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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Abba, Katharine; Gulani, Anjana; Sachdev, Harshpal S (2010)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: wd_100, wv_200, ws_440, wa_100, ws_430
Background\ud Otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear, usually caused by infection) affects people of all ages, but is particularly common in young children. Around 164 million people worldwide have long-term hearing loss caused by this condition, 90% of them in low-income countries. Because zinc supplements prevent pneumonia in disadvantaged children, we wondered whether they prevent otitis media.\ud \ud Objectives\ud To evaluate whether zinc supplements prevent otitis media in adults and children of different ages.\ud \ud Search strategy\ud We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2009, issue 2) which includes the Acute Respiratory Infection Groups' Specialised Register; MEDLINE (1950 to June Week 1 2009); and EMBASE (1974 to June 2009).\ud \ud Selection criteria\ud Randomised, placebo-controlled trials of zinc supplements given at least once a week for at least a month for preventing otitis media.\ud \ud Data collection and analysis\ud Two review authors assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of the included trials, extracted and analysed data and wrote the review. We summarised results using risk ratios or rate ratios for dichotomous data and mean differences for continuous data. We combined trial results where appropriate.\ud \ud Main results\ud We identified 12 trials for inclusion, 10 of which contributed outcomes data. In trials of healthy children living in low-income communities, two trials did not demonstrate a significant difference between the zinc supplemented and placebo groups in the numbers of participants experiencing an episode of definite otitis media during follow up (3191 participants), while another trial showed a significantly lower incidence rate of otitis media in the zinc group (rate ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 0.79, n = 1621). A small trial of 39 infants undergoing treatment for severe malnutrition suggested a benefit of zinc on the mean number of episodes of otitis media (mean difference -1.12 episodes, 95% CI -2.21 to -0.03). Zinc supplements did not seem to cause any serious adverse events, but a small minority of children were reported to have vomited shortly after ingestion of the supplements.\ud \ud Authors' conclusions\ud Evidence on whether zinc supplementation can reduce the incidence of otitis media in healthy children under the age of five years living in low- and middle-income countries is mixed. There is some evidence of benefit in children being treated for marasmus, but this is based on one small trial and should therefore be treated with caution.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Bhandari 2002 {published and unpublished data} ∗ Bhandari N, Bahl R, Taneja S, Strand T, Molbak K, Ulvik RJ, et al.Effect of routine zinc supplementation on pneumonia in children aged 6 months to 3 years: randomised controlled trial in an urban slum. BMJ 2002;324(7350):1358-61. Bhandari N, Bhal T, Taneja S, Strand T, Molbak K, Ulvik RJ, et al.Substantial reduction in severe diarrhoea morbidity by daily zinc supplementation in young north Indian children. Pediatrics 2002; 109(6):86-91.
    • Bobat 2005 {published data only} Bobat R, Coovadia H, Stephen C, Naidoo KL, McKerrow N, Black RE, et al.Safety and efficacy of zinc supplementation in children with HIV-1 infection in South Africa: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366:1862-7.
    • Brooks 2005 {published data only} ∗ Brooks WA, Santosham M, Naheed A, Goswami D, Wahed MA, Diener-West M, et al.Effect of weekly zinc supplements on incidence of pneumonia and diarrhoea in children younger than 2 years in an urban, low-income population in Bangladesh: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366(9490):999-1004.
    • Gardner 2005 {published data only} Gardner JM, Powell CA, Baker-Henningham H, Walker SP, Cole TJ, Grantham-McGregor SM. Zinc supplementation and psychosocial stimulation: effects on the development of undernourished Jamaican children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;82(2):399-405.
    • Heinig 2006 {published data only} Heinig MJ, Brown KH, Lonnerdal B, Dewey KG. Zinc supplementation does not affect growth, morbidity, or motorLind 2004 {published data only} ∗ Lind T, Lonnerdal B, Stenlund H, Gamayanti IL, Ismail, Seswandhana T, et al.A community-based randomised controlled trial of iron and zinc supplementation in Indonesian infants: effects of growth and development. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;80(3):729-36. Lind T, Lonnerdal B, Stenlund H, Ismail D, Seswandhana R, Ekstrom EC, et al.A community-based randomized controlled trial of iron and zinc supplementation in Indonesian Infants: interactions between iron and zinc. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;77(4):883-90.
    • Muller 2001 {published data only} Muller O, Becher H, van Zweeden AB, Ye Y, Diallo DA, Konate AT, et al.Effect of zinc supplementation on malaria and other causes of morbidity in west African children: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2001;322(7302):1567.
    • Penny 2004 {published data only} Penny ME, Marin RM, Duran A, Peerson JM, Lanata CF, Lonnerdal B, et al.Randomized controlled trial of the effect of daily supplementation with zinc or multiple micronutrients on morbidity, growth, and micronutrient status of young Peruvian children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79;3:457-65.
    • Prasad 1999 {published data only} Prasad AS, Beck FWJ, Kaplan J, Pranatharthi H, Chandrasekar JO, Fitzgerald JT, et al.Effect of zinc supplementation on incidence of infections and hospital admissions in sickle cell disease. American Journal of Hematology 1999;61:194-202.
    • Prasad 2007 {published data only} Prasad AS, Beck Fw, Bao B, Fitzgerald JT, Snell DC, Steinberg JD, et al.Zinc supplementation decreases incidence of infections and hospital admissions in sickle cell disease (SCD). American Journal of Hematology 1999;61(3):194-202.
    • Schlesinger 1992 {published data only} Schlesinger L, Arevalo M, Arredondo AS, Diaz M, Lonnerdal B, Stekel A. Effect of a zinc-fortified formula on immunocompetence and growth of malnourished infants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992;56(3):491-8.
    • Wuehler 2008 {published data only} Wuehler SE, Sempertegui F, Brown KH. Dose-response trial of prophylactic zinc supplements, with or without copper, in young Ecuadorian children at risk of zinc deficiency. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87;3:723-33.
    • Arsenault 2008 {published data only} Arsenault JE, Lopez de Romana D, Penny ME, Van Loan MD, Brown KH. Additional zinc delivered in a liquid supplement, but not in a fortified porridge, increased fat-free mass accrual among young Peruvian children with mild-to-moderate stunting. Journal of Nutrition 2008;138:108-14.
    • Bacqui 2002 {published data only} Bacqui AH, Black RE, El Arifeen S, Yunus M, Chakraorty J, Ahmed S, et al.Effect of zinc supplementation started in diarrhoea on morbidity and mortality in Bangladeshi children: community randomised trial. BMJ 2002;325(7372):1059-61.
    • Bacqui 2003 {published data only} Bacqui AH, Zaman K, Persson LA, El Arifeen S, Yunus M, Begum N, et al.Simultaneous weekly supplementation of iron and zinc is associated with lower morbidity due to diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory infection in Bangladeshi infants. Journal of Nutrition 2003;133(12):4150-7.
    • Bates 1993 {published data only} Bates CJ, Evans PH, Dardenne M, Prentice A, Lunn PG, NorthropClewes CA, et al.A trial of zinc supplementation in young rural Gambian children. British Journal of Nutrition 1993;69(1):243-55.
    • Behrens 1990 {published data only} Behrens RH, Tomkins AM, Roy SK. Zinc supplementation during diarrhoea, a fortification against malnutrition?. Lancet 1990;336 (8712):442-3.
    • Bhandari 2007 {published data only} Bhandari N, Taneja S, Mazumder S, Bahl R, Fontaine O, Bhan MK, et al.Adding zinc to supplemental iron and folic acid does not affect mortality and severe morbidity in young children. Journal of Nutrition 2007;137(1):112-7.
    • Bhutta 1999 {published data only} Bhutta ZA, Nizami SQ, Isani Z. Zinc supplementation in malnourished children with persistent diarrhoea in Pakistan. Pediatrics 1999;103(4):e42.
    • Bogden 1988 {published data only} Bogden JD, Oleske JM, Lavenhar MA, Munves EM, Kemp FW, Bruening KS, et al.Zinc and immunocompetence in elderly people: effects of zinc supplementation for 3 months. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988;48(3):655-63.
    • Bogden 1990 {published data only} Bogden JD, Oleske JM, Lavenhar MA, Munves EM, Kemp FW, Bruening KS, et al.Effects of one-year supplementation with zinc and other micronutrients on cellular immunity in the elderly. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1990;9(3):214-25.
    • Boran 2006 {published data only} Boran P, Tokuc G, Vagas E, Oktem S, Gokduman MK. Impact of zinc supplementation in children with acute diarrhoea in Turkey. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2006;91(4):296-9.
    • Brooks 2004 {published data only} Brooks WA, Yunus M, Santosham M, Wahed MA, Nahar K, Yeasmin S, et al.Zinc for severe pneumonia in very young children: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004;363(9422): 1683-8.
    • Brooks 2005a {published data only} Brooks WA, Santosham M, Roy SK, Faruque AS, Wahed MA, Nahar K, et al.Efficacy of zinc in young infants with acute watery diarrhoea. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;82(3): 605-10.
    • Brown 2007 {published data only} Brown KH, de Romana DL, Arsenault JE, Peerson JM, Penny ME. Comparison of the effects of zinc delivered in a fortified food or a liquid supplement on the growth, morbidity, and plasma zinc concentrations of young Peruvian children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;85(2):538-47.
    • Carcamo 2006 {published data only} Carcamo C, Hooton T, Weiss NS, Gilman R, Wener MH, Chavez V, et al.Randomized controlled trial of zinc supplementation for persistent diarrhoea in adults with HIV-1 infection. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2006;43(2):197-201.
    • Castillo-Duran 1987 {published data only} Castillo-Duran C, Heresi G, Fisberg M, Uauy R. Controlled trial of zinc supplementation during recovery from malnutrition; effects on growth and immune function. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1987;45(3):602-8.
    • Castillo-Duran 1995 {published data only} Castillo-Duran C, Rodriguez A, Venegas G, Alvarez P, Icaza G. Zinc supplementation and growth of infants born small for gestational age. Journal of Pediatrics 1995;127(2):206-11.
    • Castillo-Duran 2001 {published data only} Castillo-Duran C, Perales CG, Hertrampf ED, Marin VB, Rivera FA, Icaza G. Effect of zinc supplementation on development and growth of Chilean infants. The Journal of Pediatrics 2001;138(2): 229-35.
    • Cavan 1993 {published data only} Cavan KR, Gibson RS, Grazioso CF, Isalgue Am, Ruz M, Solomus NW. Growth and body composition of periurban Guatemalan children in relation to zinc status: a longitudinal intervention trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1993;57(3):344-52.
    • Chang 2006 {published data only} Chang AB, Torzillo PJ, Boyce NC, White AV, Stewart PM, Wheaton GR, et al.Zinc and vitamin A supplementation in Indigenous Australian children hospitalised with lower respiratory tract infection: a randomised controlled trial. Medical Journal of Australia 2006;184(3):107-12.
    • Coles 2008 {published data only} Coles CL, Sherchand JB, Khatry SK, Katz J, LeClerq SC, Mullany LC, et al.Zinc modifies the association between nasopharyngeal Streptcoccus pneumoniae carriage and risk of acute lower respiratory infection among young children in rural Nepal. Journal of Nutrition 2008;138(12):2462-7.
    • Czerwinski 1974 {published data only} Czerwinski AW, Clark ML, Serafetinides AE, Perrier C, Huber Q. Safety and efficacy of zinc sulphate in geriatric patients. Clinical Phamacology and Therapeutics 1974;15(4):436-7.
    • Dehbozorgi 2007 {published data only} Dehbozorgi P, Mohseni P, Mazloom Z. The influence of zinc sulfate supplementation on the growth of school age children in villages around Shiraz 2002,2003. Journal of Medical Sciences 2007;7(4): 690-3.
    • Dijkhuizen 2001 {published data only} Dijkhuizen MA, Wieringa FT, West CE, Martuti S, Muhilal S. Effects of iron and zinc supplementation in Indonesian infants on micronutrient status and growth. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131 (11):286-5.
    • Dijkhuizen 2008 {published data only} Dijkhuizen MA, Winichagoon P, Wieringa FT, Wasantwisut E, Utomo B, Ninh NX, et al.Zinc supplementation improved length growth only in anemic infants in a multi-country trial of iron and zinc supplementation in South-East Asia. Journal of Nutrition 2008;138(10):1969-75.
    • Doherty 1998 {published data only} Doherty CP, Sarkar MA, Shakur MS, Ling SC, Elton RA, Cutting WA. Zinc and rehabilitation from severe protein-energy malnutrition: higher-dose regimens are associated with increased mortality. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998;68(3): 742-8.
    • Duchateau 1981 {published data only} Duchateau J, Delepesse G, Vrijens R, Collett H. Beneficial effects of oral zinc supplementation on the immune response of old people. American Journal of Medicine 1981;70(5):1001-4.
    • Dutta 2000 {published data only} Dutta 2000. Impact of zinc supplementation in malnourished children with acute watery diarrhoea. Journal of Tropical Paediatrics 2000;46(5):259-63.
    • Eggert 1982 {published data only} Eggert JV, Siegler RL, Edomkesmalee E. Zinc supplementation in chronic renal failure. International Journal of Pediatric Nephrology 1982;3(1):21-4.
    • Ertekin 2003 {published data only} Ertekin MV, Uslu H, Karslioglu I, Ozbek E, Osbek A. Effect of oral zinc supplementation on agents of oropharyngeal infections in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Journal of International Medical Research 2003;31(4):253-66.
    • Fahmida 2007 {published data only} Fahmida U, Rumawas JS, Utomo B, Patmonodewo S, Schultink W. Zinc-iron, but not zinc-alone, supplementation increased linear growth of stunted infants with low haemoglobin. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;16(2):301-9.
    • Fajolu 2008 {published data only} Fajolu IB, Amokpae A, Oduwole AO, Silva BO, Abidoye RO, Renner JK. Zinc supplementation in children with acute diarrhoea. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine 2008;18(2):101-3.
    • Faruque 1999 {published data only} Faruque AS, Mahalanabis D, Haque SS, Fuchs GJ, Habte D. Double-blind, randomized controlled trial of zinc or vitamin A supplementation in young children with acute diarrhoea. Acta Paediatrica 1999;88(2):154-60.
    • Fawzi 2005 {published data only} Fawzi WW, Villamore E, Msamanga GI, Antelman G, Aboud S, Urassa W, et al.Trial of zinc supplements in relation to pregnancy outcomes, hematologic indicators, and T cell counts among HIV-1 infected women in Tanzania. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;81(1):161-7.
    • Fischer Walker 2007 {published data only} ∗ Fischer Walker CL, Bhutta ZA, Bhandari N, Teka T, Shahid F, Taneja S, et al.Zinc during and in convalescence from diarrhoea has no demonstrable effect on subsequent morbidity and anthropometric status among infants < 6 months of age. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85;3:887-94. Fischer Walker CL, Black RE, Bacqui AH. Does age affect the response to zinc therapy for diarrhoea in Bangladeshi infants?. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 2008;26(1):105-9.
    • Fischer Walker 2009 {published data only} Fischer Walker CL, Baqui AH, Ahmed S, Zaman K, El Arifeen S, Begum, et al.Low-dose weekly supplementation of iron and/or zinc does not affect growth among Bangladeshi infants. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;63(1):87-92.
    • Floersheim 1980 {published data only} Floersheim GL, Boesch JH. The effect of oral zinc sulphate on human immunologic reactivity [Wirkung von oralem Zinksulfat auf die immunologische Reactivitat beim Menschen]. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 1980;110(26):998-1006.
    • Fortes 1998 {published data only} Fortes C, Forastiere F, Agabiti N, Fano V, Pacifici R, Virgili F, et al.The effects of zinc and vitamin A supplementation on immune response in an older population. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1998;46(1):19-26.
    • Friel 1993 {published data only} Friel JK, Andrews WL, Matthew JD, Long DR, Cornel AM, Cox M, et al.Zinc supplementation in very-low-birth-weight infants. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1993;17(1): 97-104.
    • Friis 1997 {published data only} Friis H, Ndhlovu P, Mduluza T, Kaondera K, Sandstrom B, Michaelson KF, et al.The impact of zinc supplementation on growth and body composition: a randomised controlled trial among rural Zimbabwean school children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;51(1):38-45. ∗ Friis H, Ndhlovu P, Mduluza T, Kaondera K, Sandstrom B, Michaelson KF, et al.The impact of zinc supplementation on Schistosoma mansoni reinfection rate and intensities: a randomised, controlled trial among rural Zimbabwean schoolchildren. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;51(1):33-7.
    • Giroden 1999 {published data only} ∗ Giroden F, Blanche D, Mongret AL, Lombart M, BrunetLecompte P, Arnaud L, et al.Effects of a two-year supplementation with low doses of antioxidant vitamins and/or minerals in elderly subjects on levels of nutrients and antioxidant defense parameters. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1997;16(4):357-65. Giroden F, Galan P, Monget AL, Boutron-Ruault MC, BrunetLecomte P, Preziosi P, et al.Impact of trace elements and vitamin supplementation on immunity and infections in institutionalized elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial. MIN.VIT.AOX, geriatric network. Archives of Internal Medicine 1999;159(7): 748-54.
    • Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 1997;41(2):98-107.
    • Golden 1978 {published data only} Golden MH, Harland PS, Golden BE, Jackson AA. Zinc and immunocompetence in protein-energy malnutrition. Lancet 1978; 1(8076):1226-8.
    • Goransson 1978 {published data only} Goransson K, Liden S, Odsell L. Oral zinc in acne vulgaris: a clinical and methodological study. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 1978;58(5):443-8.
    • Grazioso 1993 {published data only} Grazioso CF, Islague M, de Ramirez I, Ruz M, Solomons NW. The effect of zinc supplementation on parasitic reinfection of Guatemalan schoolchildren. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1993;57(5):673-8.
    • Gupta 1995 {published data only} Gupta VL, Chaubey BS. Efficacy of zinc therapy in prevention of crisis in sickle cell anaemia: a double blind, randomised controlled clinical trial. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 1995;43(7):467-70.
    • Gupta 2003 {published data only} ∗ Gupta DN, Mondal SK, Ghosh S, Rajendran K, Sur D, Manna B. Impact of zinc supplementation on diarrhoeal morbidity in rural children in West Bengal, India. Acta Paediatrica 2003;92(5):531-6. Gupta DN, Rajendran K, Mondal SK, Ghosh S, Bhattacharya SK. Operational feasibility of implementing community-based zinc supplementation: impact on childhood diarrhoeal morbidity. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2007;26(4):306-10.
    • Hambridge 1993 {published data only} Hambridge KM, Chavez MN, Brown RM, Walravens PA. Zinc nutritional status of young middle-income children and effects of consuming zinc-fortified breakfast cereals. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1979;32(12):2532-8.
    • Hemalatha 1993 {published data only} Hemalatha P, Bhaskaram P, Khan MM. Role of zinc supplementation in the rehabilitation of severely malnourished children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1993;47(6):395-9.
    • Hettiarachchi 2008 {published data only} Hattiarachchi M, Liyanage C, Wickremasinghe R, Hilmers DC, Abrams SA. The efficacy of micronutrient supplementation in reducing the prevalence anaemia and deficiencies of zinc and iron among adolescents in Sri Lanka. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008;62(7):856-65.
    • Hodkinson 2007 {published data only} Hodkinson CF, Kelly M, Alexander HD, Bradbury I, Robson PJ, Bonham MP, et al.The effect of zinc supplementation on the immune status of healthy older individuals aged 55-70 years: the ZENITH Study. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2007;62(6):598-608.
    • Intorre 2008 {published data only} Intorre F, Polito A, Andriollo-Sanchez M, Azzini E, Raguzzini A, Toti E, et al.Effect of zinc supplementation on vitamin status of middle-aged and older European adults: the ZENITH study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008;62(10):1215-23.
    • Johnson 2007 {published data only} Johnson AR, Munoz A, Gottlieb JL, Jarrard DF. High dose zinc increases hospital admissions due to genitourinary complications. Journal of Urology 2007;177(2):639-43.
    • Jonsson 1996 {published data only} Jonsson B, Hauge B, Larsen MF, Hald F. Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Acta Obstetrica et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1996;75(8):725-9.
    • Khanum 1988 {published data only} Khanum S, Alam AN, Anwar I, Akbar Ali M, Rahaman M. Effects of zinc supplementation on the dietary intake and weight gain of Bangladeshi children recovering from protein-energy malnutrition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988;42(8):709-14.
    • Khatun 2001 {published data only} Khatun UH, Malek MA, Black RE, Sarkar NR, Wahed MA, Fuchs G, et al.A randomized controlled trial of zinc, vitamin A or both in undernourished children with persistent diarrhea in Bangladesh. Acta Paediatrica 2001;90(4):376-80.
    • Kilic 1998 {published data only} Kilic I, Ozalp I, Co kun T, Tokatli A, Emre S, Saldamli I, et al.The effect of zinc-supplemented bread consumption on school children with asymptomatic zinc deficiency. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1998;26(2):167-71.
    • Kurogol 2007 {published data only} Kurogol Z, Bayram N, Atik T. Effects of zinc sulfate on common cold in children: randomized, double blind study. Pediatrics International 2007;49(6):842-7.
    • Labadie 1986 {published data only} Labadie H, Verneau A, Trinchet JC, Beaugrand M. Does oral zinc improve the cellular immunity of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis? [L'apport oral de zinc ameliore-t-il l'immunite cellulaire des malades atteints de cirrhose alcoolique?]. Gastoenterogie Clinique et Biologique 1986;10(12):799-803.
    • Lin 2008 {published data only} Lin LC, Que J, Lin KL, Leung HW, Lu CL, Chang CH. Effects of zinc supplementation on clinical outcomes in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancers: a double-blinded randomized study. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 2008;70(2):368-73.
    • Linday 2004 {published data only} Linday LA, Dolitsky JN, Shindledecker RD. Nutritional supplements as adjunctive therapy for children with chronic/ recurrent sinusitis: pilot research. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 2004;68(6):785-93.
    • Lira 1998 {published data only} Lira PI, Ashworth A, Morris SS. Effect of zinc supplementation on the morbidity, immune function, and growth of low-birth-weight, full-term infants in northeast Brazil. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998;68(Suppl 2):418-24.
    • Lockitch 1989 {published data only} Lockitch G, Puterman M, Godolphin W, Sheps S, Tingel AJ, Quigley G. Infection and immunity in Down syndrome: a trial of long-term oral doses of zinc. Journal of Pediatrics 1989;114(5): 781-7.
    • Long 2006 {published data only} Long KZ, Montoya Y, Hertzmark E, Santos JI, Rosado JL. A double-blind, randomized, clinical trial of the effect of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on diarrhoeal disease and respiratory tract infections in children in Mexico City, Mexico. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;83(3):693-700.
    • Mahomed 1989 {published data only} Mahomed K, James DK, Golding J, McCabe R. Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. BMJ 1989;299(6703):826-30.
    • Makonnen 2003 {published data only} ∗ Makonnen B, Venter A, Joubert G. A randomised controlled study of the impact of dietary zinc supplementation in the management of children with protein-energy malnutrition in Lesotho. II: Special investigation. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 2003;49(6):353-60. Makonnen B, Venter A, Joubert GA. A randomized controlled study of the impact of dietary zinc supplementation in the management of children with protein-energy malnutrition in Lesotho. I: Mortality and morbidity. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 2003;49(6):340-52.
    • Mocchegiani 1995 {published data only} Mocchegiana E, Veccia S, Ancarani F, Scalise G, Fabris N. Benefits of oral zinc supplementation as an adjunct to zidovudine (AZT) therapy against opportunistic infections in AIDS. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 1995;17(9):719-27.
    • Mocchegiani 1999 {published data only} Mocchegiani E, Muzzioli M, Gaeti R, Veccia S, Viticchi C, Scalise G. Contribution of zinc to reduce CD4+ risk factor for 'severe' infection relapse in aging: parallelism with HIV. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 1999;21(4):271-81.
    • Muller 2003 {published data only} Muller O, Garenne M, Reitmaier P, Van Zweeden AB, Kouyate B, Becher H. Effect of zinc supplementation on growth in West African children: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in rural Burkina Faso. International Journal of Epidemiology 2003;32(6):1098-102.
    • Munguia 2003 {published data only} Munguia C, Paniagua R, Avili-Diaz M, Nava-Hernandez J, Rodrigues E, Ventura Mde J, et. Effects of zinc supplements on the nutritional status of patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis [Efect de suplementos de cinc sobre el estado nutricio de pacients en dialisis peritoneal continua ambulatoria]. Revista de Investigacion Clinica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion 2003;55(5):519-27.
    • Naheed 2009 {published data only} Naheed A, Walker Fischer CL, Mondal D, Ahmed S, Arifeen SE, Yunus M, et al.Zinc therapy for diarrhoea improves growth among Bangladeshi infants 6 to 11 months of age. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2009;48(1):89-93.
    • Osendarp 2002 {published data only} Osendarp SJ, Santosham M, Black RE, Wahed MA, van Raaij JM, Fuchs GJ. Effect of zinc supplementation between 1 and 6 months of life on growth and morbidity of Bangladeshi infants in urban slums. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;76(6):1401-8.
    • Osendarp 2007 {published data only} Osendarp SJM, Prabhakar H, Fuchs GJ, van Raaij JMA, Mahmud H, Tofail F, et al.Immunization with the helptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Bangladeshi infants and effects of zinc supplementation. Vaccine 2007;25(17):3347-54.
    • Oyoke 2008 {published data only} Oyoke ME, Ojukwe JU. Zinc supplementation for preventing and treating malaria in children living in malaria endemic areas. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007363]
    • Rahman 2002 {published data only} ∗ Rahman MM, Tofail F, Wahed MA, Fuchs GJ, Bacqui AH, Alvarez JO. Short-term supplementation with zinc and vitamin A has no significant effect of the growth of undernourished Bangladeshi children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 75(1):87-91. Rahman MM, Vermund SH, Wahed MA, Fuchs GJ, Bacqui AH, Alvarez JO. Simultaneous zinc and vitamin A supplementation in Bangladeshi children: a randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ 2001;323(7308):314-8.
    • Rawer 1987 {published data only} Rawer P, Willems WR, Breidenbach T, Guttmann W, Pabst W, Schutterle G. Seroconversion rate, hepatitis B vaccination, hemodialysis, and zinc supplementation. Kidney International 1987;Suppl:22149-52.
    • Rivera 1998 {published data only} Rivera JA, Ruel MT, Santizo MC, Lonnerdal B, Brown KH. Zinc supplementation improves the growth of stunted rural Guatemalan infants. Journal of Nutrition 1998;128(3):556-62.
    • Rosado 1997 {published data only} Rosado JL, Lopez P, Munoz E, Martinez H, Allen LH. Zinc supplementation reduced morbidity, but neither zinc nor iron supplementation affected growth or body composition of Mexican preschoolers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;65(1): 13-9.
    • Roy 1997 {published data only} Roy SK, Tomkins AM, Akramuzzaman SM, Behrens RH, Haider R, Mahalanabis D, et al.Randomised controlled trial of zinc supplementation in malnourished Bangladeshi children with acute diarrhoea. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1997;77(3):196-200.
    • Roy 1999 {published data only} Roy SK, Tomkins AM, Haider R, Behren RH, Akramuzzan SM, Mahalanabis D, et al.Impact of zinc supplementation on subsequent growth and morbidity in Bangladeshi children with acute diarrhoea. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;53(7): 529-34.
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    • Roy 2008b {published data only} Roy SK, Raqib R, Khatun W, Azim T, Chowdhury R, Fuchs GJ, et al.Zinc supplementation in the management of shigellosis in malnourished children in Bangladesh. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008;62(7):849-55.
    • Ruel 1997 {published data only} Ruel MT, Rivera JA, Santizo MC, Lonnerdal B, Brown KH. Impact of zinc supplementation on morbidity from diarrhoea and respiratory infections among rural Guatemalan children. Pediatrics 1997;99(6):808-13.
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    • Wazewska-Czyzewska 1978 {published data only} Wazewska-Czyzewska M, Wesierska-Gadek J, Legutko L. Immunostimulatory effect of zinc in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Folia Haematologica 1978;105(6): 727-32.
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    • Ninh 1996 {published data only} Ninh NX, Thissen JP, Collette L, Gerard G, Khoi HH, Ketelslegers JM. Zinc supplementation increases growth and circulating insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in growth-retarded Vietnamese infants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1996;63(4):514-9.
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    • Robberstad 2004 Robbersdad B, Strand T, Black RE, Sommerfelt H. Costeffectiveness of zinc as adjunct therapy for acute childhood diarrhoea in developing countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2004;82(7):523-31.
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    • WHO 2004 World Health Organization. Chapter 1 - Global burden of disease due to chronic suppurative otitis media: disease, deafness, deaths and DALYs. Chronic suppurative otitis media: burden of illness and management options. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004.
    • WHO/UNICEF 2004 WHO/UNICEF. Clinical management of acute diarrhoea: WHO/ UNICEF joint statement. www.who.int/child-adolescent-health/ New_Publications/CHILD_HEALTH/Acute_Diarrhoea.pdf 2004 (accessed 30 January 2007).
    • ZICG 1999 Zinc Investigators' Collaborative Group. Prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia by zinc supplementation in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Paediatrics 1999;135:689-97.
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