LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Silva, S. Inácia S. e.; Bowdler, P.; Giltrow, D.; Riddell, S.; Honeychurch, K. C. (2016)
Publisher: Wiley
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects:
Identifiers:doi:10.1002/dta.1822
This is the first report on the determination of nicotine in third-hand smoke (THS) in outdoor communal areas. THS can be defined as the contamination of surfaces by second-hand smoke. This can remain for periods of time and undergo further chemical reactions to produce further pollutants which can be re-suspended in dust or re-emitted into the gas phase. As THS is a rather complex mixture studies have focused on using nicotine as a marker of THS, as it is the most abundant organic compound emitted during smoking. In this present study, the extraction of dust wipe samples and the subsequent chromatographic conditions required for the separation of nicotine by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography were optimised. The optimum chromatographic conditions were identified as a 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm Zorbax Carbohydrate Analysis column with a mobile phase consisting of 90 % acetonitrile, 10 % water at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 259 nm. Further investigations were made on samples collected from surfaces of public entrance ways. Under these conditions, a linear range for nicotine of 0.05 to 24 µg/mL (1.0 ng – 480 ng on column) was obtained, with a detection limit of 1.0 ng on column based on a signal-to-noise ratio of three. Acetone, naphthalene, phenol, musk ketone and palmitic acid were found not to interfere. Entrances were found to be contaminated with THS nicotine between 5.09 µg/m2 and 309 µg/m2 notably higher than that found in studies of indoor environments.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] K. Bell, Science, Policy and the Rise of 'Thirdhand Smoke' As a Public Health Issue, Health Risk Soc. 2014, 16, 154.
    • C. Ballantyne, What is third-hand smoke? Is it hazardous? Researchers warn cigarette dangers may be even more far-reaching Scientific American, Jan 6, 2009. Available: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-is-third-hand-smoke/ [Accessed 17/7/14] A. Burton, Does the Smoke Ever Really Clear? Thirdhand Smoke Exposure Raises New Concerns, Environ. Health Perspect. 2011, 119, A70.
    • Martins-Green, J.F. Pankow, M.F. Hovell, Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke: Emerging Evidence and Arguments for a Multidisciplinary Research Agenda, Environ. Health Perspect. 2011, 119, 1218.
    • L. Petrick, H. Destaillats, I. Zouev, S. Sabach, Y. Dubowski, Sorption, desorption, and surface oxidative fate of nicotine, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2010, 12, 10356.
    • M. Martins-Green, N. Adhami, M. Frankos, M. Valdez, B. Goodwin, J. Lyubovitsky, S. Dhall, M. Garcia, I. Egiebor, B. Martinez, H.W. Green, C. Havel, L. Yu, S. Liles, G. Matt, H. Destaillats, M. Sleiman, L.A. Gundel, N. Benowitz, P. Jacob III, M. Hovell, J.P. Winickoff, M. CurrasCollazo, Cigarette Smoke Toxins Deposited on Surfaces: Implications for Human Health, PLoS ONE, 2014, 9, e86391.
    • M. Sleiman, L.A. Gundel, J.F. Pankow, P. Jacob, B.C. Singer, H. Destaillats, Formation of carcinogens indoors by surface-mediated reactions of nicotine with nitrous acid, leading to potential thirdhand smoke hazards. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2010, 107, 6576.
    • V.K. Rehan, R. Sakurai, J.S. Torday, Thirdhand smoke: a new dimension to the effects of cigarette smoke on the developing lung. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 2011, 301, L1.
    • P.J.E. Quintana, G.E. Matt, D. Chatfield, J.M. Zakarian, A.L. Fortmann, E. Hoh, Wipe Sampling for Nicotine as a Marker of Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke Contamination on Surfaces in Homes, Cars, and Hotels, Nicotine Tob. Res. 2013, 15, 1555.
    • Chenna, D. Sharan, M. Sleiman, H. Destaillats, L.A. Gundel, Thirdhand smoke causes DNA damage in human cells, Mutagenesis 2013, pp. 1-11.
    • T.A. Merritt, J. Mazela, A. Adamczak, T. Merritt, The impact of second-hand tobacco smoke exposure on pregnancy outcomes, infant health, and the threat of third-hand smoke exposure to our environment and to our children, Przegl. Lek. 2012, 69, 717.
    • C. Protano, R. Andreoli, P. Manini, M. Vitali, How home-smoking habits affect children: a cross-sectional study using urinary cotinine measurement in Italy, Int. J. Public Health, 2012, 57, 885.
    • G.N. Lucas, Third-hand smoke and children, Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health, 2011, 40, 87.
    • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans - tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking, vol. 83.
    • Available: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol83/volume83.pdf, 2004.
    • [Accessed: 17/7/14].
    • Biomed. Anal. 2004, 35, 155-168.
    • Hazard. Mater. 1995, 43, 13-30.
    • Chem. Commun. 2007, 72, 1207-1213 R. Dawson, Jr, S.M. Messina, C. Stokes, S. Salyani, N. Alcalay, N.C. de Fiebre, C.M. de Fiebre, Solid-Phase Extraction and HPLC Assay of Nicotine and Cotinine In Plasma and Brain, Toxicol.
    • Mech. Meth. 2002, 12, 45-58.
    • G.N. Mahoney, W. Al-Delaimy, Measurement of nicotine in hair by reversed-phase highperformance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. J. Chromatogr. B Biomed. Sci. Appl. 2001, 753, 179-187.
    • D.V. McCalley, The challenges of the analysis of basic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography: Some possible approaches for improved separations, J. Chromatogr. A 2010, 1217, 858.
    • B. Buszewski, S. Noga, Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)-a powerful separation technique, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2012, 402, 231-247.
    • A. Kumar, J.P. Hart, D.V. McCalley, Determination of catecholamines in urine using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with electrochemical detection, J. Chromatogr. A, 2011, 1218, 3854-3861.
    • G.E. Matt, P.J.E. Quintana, A.L. Fortmann, J.M. Zakarian, V.E. Galaviz, D.A. Chatfield, E. Hoh, M.F. Hovell, C. Winston, Thirdhand smoke and exposure in California hotels: non-smoking rooms fail to protect non-smoking hotel guests from tobacco smoke exposure, Tob. Control 2013, 0:1-9.
    • N.E. Hood, A.K. Ferketich, E.G. Klein, P. Pirie, M.E. Wewers, Associations between selfreported in-home smoking behaviours and surface nicotine concentrations in multiunit subsidised housing, Tob. Control 2014, 23, 27-32.
    • Hovell, Children's Exposure to Secondhand and Thirdhand Smoke Carcinogens and Toxicants in Homes of Hookah Smokers, Nicotine Tob. Res. 2014, 16, 961.
    • Res. 2014, 16, 26-32.
    • V. Bahl, P. Jacob III, C. Havel, S.F. Schick, P. Talbot Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke: Factors Affecting Exposure and Remediation. PLoS ONE 2014, 9, e108258.
    • doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108258 G.E. Matt, P.J.E. Quintana, J.M. Zakarian, A.L. Fortmann, D.A. Chatfield, E. Hoh, A.M. Uribe, M.F. Hovell, When smokers move out and non-smokers move in: residential thirdhand smoke pollution and exposure, Tob. Control, 2010, 20, e1.
    • M.L. Goniewicz, Lily Lee, Electronic Cigarettes Are a Source of Thirdhand, Exposure to Nicotine, Nicotine Tob. Res. 2015, 17, 256-258.
    • Biomarkers Prev. 2011, 20, 1213.
    • Gehrman, M. Garcia, S. Larson, Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: Sources of infant exposures, Tob. Control 2004, 13, 29.
    • Selvin, P. Buffler, S.M. Rappaport, Is house-dust nicotine a good surrogate for household smoking? Am. J. Epidemiol. 2009, 169, 1113.
    • T.P. Whitehead, J.R. Nuckols, M.H. Ward, S.M. Rappaport, Carpet-dust chemicals as measures of exposure: Implications of variability, Emerg. Themes Epidemiol. 2012, 9:2 L.M. Petrick, M. Sleiman, Y. Dubowski, L.A. Gundel, H. Destaillats, Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: a room‐sized chamber study, Atmos. Environ. 2011, 45, 4959.
    • G. Barrefors, G. Petersson, Assessment of ambient volatile hydrocarbons from tobacco smoke and from vehicle emissions, J. Chromatogr. 1993, 23, 71.
    • M.E. Counts, M.J. Morton, S.W. Laffoon, R.H. Cox, P.J. Lipowicz, Smoke composition and predicting relationships for international commercial cigarettes smoked with three machinesmoking conditions. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2005, 41, 185.
    • H.-S. Shin, J.-G. Kim, Y.-J. Shin, S.H. Jee, Sensitive and simple method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in human urine, plasma and saliva by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. B. 2002, 769, 177-183.
    • B. Biomed. Sci. Appl. 1998, 708, 87-93.
    • P. Callahan-Lyon, Electronic cigarettes: human health effects, Tob. Control 2014, 23, ii36.
    • Gen. Med. 2011, 4, 115.
    • B.A. Goldberger, D.A. Martin, N.A. Graham, M.S. Gold, Second- and Third-Hand Opium Exposure in the Women and Children of Afghanistan, Biol. Psychiatry, 2011, 69, 245S.
    • Supplement: S Meeting Abstract: 818.
  • Inferred research data

    The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    Title Trust
    74
    74%
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article