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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: Motilal Banarsidas
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
Subjects: 1500, 1000, 8570
The article investigates the effective history of the ideas of the 15th century Svetambara Jaina lay reformer Lonka, who is regarded as the founder of the aniconic or 'protestant' Jaina tradition. The article delimits the scope of Lonks's influence on the still existing but ignored Lonkagaccha tradition, which has lost all memory of its own past and on the aniconic Sthanakavasi and Terapanth traditions. Lonka's life and work is almost entirely unknown. This is partly due to the deliberate suppression of his ideas by his opponents, and partly because of the competitive appropriation of his legacy by the aniconic Sthanakavasi and Terapanth Jaina traditions. Informed by Jan Assmann's theory of the cultural unconscious, the article critically reviews the available sources on Lonka and the Lonkagaccha, focusing on processes of canonisation and repression of memory, and on techniques of selective citation and re-combination of transmitted elements of the Jain tradition through which authority was claimed both by Lonka and his successors and by modern Jain authors who tried to establish Lonka as an ancestral figure for competing factions of the aniconic Jaina tradition. The article is in two parts. First, the ways in which the teachings of Lonka and the Lonkagaccha tradition are depicted in modern Jaina historiographic literature is explored, and how the scant information on Lonka was compiled and redacted by different interested parties, and then some of the texts which were attributed to Lonka himself by D.D. Malvaniya are translated and analysed.
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    • A = Loïkejī kī Huõóī, of Loïkā [?]. (Reportedly based on a Rājasthānī Ms. of Saüvat 1830 in the Rūpacanda Rāmacanda Upāśraya, Jaitāraõa.) With a dohā-style commentary of Gulābcand (Luõiyā?), written in Jaypur in 1926. Published in Caudharī 1936?: 338-430. A corrupted version of the Rājasthānī root text has been published under the title Ath Huõóī Lūïkārī Likhyate in Āñcaliyā 1937: 120-128.
    • AB = Asūtranirākaraõ Batrīśī, of the Mūrtipūjaka Muni Bīkā. Ca. Saüvat 1527 (1470/1). Published in Jñānsundar 1936, Appendix 1, pp. 230- 233; Koñhārī 2001: 500-503.
    • ALJ = Ath Loïkāśāh nuü Jīvan, of the Tapāgaccha Muni Kāntivijaya. Written in Pāñaõ in Saüvat 1636 (1579/60). Published in Maõilāl 1934: 161f.; Hastīmal 1995: 752-759.
    • DC = Dayādharma Caupāī, of the Lauükāgacchīya Yati Bhānucandra. Saüvat 1587 (1521/22). Published in Jñānsundar 1936, Appendix 2, pp. 234-237.
    • DVS = Dasaveyāliya (Daśavaikālika Sūtra), of Ārya Sayyaübhava. Edited by Ernst Leumann. And translated, with introduction and notes, by Walther Schubring. Ahmedabad: The Managers of the Sheth Anandji Kalianji, 1932. (Reprinted in: Kleine Schriften (ed. Klaus Bruhn): 109-248. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1977.) - Arya Sayyanbhava's Daśavaikālika Sūtra. Translation and Notes by Kastur Chand Lalwani. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1973.
    • J = Jinacariya. Translated by Hermann Jacobi as Lives of the Jinas. In: Sacred Books of the East, 22 (1884): 217-285.
    • K = Keha nī Paramparā Chaī?, of Loïkā [?]. Ms. No. 2989, L.D. Institute, Ahmedabad. A Hindī variation is published in Jeñhmal 1930: 14f. The original is published in: Mālvaõiyā 1963a: 80-82; Vārīā 1976: 127-130 with a Gujarātī translation; Hastīmal 1995: 691-693; reprinted in Jain & Kumār 2003: 537-539, with a Hindī translation pp. 118- 120.
    • KS = “Kaóuā-Mat kī Sāmācārī”, on the basis of Śāh Kalyāõavijaya's Kañukamat Paññāvalī. Saüvat 1684 (1628/9). Translated by Dundas 1999: 21f. A slightly different extract was published by Muni Jñānsundar (1936: 326-336) under the title Kaóuā-Mat Paññāvalī kā Sār.
    • L = Luïkā nā Añhāvana Bolo, of Loïkā [?]. Ms. No. 2989, L.D. Institute, Ahmedabad. See also Mss. No. 19224 and 19225, Oriental Institute, Baroda; Ms. Rājagranthāsāra, Prācya Vidyāpīñha, Śāhajāpura (photographic reproduction in: Jain & Kumār 2003, Pariśiùña). Ms. No. 2989, L.D. Institute, published by Mālvaõiyā 1963a: 52-82; Vārīā 1976: 1-127, with a Gujarātī translation; Hastīmal 1995: 655-691; reprinted in Jain & Kumār 2003: 403-537 with a Hindī summary pp. 124-139.
    • LH = Luïkā nī Huõóī Cauütīs Bol, of Loïkā [?]. Ms. No. 4121, L.D. Institute, Ahmedabad. Extract (Loïkāśāh ke Cauütīs Bol) in Hastīmal, 1995: 648-655; reprinted in Jain & Kumār 2003: 499-503, with a Hindī summary pp. 120-123.
    • LN = “Loïkā's Niyamāvali”. In Gulābcand Nāncand Señh 1970: 703f.
    • LP = Loïkāgacchīya Paññāvalī (Bābu Puraõcandjī Nahār no Bhaõóār). In Koñhārī 2001: 405-407. (First published in the Jain Śvetāmbara Conference Herald, April-June 1918, 169-171).
    • LS = Loïkāgaccha kī Sāmācārī. In Candanākumārī 1964: 102.
    • LTC = Luïkā nū 13 nī Carcā, of Pārśvacandrasūri of the Pārśvacandragaccha. Ca. 16th century CE. Mss. No. 24466, 30565, L.D. Institute, Ahmedabad. Extract (Luïkāe Pūchela 13 Praśna ane tenā Uttaro) in Hastīmal 1995: 694f.; reprinted in: Jain & Kumār 2003: 439-441, with a Hindī translation pp. 115-117.
    • PB = Paiütīs Bol, of the Mūrtipūjaka Ācārya Ānandvīmalsūri. Saüvat 1583 (1526/7). Published in Hastīmal 1995: 582-584.
    • PP = Pravacanaparīkùā, of Upādhyāya Dharmasāgara, 1572/3. Surat: èùabhadeva Keśaramalajī Śvetāmbara Saüstha, 1937.
    • SC = Siddhānta Caupāī, of the Mūrtipūjaka Muni Lāvaõyasamaya. Saüvat 1543 Kārtik śukla aùñamī (5.11.1486/7). Published in Jñānsundar 1936, Appendix 1, pp. 209-227; Koñhārī 2001: 486-499.
    • SS = Siddhānta Sāroddhāra [Caupāī], of the Kharataragaccha Upādhyāy Śrī Kamalsaüyam. Saüvat 1544 [1487]. Published in Jñānsundar 1936, Appendix 1, pp. 228f; Koñhārī 2001: 499-500.
    • Sūy = Sūyagaóa (Sūtrakçtāïga Sūtra). Translated by Hermann Jacobi. In: Sacred Books of the East, 45 (1895): 233-435.
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