Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:

OpenAIRE is about to release its new face with lots of new content and services.
During September, you may notice downtime in services, while some functionalities (e.g. user registration, login, validation, claiming) will be temporarily disabled.
We apologize for the inconvenience, please stay tuned!
For further information please contact helpdesk[at]openaire.eu

fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Brewster, S.A.; Capriotti, A.; Hall, C.V. (1998)
Publisher: Springer
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: QA75, QA76
Previous research on non-speech audio messages called earcons showed that they could provide powerful navigation cues in menu hierarchies. This work used hierarchical earcons. In this paper we suggest compound earcons provide a more flexible method for presenting this information. A set of sounds was created to represent the numbers 0-4 and dot. Sounds could then be created for any node in a hierarchy by concatenating these simple sounds. A hierarchy of four levels and 27 nodes was constructed. An experiment was conducted in which participants had to identify their location in the hierarchy by listening to an earcon. Results showed that participants could identify their location with over 97% accuracy, significantly better than with hierarchical earcons. Participants were also able to recognise previously unheard earcons with over 97% accuracy. These results showed that compound earcons are an effective way of representing hierarchies in sound.

Share - Bookmark

Download from

Cite this article

Cookies make it easier for us to provide you with our services. With the usage of our services you permit us to use cookies.
More information Ok