LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: Elsevier
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: psyc
It has been claimed that verbal short-term memory in Williams syndrome is characterised by an over-use of phonological coding alongside a reduced contribution of lexical semantics. We critically examine this hypothesis and present results from a memory span task comparing performance on concrete and abstract words, together with a replication of a span task using phonologically similar and phonologically dissimilar words. Fourteen participants with Williams syndrome were individually matched to two groups of typically developing children. The first control group was matched on digit span and the second on vocabulary level. Significant effects were found for both the semantic and the phonological variables in the WS group as well as in the control groups, with no interaction between experimental variable and group in either experiment. The results demonstrate that, despite claims to the contrary, children and adults with WS are able to access and make use of lexical semantics in a verbal short-term memory task in a manner comparable to typically developing individuals.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • ARNOLD R, YULE W and MARTIN N. The psychological characteristics of infantile hypercalcaemia: A preliminary investigation. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 27: 49-59, 1985.
    • BADDELEY AD and HITCH GJ. Working memory. In G Bower (Ed), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation (Vol. 47-89). New York: Academic Press, 1974.
    • BARISNIKOV K, VAN DER LINDEN M and PONCELET M. Acquisition of new words and phonological working memory in Williams Syndrome: A case study. Neurocase, 2: 395-404, 1996.
    • BELLUGI U, BIHRLE A, JERNIGAN T, TRAUNER D and DOHERTY S. Neuropsychological, neurological and neuroanatomical profile of Williams syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Supplement, 6: 115-125, 1990.
    • BELLUGI U, MARKS S, BIHRLE AM and SABO H. Dissociation between language and cognitive functions in Williams syndrome. In D Bishop and K Mogford (Eds), Language Development in Exceptional Circumstances. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1988, pp. 177-189.
    • BISHOP DVM. An innate basis for language? Science, 286: 2283- 2284, 1999.
    • BREEDIN SD, SAFFRAN EM and COSLETT H. Reversal of the concreteness effect in a patient with semantic dementia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 11: 617-660, 1994.
    • BROCK J, BOUCHER, J, MCCORMACK T and BROWN GDA. Serial and free recall in Williams syndrome. Paper presented at the Second UK Williams Syndrome Workshop, London, 8 March, 2002.
    • CAPIRCI O, SABBADINI L and VOLTERRA V. Language development in Williams syndrome: A case study. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 13: 1017-1039, 1996.
    • COWAN N, KELLER TA, HULME C, ROODENRYS S, MCDOUGALL S and RACK J. Verbal memory span in children: Speech timing clues to the mechanisms underlying age and word length effects. Journal of Memory and Language, 33: 234-250, 1994.
    • DONNAI D and KARMILOFF-SMITH A. Williams syndrome: From genotype through to the cognitive phenotype. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Semin. Med. Genet.), 97: 164- 171, 2002.
    • DUNN LM and DUNN LM. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised. Minnesota: American Guidance Service, 1981.
    • DUNN LM, DUNN LM, WHETTON C and BURLEY J. The British Picture Vocabulary Scale (2nd Edition). Windsor UK: NFERNelson, 1997.
    • ELLIOTT, CD, SMITH P and MCCULLOCH K. British Ability Scales II. Windsor: NFER-Nelson, 1996.
    • EWART AK, MORRIS CA, ATKINSON D, JIN W, STERNES K, SPALLONE P, DEAN STOCK A, LEPPERT M and KEATING MT. Hemizygosity at the elastin locus in a developmental disorder, Williams syndrome. Nature Genetics, 5: 11-16, 1993.
    • FRANGISKAKIS JM, EWART AK, MORRIS CA, MERVIS CB, BERTRAND J, ROBINSON BF, KLEIN BP, ENSING GJ, EVERETT LA, GREEN ED, PROSCHEL C, GUTOWSKI NJ, NOBLE M, ATKINSON DL, ODELBERG SJ and KEATING MT. LIM-kinase 1 hemizygosity implicated in impaired visuospatial constructive cognition. Cell, 86: 56-69, 1996.
    • GALABURDA, AM, WANG PP, BELLUGI U and ROSSEN M. Cytoarchitectonic anomalies in a genetically based disorder: Williams syndrome. Neuroreport, 5: 753-757, 1994.
    • GATHERCOLE S. Is nonword repetition a test of phonological memory or long-term knowledge - it all depends on the nonwords. Memory and Cognition, 23: 83-94, 1995 GOPNIK A and MELZOFF AN. The development of categorization in the second year and its relation to other cognitive and linguistic developments. Child Development, 58: 1523-1531, 1987.
    • GRANT J, KARMILOFF-SMITH A, GATHERCOLE S, PATERSON S, HOWLIN P, DAVIES M and UDWIN O. Phonological short-term memory and its relationship to language in Williams syndrome, Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 2: 81-99, 1997.
    • HULME C. MAUGHAN S., and BROWN GDA. Memory for familiar and unfamiliar words: Evidence for a long-term memory contribution to short-term memory span. Journal of Memory and Language, 30: 685-701, 1991.
    • HULME C, NEWTON P, COWAN N, STUART G and BROWN G. Think before you speak: Pauses, memory search, and trace redintegration processes in verbal memory span. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 25: 447-463, 1999.
    • HULME C, ROODENRYS S, BROWN G and MERCER R. The role of long-term memory mechanisms in memory span. British Journal of Psychology, 86: 527-536, 1995.
    • HULME C, ROODENRYS S, SCHWEICKERT R, BROWN GDA, MARTIN S and STUART G. Word frequency effects on short-term memory tasks: Evidence for a redintegration process in immediate serial recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 23: 241-253, 1997.
    • HULME C, THOMSON N, MUIR C and LAWRENCE A. Speech rate and the development of short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 38: 241-253, 1983.
    • HULME C, THOMSON N, MUIR C and LAWRENCE AL. Speech rate and the development of short-term memory span. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 38: 241-253, 1984.
    • JAMES CT. The role of semantic information in lexical decisions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1: 130-136, 1975.
    • JARROLD C, BADDELEY AD and HEWES AK. Genetically dissociated components of working memory: eEvidence from Down's and Williams syndrome. Neuropsychologia, 37: 637- 651, 1999.
    • JERNIGAN TL, BELLUGI U, SOWELL E, DOHERTY S and HESSELINK JR. Cerebral morphological distinctions between Williams and Downs syndromes. Archives of Neurology, 50: 186-191, 1993.
    • KARMILOFF-SMITH A. Development itself is the key to understanding developmental disorders. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2: 389-398, 1998.
    • KARMILOFF-SMITH A, BROWN JH, GRICE S and PATERSON S. Dethroning the myth: Cognitive dissociations and innate modularity in Williams syndrome. Developmental Neuropsychology, 23: 229-244, 2003.
    • KARMILOFF-SMITH A, GRANT J, BERTHOUD I, DAVIS M, HOWLIN P and UDWIN O. Language and Williams syndrome: How intact is “intact”? Child Development, 68: 246-262, 1997.
    • LAING E, BUTTERWORTH G, ANSARI D, GSODL M, LONGHI E, PANAGIOTAKI G, PATERSON S and KARMILOFF-SMITH A. Atypical development of language and social communication in toddlers with Williams syndrome. Developmental Science, 5: 233-246, 2002.
    • LAING E, HULME C, GRANT J and KARMILOFF-SMITH A. Learning to read in Williams Syndrome: Looking beneath the surface of atypical reading development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42: 729-739, 2001.
    • LEITER RG. Leiter International Performance Scale, Revised. Chicago: Stoelting and Co., 1979.
    • MAJERUS S, PALMISANO I, VAN DER LINDEN M, BARISNIKOV K and PONCELET M. An investigation of phonological processing in Williams syndrome. Journal of the International Society, 7: 153, 2001.
    • MCRAE K, DE SA V and SEIDENBERG MS. On the nature and scope of featural representations of word meaning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 126: 99-130, 1997.
    • MERVIS CB and BERTRAND J. Developmental relations between cognition and language: Evidence from Williams syndrome. In LB Adamson and MA Romski (Eds), Research on Communication and Language Disorders: Contributions to Theories of Language Development. New York: Brookes, 1997, pp. 75-106.
    • MERVIS CB, MORRIS CA, BERTRAND J and ROBINSON BF. Williams Syndrome: Findings from an integrated program of research. In H Tager-Flusberg (Ed), Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Cambridge, MA: Bradford/MIT Press, 1999, pp. 65-110.
    • NATION K, ADAMS JW, BOWYER-CRANE C and SNOWLING M. Working memory deficits in poor comprehenders reflect underlying language impairments. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 73: 139-158, 1999.
    • PEZZINI G, VICARI S, VOLTERRA V, MILANI L and OSSELLA MT. Children with Williams syndrome: Is there a single neuropsychological profile? Developmental Neuropsychology, 15: 141-155, 1999.
    • PLAUT DC and SHALLICE T. Deep Dyslexia: A case study of connectionist neuropsychology. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 10: 377-500, 1993.
    • QUINLAN PT. The Oxford Psycholinguistic Database. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
    • RAE C, KARMILOFF-SMITH A, LEE MA, DIXON RM, GRANT J, BLAMIRE AM, THOMPSON CH, STYLES P and RADDA GK. Brain biochemistry in Williams syndrome. Neurology, 51: 33-40, 1998.
    • ROSSEN M, BIHRLE A, KLIMA ES, BELLUGI U and JONES W. Interaction between language and cognition: Evidence from Williams syndrome. In JH Beitchmen, N Cohen, M Konstantareas and R Tannock (Eds), Language Learning and Behaviour. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 367-392.
    • SCHWNENFLUGEL PJ and SHOBEN EJ. Differential context effects in the comprehension of abstract and concrete verbal materials. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 9: 82-102, 1983.
    • SINGER-HARRIS NG, BELLUGI U, BATES E, JONES W, and ROSSEN M. Contrasting profiles of language development in children with Williams and Ddowns syndromes. Developmental Neuropsychology, 13: 345-370, 1997.
    • SNOWLING MJ, CHIAT S and HULME C. Words, nonwords and phonological processes: Some comments on Gathercole, Willis, Emslie and Baddeley. Applied Psycholinguistics, 12: 489-373, 1991.
    • STEVENS T and KARMILOFF-SMITH A. Word learning in a special population: Do individuals with Williams syndrome obey lexical constraints? Journal of Child Language, 24: 737-765, 1997.
    • STRAIN E, PATTERSON K and SEIDENBERG M. Semantic effects in single-word naming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 21: 1140-1154, 1995.
    • TASSABEHJI M, METCALFE K, FERGUSSON WD, CARETTE MJA, DORE JK, DONNAI D, READ AP, PROSCHEL C, GUTOWSKI NJ, MAO X and SHEER D. LIM-kinase deleted in Williams Syndrome. Nature Genetics, 13: 272-273, 1996.
    • TEMPLE C, ALMAZAN M and SHERWOOD S. Lexical skills in Williams Syndrome: a cognitive neuropsychological analysis. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 15: 463-495, 2002.
    • THOMAS MSC, DOCKRELL JE, VAN DUUREN M, MESSER D, PARMIGIANI C and KARMILOFF-SMITH A. The development of lexical-semantics in Williams syndrome. Joint Conference of the IX International Congress for the Study of Child Language and the Symposium on Research in Child Language Disorders, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA, July 2002.
    • THOMAS MSC and KARMILOFF-SMITH A. Modelling language acquisition in atypical phenotypes. Psychological Review, 110: 647-682, 2003.
    • TYLER LK, KARMILOFF-SMITH A, VOICE K, STEVENS T, GRANT J, UDWIN O, DAVIES M and HOWLIN P. Do people with Williams syndrome have bizarre semantics? A primed monitoring study. Cortex, 33: 515-527, 1997.
    • UDWIN O and DENNIS J. Williams Syndrome. In O'Brian G and Yule W (Eds), Clinics in Developmental Medicine No. 128, Behavioral Phenotypes. London: Mackeith Press, 1995, pp. 201-204.
    • UDWIN O and YULE W. Expressive language of children with Williams syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Suppl.), 6: 108-114, 1990.
    • VALLAR G and PAPAGNO C. Neuropsychological impairments of verbal short-term memory. In A Baddeley, B Wilson, M Kopelman (Eds), Handbook of Memory Disorders. Edition 2. Chichester, England: Wiley, 2002, pp. 249-270.
    • VICARI S, BRIZZOLARA D, CARLESIMO G, PEZZINI G and VOLTERRA V. Memory abilities in children with Williams syndrome. Cortex, 32: 503-514, 1996a.
    • VICARI S, CARLESIMO G, BRIZZOLARA D and PEZZINI G. Short-term memory in children with Williams syndrome: A reduced contribution of lexical-semantic knowledge to word span. Neuropsychologia, 34: 919-925, 1996b.
    • WALKER I and HULME C. Concrete words are easier to recall than abstract words: Evidence for a semantic contribution to shortterm serial recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 25: 1256-1271, 1999.
    • WANG PP and BELLUGI U. Evidence from two genetic syndromes for a dissociation between verbal and visual-spatial shortterm memory. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 16: 317-322, 1994.
    • WEISS S and RAPPELSBERGER P. EEG coherence within the 13-15 Hz band as a correlate of a distinct lexical organisation of concrete and abstract nouns in humans. Neuroscience Letters, 209: 17-20, 1996.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article