Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: RG
To demonstrate validity, questionnaires should measure the same construct in different groups and across time. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was designed as a unidimensional scale, but factor analyses of the EPDS have been equivocal, and demonstrate other structures: this may be because of sample characteristics and timing of administration. We aimed to examine the factor structure of the EPDS in pregnancy and postpartum at 4 time-points in a large population-based sample. We carried out exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children sample (n = 11,195–12,166) randomly split in 2. We used data from 18 and 32 weeks pregnancy gestation; and 8 weeks and 8 months postpartum. A 3-factor solution was optimal at all time-points, showing the clearest factor structure and best model fit: Depression (4 items) accounted for 43.5–47.2% of the variance; anhedonia (2 items) 10.5–11.1%; and anxiety (3 items) 8.3–9.4% of the variance. Internal reliability of subscales was good at all time points (Cronbach’s αs: .73–.78). The EPDS appears to measure 3 related factors of depression, anhedonia, and anxiety and has a stable structure in pregnancy and the first postnatal year.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Adouard, F., Glangeaud-Freudenthal, N.M., & Golse, B. (2005). Validation of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) in a sample of women with high-risk pregnancies in France. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 8(2), 89-95. doi: 10.1007/s00737-005-0077-9
    • Agampodi, S.B., & Agampodi, T.C. (2013). Antenatal depression in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka and the factor structure of the Sinhalese version of Edinburgh Post-Partum Depression Scale among Pregnant Women. PLoS One. 8(7) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069708
    • Bowen, A., Bowen, R., Maslany, G., & Muhajarina, N. (2008). Anxiety in a socially-high-risk sample of pregnant women in Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 53, 435-440
    • Boyd, A., Golding, J., Macleod, J., Lawlor, D.A., Fraser, A., Henderson, J., … Davey Smith, G. (2013). Cohort Profile: the 'children of the 90s'--the index offspring of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. International Journal of Epidemiology, 42(1), 111-27. doi: 10.1093/ije/dys064.
    • Brouwers, E.P.M., van Baar, A.L., & Pop, V.J.M. (2001). Does the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale measure anxiety? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 51, 659-663. doi: 10.1016/S0022-3999(01)00245-8
    • Brown, T.A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
    • Burnham, K. P., & Anderson, D.R. (2002). Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: a practical information-theoretic approach (2nd ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag.
    • Byrne, B.M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with Amos: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
    • Carlson, M., Wilcox, R., Chou, C.P., Chang, M., Yang, F., Blanchard, J.,…Clark, F. (2011). Psychometric properties of reverse-scored items on the CES-D in a sample of ethnically diverse older adults. Psychological Assessment, 23, 558-562. doi: 10.1037/a0022484.
    • Cattell, R. B. (1966). The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1, 245-276.
    • Chabrol, H., & Teissedre, F. (2004). Relation between Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores at 2-3 days and 4-6 weeks postpartum. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 22(1), 33-39. doi: 10.1080/02646830310001643067
    • Cheung, G.W., & Rensvold, R.B. (2002). Evaluating Goodness-of-Fit Indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modelling, 9(2), 233-255. Retrieved from: http://dns2.asia.edu.tw/~ysho/YSHOEnglish/1000%20China%20(Independent)/PDF/Str%20Equ%20Mod9,%20233.pdf
    • Clark, L.A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(3), 316-36. Retrieved from: https://ccbt.solutions/articles/tripartite-model-1991.pdf Comrey, A.L, & Lee, H.B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis. Hillsdale, N.J: Erlsbaum.
    • Costello, A.B., & Osborne, J.W. (2015). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 10(7). doi:
    • Cox, J.L., Holden, J.M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 782-786.
    • Cunningham, N.K., Brown, P.M., & Page, A.C. (2015). Does the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale measure the same constructs across time? Archives of Women's Mental Health, 18(6), 793-804. doi: 10.1007/s00737-014-0485-9
    • Davidson, K.W., Burg, M.M., Kronish, I.M., Shimbo, D., Dettenborn, L., Mehran, R.,… Reickmann, N. (2010). Association of anhedonia with recurrent major adverse cardiac events and mortality 1 year after acute coronary syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(5), 480-488. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.36.
    • Dennis, C.L., & Hodnett, E. (2007). Psychosocial and psychological interventions for treating postpartum depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2007 (4).
    • Dunbar, M., Ford, G., Hunt, K., & Der, G. (2000). Question wording effects in the assessment of global self-esteem, European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 16(1), 13-19. doi:10.1027//1015-5759.16.1.13
    • Fraser, A., Macdonald-Wallis, C., Tilling, K., Boyd, A., Golding, J., Davey Smith, G.,… Lawlor, D.A. (2013). Cohort Profile: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: ALSPAC mothers cohort. International Journal of Epidemiology, 42(1), 97-110. doi: 10.1093/ije/dys066
    • Gavin, N.I., Gaynes, B.N., Lohr, K.N., Meltzer-Brody, S., Gartlehner, G., & Swinson. T. (2005). Perinatal depression: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 106, 1071-83. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000183597.31630.db
    • Gibson, J., McKenzie-McHarg, K., Shakespeare, J., Price, J., & Gray, R. (2009). A systematic review of studies validating the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in antepartum and postpartum women. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 119, 350-364. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2009.01363.x
    • Goodchild, C.E., Treharne, G.T., Platts, R.G., & Booth, D.A. (2005). Excessive negative affect and deficient positive affect in anxiety and depression: balancing the valences in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Health Psychology Update, 14(2), 45-50.
    • Green, J. (1998). Postnatal depression or perinatal dysphoria? Findings from a longitudinal community-based study using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 16, 143-155. doi:10.1080/02646839808404565
    • Green, S.B., Akey, T.M., Fleming, K.K., Hershberger, S.L., & Marquis, J.G. (1997). Effect of the number of scale points on chi-square fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis. Structural Equation Modeling, 4, 108-120. doi: 10.1080/10705519709540064
    • Guedeney, N., & Fermanian, J. (1998). Validation study of the French version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): new results about use and psychometric properties. European Psychiatry, 13(2), 83-9. doi: 10.1016/S0924-9338(98)80023-0.
    • Hartley, C.M., Barroso, N., Rey, Y., Pettit, J.W., & Bagner, D.M. (2014). Factor structure and psychometric properties of English and Spanish versions of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale among Hispanic women in a primary care setting. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(12), 1240-50. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22101
    • Heron, J., O'Connor, T.G., Evans, J., Golding, J., & Glover, V. (2004). The course of anxiety and depression through pregnancy and the postpartum in a community sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 80 (1), 65 - 73. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2003.08.004
    • Hewitt, C., Gilbody, S., Brealey, S., Paulden, M., Palmer, S., Mann, R.,… Richards, D. (2009). Methods to identify postnatal depression in primary care: an integrated evidence synthesis and value of information analysis. Health Technology Assessment, 36, 1-145, 147-230. doi: 10.3310/hta13360.
    • Jomeen, J., & Martin, C.R. (2005). Confirmation of an occluded anxiety component within the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during pregnancy. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 23, 143-154. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.02.018
    • Jomeen, J., & Martin, C.R. (2007). Replicability and stability of the multidimensional model of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in late pregnancy. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 14, 319-324. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2007.01084.x
    • Kaiser, H.F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 141-151. doi.org/10.1177/001316446002000116
    • Kline, R.B. (2005). Principles and practices of structural equation modelling. New York: Guilford Press.
    • Kubota, C., Okada, T., Aleksic, B., Nakamura, Y., Kunimoto, S., Morikawa, M., … Ozaki, N. (2014). Factor structure of the Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in the postpartum period. PLoS One. 9(8). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103941.
    • Kwan, R., Bautista, D., Choo, R., Shirong, C., Chee, C., Mei Saw, S., … Chen, H. (2015). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a measure for antenatal dysphoria. Journal of Repoductive and Infant Psychology, 33(1), 28-41. doi:10.1080/02646838.2014.949642
    • Lee King, P.A. (2012). Replicability of structural models of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in a community sample of postpartum African American women with low socio-economic status. Archives of Womens Mental Health, 15(2), 77-86.doi: 10.1007/s00737-012- 0260-8
    • Lindahl, V., Pearson, J.L.,& Colpe, L. (2005). Prevalence of suicidality during pregnancy and the postpartum. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 8, 77-87.doi: 10.1007/s00737-005-0080-1
    • Manian, N., Schmidt, E., Bornstein, M.H., & Martinez, P. (2013). Factor structure and clinical utility of BDI-II factor scores in postpartum women. Journal of Affective Disorders, 149, 259- 268. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.01.039
    • Marsh, H.W., Hau, K.-T., Balla, J.R., & Grayson, D. (1998) Is more ever too much? The number of indicators per factor in confirmatory factor analysis. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 33, 2, 181-220. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr3302_1
    • Matthey, S. (2008). Using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale to screen for anxiety disorders. Depression and Anxiety, 25,926-931.doi: 10.1002/da.20415
    • Matthey, S., Fisher, J., & Rowe, H. (2012). Using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale to screen for anxiety disorders: Conceptual and methodological considerations. Journal of Affective Disorders, 146 (2), 224-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.09.009.
    • Meredith, W. (1993). Measurement invariance, factor analysis and factorial invariance. Psychometrika, 58, 525-543. doi:10.1007/BF02294825
    • Milfont, R., & Fischer, R. (2010). Testing measurement invariance across groups: Applications in cross-cultural research. International Journal of Psychological Research, 3, 112-131. Retrieved from: https://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/3296462.pdf
    • Milgrom, J., & Gemmill, A. (2014). Screening for perinatal depression. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 28, 13-23.doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.08.014
    • Mook, J., Kleijn, W. C., & Van der Ploeg, H. M. (1991). Symptom-positively and -negatively worded items in two popular self-report inventories of anxiety and depression. Psychological Reports, 69 (2), 551-560. Retrieved from: http://prx.sagepub.com/content/69/2/551.full.pdf
    • Murray, L., & Carothers, A.D. (1990) The validation of the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale on a community sample. British Journal of Psychiatry. 157, 288-90. doi: 10.1192/bjp.157.2.288
    • Phillips, J., Sharpe, L., Matthey, S., & Charles, M. (2009). Maternally focussed worry. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 12(6), 409-18. doi: 10.1007/s00737-009-0091-4
    • Preacher, K.J., & MacCallum, R.C. (2003). Repairing Tom Swift's electric factor analysis machine. Understanding Statistics, 2(1), 13-43. Retrieved from: http://www.quantpsy.org/pubs/preacher_maccallum_2003.pdf
    • Pop, V.J., Komproe, I.H., & van Son, M.J. (1992). Characteristics of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in The Netherlands. Journal Affective Disorders, 26(2), 105-10. doi: 10.1016/0165- 0327(92)90041-4
    • Reichenheim, M. E., Moraes, C.L., Oliveira, A.S.D., & Lobato, G. (2011). Revisiting the dimensional structure of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): empirical evidence for a general factor. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11, 93. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-11-93
    • Ross, L.E., Evans, S.E.G., Sellers, E.M., & Romach, M.K. (2003). Measurement issues in postpartum depression 1: anxiety as a feature of postpartum depression. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 6, 51-57. doi: 10.1007/s00737-002-0155-1
    • Small, R., Lumley, J., Yelland, J., & Brown, S. (2007). The performance of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in English speaking and non-English speaking populations in Australia. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42 (1), 70-8. doi: 10.1007/s00127-006-0134-3
    • Streiner, D.L. (1994) Figuring out factors: The use and misuse of factor analysis. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 135-140. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/15166264_Figuring_out_factors_The_use_and_misuse_of_f actor_analysis
    • Swalm, D., Brooks, J., Doherty, D., Nathan, E., & Jacques, A. (2010). Using the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale to screen for perinatal anxiety. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 13 (6), 515-522. doi: 10.1007/s00737-010-0170-6.
    • Tomas, J. M., & Oliver, A. (1999). Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale: Two factors or method effects. Structural Equation Modeling, 6 (1), 84-98. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540120
    • Toreki, A., Andó, B., Keresztúri, A., Sikovanyecz, J., Dudas, R.B., Janka, Z., … Pal, A. (2013). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: Translation and antepartum validation for a Hungarian sample. Midwifery, 29, 308-315. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2012.01.011
    • Truijens, S.E.M., Meems, M., Kuppens, S.M.I., Broeren, M.A.C., Nabbe, K.C.A.M., Wijnen, H.A…. Pop, V.J.M. (2014). The HAPPY study (Holistic Approach to Pregnancy and the first Postpartum Year): design of a large prospective cohort study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 14: 312. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-14-312
    • Tuohy, A., & McVey, C. (2008). Subscales measuring symptoms of non-specific depression, anhedonia, and anxiety in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47, 153-169. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8260.2008.tb00463.x
    • Velicer, W.F., & Jackson, D.N. (1990). Component analysis versus common factor analysis: some issues in selecting an appropriate procedure. Multivariate Behavioural Research, 25(1), 1-28. Retrieved from: http://www.ophi.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Velicer-Jackson-1990.pdf
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Download from

Cite this article