in: IEEE International Conference on Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous, and Trustworthy Computing 2006, vol. 1, 2006, pp. 1-6.
    • [165] G. Strbac, in: Demand side management: benefits and challenges, Energy Policy 36 (12) (2008) 4419-4426, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2008.09. 030, ISSN 0301-4215.
    • [166] V. Auditor-General, Towards a 'Smart Grid' - The Roll-out of Advanced Metering Infrastructure, Victorian Auditor-General's Office, Melbourne, Australia, 2009, pp. 1-49.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects


Cite this article

Cookies make it easier for us to provide you with our services. With the usage of our services you permit us to use cookies.
More information Ok