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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Charlish, P.; Heywood, R. (2007)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects:

This article examines the inconsistencies associated with doping control and explains the inequity which results from such inconsistent application particularly where the violation is caused by a recreational substance. This is achieved through an analysis of the WADA code anti-doping rules and the interrelationship with the principle of strict liability and an examination of the recent case IRB v. Keyter. The application of these rules creates impossible behavioural burden on athletes; ultimately this may result in a further challenge to the legal status of such rules under EU competition law.

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    • RECREATIONAL DRUGS: INCONSISTENCIES & RECENT CASE LAW.............................7
    • CASE STUDY: INTERNATIONAL RUGBY BOARD V KEYTER ...........................................10
    • A. The Facts.........................................................................................................10
    • B. The Arguments for Extending the Ban ............................................................11
    • C. Discussion: Legal Analysis .............................................................................12 1. Proof of How the Substance Entered the Body .........................................12 2. No Fault or Negligence .............................................................................13 3. No 'Significant Fault or Negligence' ........................................................14
    • 1. Int'l Rugby Bd. v. Keyter, CAS 2006/A/1067 (Ct. Arb. Sport 2006).
    • Discussion: Wider Implications ......................................................................15
    • 1. The Nature of the Banned Substance ........................................................15
    • 2. An Unrealistic Expectation for Sports Participants ...................................19
    • 28. Meca-Medina, 2006 ECJ CELEX LEXIS 373 at ¶ 43. 29. Gasser v. Stinson, (Q.B.D. June 15, 1988) (LEXIS, England and Wales Reported and Unreported Cases). 30. M. Beloff, Editorial, [2006] ISLR 81. 31. Id. 32. A former United States Rugby Union international. 33. An English Premiership association football club. 34. See The ARU Panel's Verdict, printed in SYDNEY MORN. HERALD, July 25, 2006, available at
    • http://www.smh.com.au/news/sport/the-aru-panels-verdict/2006/07/24/1153593265714.html (Australian rugby
    • union star Wendall Sailor received a two year ban for the same offence). 35. Marc Souster, IRB Ruined My Career, says Banned American, TIMES (London), Oct. 18, 2006, at 81,
    • available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,377-2409120,00.html (internal citations added). 36. UK Sport, Drug-Free Sport, http://www.uksport.gov.uk/pages/drug_free_sport/ (UK Sport is the
    • organization responsible for athletic drug testing throughout the United Kingdom). 37. Duncan Mackay, Footballer Tests Positive for Cocaine Three Times, GUARDIAN (London), Nov. 1,
    • 2005, at Sports 4, available at http://football.guardian.co.uk/print/0,,5322829-103,00.html. 38. Id. 39. Jacquelin Magnay, Soccer Faces Red Card for Athens Drugs Code Penalty, SYDNEY MORN. HERALD,
    • May 19, 2004, at 6, available at http://www.smh.com.au/olympics/articles/2004/05/18/1089694343082.html. 40. See Gasser v. Stinson, (Q.B.D. June 15, 1988) (LEXIS, England and Wales Reported and Unreported
    • Cases); Case C-519/04 P, Meca-Medina v. Comm'n, 2006 ECJ CELEX LEXIS 373 (July 18, 2006). 41. See generally Advisory Opinion Concerning WADA Anti-Doping Sanctions, CAS 2005/C/976 & 986,
    • FIFA & WADA (Ct. Arb. Sport 2006). 42. The law-making body of Association Football. 43. David Bond, Drug Offenders Will Face Two-Year Bans, DAILY TELEGRAPH (London), Nov. 21, 2006, at
    • Sport 7, available at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2006/11/21/sfndru21.xml. 44. T. Graf-Buamann, Medicolegal Aspects of Doping in Football, 40 BR. J. SPORTS MED. (Suppl. I) i55,
    • i57 (2006). 45. 'Festina Affiar': The Timeline, BBC SPORT, Oct. 24, 2000,
    • http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/low/other_sports/988530.stm (providing a chronology of the scandal surrounding the
    • doping charges leveled against the French Festina cycling team). 46. Drug Scandal has “Tainted” Sport, BBC SPORT, August 8, 2005,
    • http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/athletics/4741353.stm (the BALCO scandal centred on a laboratory in San
    • Francisco which manufactured a designer steroid specifically to aid sprinters in an attempt to break the 100 metres
    • world record). 47. Int'l Rugby Bd. v. Keyter, CAS 2006/A/1067 (Ct. Arb. Sport 2006). 48. The Rugby Football Union is the governing body of rugby union in England and is affiliated to the
    • RFU. 49. Keyter, CAS 2006/A/1067 para. 2.1. 50. A cocaine metabolite. 51. Keyter, CAS 2006/A/1067 para. 2.6. 52. The International Rugby Board is the governing body of rugby union worldwide. 53. International Rugby Board [IRB], Regulations Relating to the Game, Regulation 21.20.5, 2006. 54. Former Olympic Champion Marion Jones was the most recent athlete whose “A” sample tested positive
    • 'B' Sample Negative, GUARDIAN (London), Sept. 6, 2006, available at
    • http://sport.guardian.co.uk/breakingnews/feedstory/0,,-6063442,00.html. 55. World Anti-Doping Code, supra note 4, art. 10.5; Regulations Relating to the Game, supra note 53,
    • Regulation 21.22.4. 56. Regulations Relating to the Game, supra note 53, Regulation 21.22.4.
    • 1. 67. Regulations Relating to the Game, supra note 53, at Regulation 21, Schedule 2, 2006 (mirroring the
    • WADA prohibited substance list); World Anti-Doping Agency [WADA], The World Anti-Doping Code: The 2006
    • Prohibited List International Standard, § S6, Sept, 19, 2005. 68. Souster, supra note 35, at 81. 69. Such opinion has recently been expressed by the United Kingdom Sports Minister, Richard Caborne.
    • Sport 'Social Drugs' Ban Queried, BBC NEWS, Dec. 12, 2006,
    • http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6171777.stm. 70. Federation Internationale de Football Association-the governing body of football worldwide. 71. P. N. Shepel & Dr. J. D. Geiger, Considerations for Cocaine Use in Sport, SPORTS MEDICINE COUNCIL
    • OF MANITOBA (1998), available at
    • http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:9jngULMdvIkJ:sportmed.mb.ca/web/pdfs/Consideratrionforcocaineuse.pdf+
    • %22because+cocaine+produces+euphoria%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=uk. 76. Hamilton v. U.S. Anti-Doping Ass'n, CAS 2005/A/884 para. 35 (Ct. Arb. Sport 2006). 77. World Anti-Doping Code, supra note 4, art. 1 (purpose, scope, and organization of the WADA Program
    • and Code). 78. The recent match-fixing investigation in Italy which resulted in Juventus being relegated, and the
    • is if there has been corruption or bad faith. Segura v. Int'l. Ass'n of Athletic Fed'ns, CAS OG 2000/013 para. 17
    • (Ct. Arb. Sport 2000). Eight members of the Chicago White Sox in 1919 were banned for life from baseball for
    • activity for life for allegedly betting on games in which he was involved. 79. The Football Association, Rules of the FA Challenge Cup Competition 2006-07, Rule 24 (dealing with
    • the issue of “dual interests and association” in the FA Cup). 80. For example, the R & A Rules of Golf deals specifically with the size of clubs permitted. The R & A
    • (Sept. 2003). Regulations governing the size of cricket bats are regulated by the MCC Official Laws. Marylebone 85. World Anti-Doping Code, supra note 4, art. 1 (purpose, scope, and organization of the World Anti-
    • Doping Program and Code). 86. Int'l Rugby Bd. v. Keyter, CAS 2006/A/1067 para. 4.6 (Ct. Arb. Sport 2006). 87. Id. 88. Sebastian Coe, We Cannot Move from the Strict Liability Rule, DAILY TELEGRAPH (London), Feb. 25,
    • 2004, at Sport 5, available at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2004/02/25/socoe25.xml. 89. See Baxter v. Int'l Olympic Comm., CAS 2002/A/376 (Ct. Arb. Sport 2002) (Scottish skier Alain Baxter
    • circumstances. Edwards v. Am. Arbitration Ass'n., CAS OG 2004/03 (Ct. Arb. Sport 2004). 90. World Anti-Doping Code, supra note 4, at art. 10.5. 91. Richard Caborne Testifying, Social Drugs in Sport Queried,
    • http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/nol/newsid_6170000/newsid_6172500/6172543.stm?bw=bb&mp=rm (last visited
    • December 13, 2006). 92. IRB v. Keyter, CAS 2006/A/1067 (Ct. Arb. Sport 2006).
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