Subjects: Microbial Pathogens, Research Article, Education, Research Design, Cultural Anthropology, Educational Attainment, Sociology, Infectious Diseases, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Surveys, Geographical Locations, Antenatal Care, Immunodeficiency Viruses, Retroviruses, HIV, Pathogens, People and Places, Demography, Survey Research, Lentivirus, Viruses, Anthropology, Africa, Biology and Life Sciences, Zimbabwe, Research and Analysis Methods, Microbiology, Maternal Health, Religion, Medical Microbiology, Viral Pathogens, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, RNA viruses, Health Surveys, Social Sciences, Women's Health, Organisms, Medicine and Health Sciences
Introduction Zimbabwe has a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden. It is therefore important to scale up HIV-testing and counseling (HTC) as a gateway to HIV prevention, treatment and care. Objective To determine factors associated with being HIV-tested among adult men and women in Zimbabwe. Methods Secondary analysis was done using data from 7,313 women and 6,584 men who completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and provided blood specimens for HIV testing during the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) 2010?11. Factors associated with ever being HIV-tested were determined using multivariate logistic regression. Results HIV-testing was higher among women compared to men (61% versus 39%). HIV-infected respondents were more likely to be tested compared to those who were HIV-negative for both men [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.27?1.84)] and women [AOR = 1.42; 95% CI (1.20?1.69)]. However, only 55% and 74% of these HIV-infected men and women respectively had ever been tested. Among women, visiting antenatal care (ANC) [AOR = 5.48, 95% CI (4.08?7.36)] was the most significant predictor of being tested whilst a novel finding for men was higher odds of testing among those reporting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past 12 months [AOR = 1.86, 95%CI (1.26?2.74)]. Among men, the odds of ever being tested increased with age ?20 years, particularly those 45?49 years [AOR = 4.21; 95% CI (2.74?6.48)] whilst for women testing was highest among those aged 25?29 years [AOR = 2.01; 95% CI (1.63?2.48)]. Other significant factors for both sexes were increasing education level, higher wealth status and currently/formerly being in union. Conclusions There remains a high proportion of undiagnosed HIV-infected persons and hence there is a need for innovative strategies aimed at increasing HIV-testing, particularly for men and in lower-income and lower-educated populations. Promotion of STI services can be an important gateway for testing more men whilst ANC still remains an important option for HIV-testing among pregnant women.