Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Yahaya, Ismail; Uthman, Olalekan A; Soares, Joaquim; Macassa, Gloria (2013)
Publisher: Springer Nature
Journal: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Research Article, wa_30, Demographic and health survey, HQ, wa_395, HV, wa_325, wa_309, Childhood sexual abuse, Social disorganization, Neighborhood, Socio-demographic factors, Sub-Saharan Africa, Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Background\ud Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a considerable public health problem. Less focus has been paid to the role of community level factors associated with CSA. The aim of this study was to examine the association between neighbourhood-level measures of social disorganization and CSA.\ud \ud Methods\ud We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 adolescents from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2006 and 2008.\ud \ud Results\ud The percentage of adolescents that had experienced CSA ranged from 1.04% to 5.84%. There was a significant variation in the odds of reporting CSA across the communities, suggesting 18% of the variation in CSA could be attributed to community level factors. Respondents currently employed were more likely to have reported CSA than those who were unemployed (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48 to 2.83). Respondents from communities with a high family disruption rate were 57% more likely to have reported CSA (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.16).\ud \ud Conclusion\ud We found that exposure to CSA was associated with high community level of family disruption, thus suggesting that neighbourhoods may indeed have significant important effects on exposure to CSA. Further studies are needed to explore pathways that connect the individual and neighbourhood levels, that is, means through which deleterious neighbourhood effects are transmitted to individuals.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Reza A, Breiding MJ, Gulaid J, Mercy JA, Blanton C, Mthethwa Z, et al: Sexual violence and its health consequences for female children in Swaziland: a cluster survey study. Lancet 2009, 373:1966-1972.
    • 2. Lalor K: Child sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa: a literature review. Child Abuse Negl 2004, 28:439-460.
    • 3. Brown DW, Riley L, Butchart A, Meddings DR, Kann L, Harvey AP: Exposure to physical and sexual violence and adverse health behaviours in African children: results from the Global School-based Student Health Survey. Bull World Health Organ 2009, 87:447-455.
    • 4. Vogeltanz ND, Wilsnack SC, Harris TR, Wilsnack RW, Wonderlich SA, Kristjanson AF: Prevalence and risk factors for childhood sexual abuse in women: national survey findings. Child Abuse Negl 1999, 23:579-592.
    • 5. Kenny MC, McEachern AG: Racial, ethnic, and cultural factors of childhood sexual abuse: a selected review of the literature. Clin Psychol Rev 2000, 20:905-922.
    • 6. Ko Ling C, Yan E, Brownridge DA, Tiwari A, Fong DY: Childhood sexual abuse associated with dating partner violence and suicidal ideation in a representative household sample in Hong Kong. J Interpers Violence 2011, 26:1763-1784.
    • 7. Martin A, Najman JM, Williams GM, Bor W, Gorton E, Alati R: Longitudinal analysis of maternal risk factors for childhood sexual abuse: early attitudes and behaviours, socioeconomic status, and mental health. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2011, 45:629-637.
    • 8. Mennen FE: Evaluation of risk factors in childhood sexual abuse. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1993, 32:934-939.
    • 9. O'Leary PJ, Barber J: Gender differences in silencing following childhood sexual abuse. J Child Sex Abus 2008, 17:133-143.
    • 10. Pineda-Lucatero AG, Trujillo-Hernandez B, Millan-Guerrero RO, Vasquez C: Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Mexican adolescents. Child Care Health Dev 2009, 35:184-189.
    • 11. Pinchevsky GM, Wright EM: The Impact of Neighborhoods on Intimate Partner Violence and Victimization. Trauma Violence Abuse 2012, 13:112-132.
    • 12. Shaw CR, McKay HD: Juvenile Delinquency in Urban Areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1942.
    • 13. Benefo KD: Determinants of Zambian men's extra-marital sex: a multilevel analysis. Arch Sex Behav 2008, 37:517-529.
    • 14. Bishai D, Patil P, Pariyo G, Hill K: The Babel effect: community linguistic diversity and extramarital sex in Uganda. AIDS Behav 2006, 10:369-376.
    • 15. Browning CR, Olinger-Wilbon M: Neighborhood structure, social organization and the number of short-term sexual partnerships. J Marriage Fam 2003, 65:730-745.
    • 16. Browning CR: The span of collective efficacy: extending social disorganisation theory to partner violence. J Marriage Fam 2002, 64:833-850.
    • 17. Putnam RD: E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and community in the twentyfirst century: the 2006 Johan Skytte Prize lecture. Scand Polit Stud 2007, 30:137-174.
    • 18. Billy JOG, Moore DE: A Multilevel Analysis of Marital and Nonmarital Fertility in the U.S. Soc Forces 1992, 70:977-1011.
    • 19. MEASURE DHS: DHS Survey Organization manual. 2012. http://www.measuredhs. com/pubs/pdf/DHSM10/DHS6_Survey_Org_Manual_7Dec2012_DHSM10.pdf.
    • 20. Macro O, Calverto M: Demographic and Health Survey Interviewer's Manual. U. S.A: ORC Macro; 2006.
    • 21. Deon F, Pritchett LH: Estimating Wealth Effects without Expenditure Dataor Tears: An Application to Educational Enrollments in States of India. Demography 2001, 38:115-132.
    • 22. Montgomery MR, Gragnolati M, Burke KA, Paredes E: Measuring Living Standards with Proxy Variables. Demography 2000, 37:155-174.
    • 23. Vyas S, Kumaranayake L: Constructing socio-economic status indices: how to use principal components analysis. Health Pol Plann 2006, 21:459-468.
    • 24. Rustein SO, Kiersten J: The DHS wealth index. Calverton, Maryland: ORC Macro, DHS comparative reports No. 6; 2004.
    • 25. Sampson RJ: Neighborhood and Crime: The Structural Determinants of Personal Victimization. J Res Crime Delinquen 1985, 22:7-40.
    • 26. WARNER BD, PIERCE GL: Reexamining social disorganization theory using calls to the police as a measure of crime. Criminology 1993, 31:493-517.
    • 27. Snijders T, Bosker R: Multilevel analysis- an introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modelling. 2nd edition. London: SAGE publications; 1999.
    • 28. Tu YK, Clerehugh V, Gilthorpe MS: Collinearity in linear regression is a serious problem in oral health research. Eur J Oral Sci 2004, 112:389-397.
    • 29. Tu YK, Kellett M, Clerehugh V, Gilthorpe MS: Problems of Correlations between Explanatory Variables in Multiple Regression Analyses in the Dental Literature. Br Dent J 2005, 199(7):457-461.
    • 30. Hocking RR: Methods and Applications of Linear Models. New York: Wiley; 1996.
    • 31. Rasbash J, Steele F, Browne W, Prosser B: A user's guide to MLwin. [Version 2.10]. London: Center of Multilevel Modelling, Institute of Education, University of London; 2008.
    • 32. Goldstein H: Multilevel statistical models. 3rd edition. London: Hodder Arnold; 2003.
    • 33. Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Lynskey MT: Childhood sexual abuse, adolescent sexual behaviors and sexual revictimization. Child Abuse Negl 1997, 21:789-803.
    • 34. Fomby P, Cherlin AJ: Family Instability and Child Well-Being. Am Sociol Rev 2007, 72:181-204.
    • 35. Li N, Ahmed S, Zabin LS: Association between childhood sexual abuse and adverse psychological outcomes among youth in Taipei. J Adolesc Health 2012, 50:S45-S51.
    • 36. Turner HA, Finkelhor D, Ormrod R, Hamby S, Leeb RT, Mercy JA, et al: Family context, victimization, and child trauma symptoms: variations in safe, stable, and nurturing relationships during early and middle childhood. Am J Orthopsychiatry 2012, 82:209-219.
    • 37. Merlo J, Chaix B, Yang M, Lynch J, Rastam L: A brief conceptual tutorial of multilevel analysis in social epidemiology: linking the statistical concept of clustering to the idea of contextual phenomenon. J Epidemiol Community Health 2005, 59:443-449.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article