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Low, Andrea J.; Konate, Issouf; Nagot, Nicolas; Weiss, Helen A.; Kania, Dramane; Vickerman, Peter; Segondy, Michel; Mabey, David; Pillay, Deenan; Meda, Nicolas; van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe (2014)
Publisher: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Journal: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: nevirapine, antiretrovirals, bacterial vaginosis, cervicovaginal lavage, HIV-1 RNA, herpes simplex virus type-2, Epidemiology and Prevention

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: virus diseases
Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces transmission of HIV-1. However, genital HIV-1 can be detected in patients on ART. We analyzed factors associated with genital HIV-1 shedding among high-risk women on ART in Burkina Faso. Methods: Plasma viral load (PVL) and enriched cervicovaginal lavage HIV-1 RNA were measured every 3–6 months for up to 8 years. Random-effects logistic and linear regression models were used to analyze associations of frequency and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA with behavioral and biological factors, adjusting for within-woman correlation. The lower limit of detection of HIV-1 RNA in plasma and eCVL samples was 300 copies per milliliter. Results: One hundred and eighty-eight participants initiated ART from 2004 to 2011. PVL was detectable in 16% (171/1050) of visits, in 52% (90/174) of women. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA was detectable in 16% (128/798) of visits with undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA in 45% (77/170) of women. After adjusting for PVL, detectable cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA was independently associated with abnormal vaginal discharge and use of nevirapine or zidovudine vs. efavirenz and stavudine, respectively; longer time on ART and hormonal contraception were not associated with increased shedding. The presence of bacterial vaginosis, herpes simplex virus-2 DNA, and the use of nevirapine vs efavirenz were independently associated with an increased quantity of cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA. Conclusions: Certain ART regimens, abnormal vaginal discharge, bacterial vaginosis, and genital herpes simplex virus-2 are associated with HIV-1 cervicovaginal shedding or quantity in women on ART after adjusting for PVL. This may reduce the effectiveness of ART as prevention in high-risk populations.

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