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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Petty, Elizabeth Celia
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects:
Ideas concerning relationships between diet and health in the UK are\ud traced from the 1904 Comittee on Physical Deterioration to the outbreak\ud of World War II. Archive material is used to describe the often\ud conflicting views of the Medical Research Council and the Ministry of\ud Health and Board of Education concerning the public health applications\ud of nutrition science. In particular, the work of the Ministry of\ud Health's first Advisory Comittee on Nutrition, which was appointed in\ud 1931, is reviewed and evaluated. The debate among public healh\ud practitioners over the nature, cause and extent of the 'nutrition\ud problem' is documented and the role in this debate of official dietary\ud guidelines which appeared during the 1930s, is assessed.\ud The Impact of the Newer Knowledge of Nutrition on welfare feeding policy\ud Is evaluated in the context of the official promotion of milk feeding in\ud schools. In particular, Corry Mann's experimental evidence which was\ud used to endorse this policy, is reconsidered, and it is shown that the\ud NRC view that the trial was proof of the presence in milk of a "growth\ud factor" which produced preferential growth efficiency in adequately fed\ud children , was in error. From a re-evaluation of the evidence it is\ud suggested that the experiment merely recorded catch-up growth in a group\ud of poorly nourished children. The view that there existed an extensive\ud nutritional problem due to poor quality diets is examined and\ud challenged.\ud Both dietary survey data and anthropometric evidence are used to present\ud the case that there was throughout the period studied a widespread\ud problem of underfeeding among the poor and that intervention strategies\ud based on the Newer Knowledge were not an appropriate method of dealing\ud with this problem. This casts doubts on the widely held view that there\ud was a need for nutrition education and suggests that the problem was one of poverty rather than Ignorance. Disaggregated anthropometric data\ud located by the author are analysed according to NCHS standards to assess\ud the prevalence of underfeeding. Significantly higher prevalences of\ud stunting than low weight-for-age exist in all data sets; this phenomenon\ud is considered in detail and low weight-for-age is proposed as the\ud preferred index of malnutrition in 20th Century historical studies.\ud Attention is drawn to the relevance of these studies for the current\ud nutrition and public health debate.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Table 6.27 ComparIson of nutrient Intakes in Group I and Group VI households studied In the Carnegie Survey, 1937 showing current RDAs.
    • Table 6.28 Comparison of Nutrient Densities in Group I and Group VI diets studied in the Carnegie Survey, 1937.
    • 65. see MRC 1500 Fletcher to MacNalty op cit; NRC 2100/1 Fletcher to Lord Dawson 15 April 1931; NRC 1741 Fletcher to M'Gonigle 26 Oct 1931.
    • 56. McCollum, op.cit. (2nd ed, 1922) p.384.
    • 60. McCoLlum, op.cit.(3rd ed, 1925) p.530.
    • 64. L. Findlay and M. Fergusson, 'A Study of Social and Economic Factors in the Causation of Rickets', NRC Spec.
    • Rep. Ser. No. 20 (HMSO 1918).
    • 1. lee Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer to the Ministry of Health, 1919-1920 (HMSO 1920), Appendix IX, p. 389.
    • 3. NRC Annual Report, 1932-33 (HMSO 1933) pp.10-il.
    • 8. NRC Annual Report, 1920-21 (HMSO 1921) p.12.
    • 9. NRC Annual Report, 1923-24 (HMSO 1924) pp.17-19.
    • 10. MRC Annual Report, 1925-26 (HMSO 1926) and M. tiellanby and C.L. Patterson, BRIT. DENT. JNL. (1926) 7, 1045; NRC Annual Report 1926-27 (HMSO 1927) for public health signficance of the artificial manufacture of Vitamin D.
    • 13. MRC 2100/1, Fletcher to Lord Dawson, 15 April 1931.
    • 15. MRC 1500, Newman to Fletcher, 3 Dec. 1920; NRC 1381/1 Fletcher to Newman, 7 Dec 1920.
    • 16. MRC 1500 MacFadden to Newman, 17 Dcc, 1920. Memorandum suggesting subjects food research including the nutritive value of milk; H. Corry Mann, 'Diets for Boys During the School Years' NRC Spec. Rep. Ser. No. 105 (HMSO 1926); 'The Incidence of Dental Disease in Children NRC Spec Rep Ser No. 97 (HMSO 1925); N Mellanby 'Diet and the Teeth' NRC Spec. Repp. Ser No. 140 (HMSO 1929).
    • 17. See MRC 2070/25 (1922) for Ministry's refusal to fund an NRC Infant Welfare investigation; NRC 1190, Fletcher to Newman, 16 Dcc, 1924 for NRC refusal to support a similar request from the Ministry.
    • 18. MRC 1190, Fletcher to Newman, 17 Jan, 1924.
    • 24. NRC 1500, Fletcher to MacFadden, 20 Sept 1921; NRC 2100 Fletcher to Newman, 20 June 1924 ; NRC 2100/1 Fletcher to Dawson op cit; MRC 1930, Fletcher to Robinson, 5 Dec 1930.
    • 25. PIRC 1500, Fletcher to MacFadden, op.cit.
    • 26. 'Report on the Nutrition of Miners and their Families', NRC Spec. Rept. Ser. No. 87 (HMSO 1924).
    • 27. MRC 2100, Fletcher to Newman, 20 June 1924.
    • 34. MRC 1200/1, Minutes of Nutrition Committee, 19 Jan 1927; MRC 2037/I-Vu , papers relating to the Dunn Nutritional Laboratory, 1927-1940.
    • 39. E. Mellanby, 'Duties of the State in Relation to the Nation's Food Supply', B.M.J.(1927) ii, 8 Oct, p.66 51. NRC 2110/12, Scientific Research Committee, announcement of 14 Feb 1935.
    • 52. MRC 1190, Mellanby to McNalty, 18 Sept, 1935.
    • 53. PRO MHS6/47 Greenwood to Robinson, 1934.
    • 64. see Annual Reprot of the Chief Medical Officer to the Minister of Health, 1919-1920, (HMSO 1920), Appendix IX, 58. Parlane Kinloch, B.M.J. (1931) ii, Oct 1931, p.43.
    • 59. Local health education initiatives were regularly reported in the public health journals of the period : see for example PUBLiC HEALTH (1925) Aug, p.333-334; MED.OFF. (1925) Vol.34, 14 Nov, p.217; MED. OFF. (1926) Vol.35, 20 Feb pp.75-6; MED. OFF. (1927) Vol.37, 12 March p.123; MED.OFF. (1933) Vol 49, 18 March p.109. In 1927 the Health Education Council was established in response to the proliferation of activities such as these.
    • 69. Annual Report to Pres. Bd. Edn. 1912 p.26 (HMSO 1913).
    • 73. Annual Report to Pres. Bd. Edn. 1910, (HMSO 1911), p.26.
    • 74.Annual Report to Pres. Bd. Edn.1914, (HMSO 1915), p.220.
    • 76. HOSC 1925, (HIISO 1926 ), p.31 . See also NRC Spec. Rep.
    • Set. No. 101 'Poverty, Nutrition and Growth' (HMSO 1926).
    • 77. Board of Education Circular No. 582, 1908.
    • 78. Annual Report to Pres. Bd. Edn. 1910, (HMSO 1911), p.26.
    • 87. PRO MH56/53, Robinson to Hilton Young, 18 Dec. 1933.
    • 95. Education (Provision of Meals) Act, 1906; Education (Provision of Meals) Act, 1921; HOSC 1926, (HMSO 1927), p.137; HOSC 1927, (HMSO 1928) , p.102.
    • 97. F.G. Hopkins, Address to the Annual Council Meeting, Children's Minimum Campaign, 6 July, 1938. E. Rathbone papers, University of Liverpool archives.
    • 65. MH56/52, Greenwood memorandum, 12 Dec 1932.
    • 2. see for example 'Evidence of Malnutrition', report by Children's Minimum Committee, 1934.
    • 10. "Report of Committee on Nutrition", op.cit.(BMA 1933).
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