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Caddell, Richard (2016)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
Subjects: KZ
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    • 9 Approximately thirty per cent of Central and Eastern European landmass lay under some form of legal protection upon the dissolution of the USSR: P. Pavlínek and J. Pickles, Environmental Transitions: Transformation and Ecological Defence in Central and Eastern Europe (London: Routledge, 2000), at 42.
    • 10 A. Plakans, A Concise History of the Baltic States (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), at 367.
    • 11 A. Statiev, The Soviet Counterinsurgency in the Western Borderlands (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), at 178.
    • 12 R. Misiunas and R. Taagepera, The Baltic States: Years of Dependence, 1940-1990 (London: Hurst, 1993), at 232.
    • 13 H. Järve et al., 'Comprehensive study of Estonia's coastal zone protection and conservation', Coastline Reports 20 (2012), 63-76, at 64.
    • 14 P.R. Pryde, Environmental Management in the Soviet Union (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), at 263.
    • 15 See Caddell, 'Nature Conservation in Estonia: From Soviet Union to European Union', supra note 2, at 310 and R.W. Smurr, Perceptions of Nature, Expressions of Nation: An Environmental History of Estonia (Köln: Lambert Academic Publishing, 2009), especially pp. 27-129.
    • 16 E-L. Tuvi et al., 'Establishment of protected areas in different ecoregions, ecosystems, and diversity hotspots under successive political systems', Biological Conservation 144 (2011), 1726-1732, at 1728.
    • 17 The most recent census was undertaken in 2011 and concluded in March 2012; the results are published at www.stat.ee (last visited 30 May 2015).
    • 18 Ibid.
    • 19 J. Kliimask et al., 'Nature conservation in remote rural areas: a win-win situation?' in F. Dünkel, M. Herbst and T. Schlengel (eds.), Think Rural! Dynamiken des Wendels in peripheren ländlichen Räumen und ihre Implikatationen für die Daesinsvorsorge (Dordrecht: Springer, 2014), 193-208, at 198.
    • 23 Plakans, A Concise History of the Baltic States, supra note 10, at 20-25; see also Smurr, Perceptions of Nature, Expressions of Nation: An Environmental History of Estonia, supra note 15, at 2-26. As Smurr observes, even today most ethnic Estonian surnames are directly derived from nature: ibid., p. xviii.
    • 24 This noted choral work by the Estonian Veljo Tormis, a world-renowned classical composer, is most usually translated as Wind over the Barrens, again reflecting the notion of kõnnumaa as a landscape that is less conducive to cultivation and human utility.
    • 25 See further K. Tüür and T. Maran, 'On Estonian nature writing', Estonian Literary Magazine 13 (2001), 4-10.
    • 26 C. Bosangit, J. Raadik and L. Shi, Perception of Wilderness in Finland and Estonia (Wagenigen: WWF, 2004), at 25. While this study should be treated with a degree of caution - canvassing a small pool of national experts and the managers of protected areas, rather than the general public, and eliciting a relatively low response rate - the results are nonetheless illuminating.
    • 27 Ibid., at 67.
    • 28 L. Balčiauskas, M. Kazlausakas and T. Randveer, 'Lynx acceptance in Poland, Lithuania and Estonia', Estonian Journal of Ecology 59 (2010), 52-61, at 58. The most negative attitudes were recorded in South Estonia, where the potential impact of resurgent carnivores would be keenest felt; approximately forty per cent of those polled in Tallinn, however, considered wild nature to be 'very important'.
    • 29 T. Randveer, 'The attitudes of Estonians to large carnivores', Acta Zoologica Lituanica 16 (2006) 119-123.
    • 30 See A. Ruskule et al., 'The perception of abandoned farmland by local people and experts: landscape value and perspectives on future land use', Landscape and Urban Planning 115 (2013), 49-61. The authors note, however, that a higher value is generally placed on the revival of wild land by city-dwellers and those with an advanced educational background.
    • 31 K.Z.S. Schwartz, 'Wild horses in a “European wilderness”: imagining sustainable development in the post-communist countryside', Cultural Geographies 12 (2005), 292-320 (examining the clash between Western preservationism and Baltic utilitarianism in the context of reintroducing wildlife to abandoned Latvian farmland).
    • 34 Shtilmark, Историография Российских Эаповедников (1895-1995), supra note 3, at 1.
    • 35 P.R. Pryde, Conservation in the Soviet Union (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972), at 212.
    • 36 D.R. Weiner, Models of Nature: Ecology, Conservation and Cultural Revolution in Soviet Russia (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1988), at 195. This infamous pronouncement was made at the 1933 annual meeting of the All-Union Conference on Nature Conservation, at a point at which the trend of 'self-criticism' was prevalent and a concerted purge of perceived opponents of Socialist economic progress was firmly underway. While there were many genuine antagonists to the notion of unqualified zapovednost, Shtilmark considers that for others tactical opposition to 'bourgeois' wilderness sites perversely represented the only realistic opportunity to secure their protection - by embracing (and accordingly controlling) the seemingly inevitable process of zoning, important areas of zapovedniki could nonetheless be potentially maintained in a pristine state: Shtilmark, Историография Российских Эаповедников (1895-1995), supra note 3, at 58-83.
    • 37 Weiner, ibid., at 227. 38 Ibid., at 237.
    • 39 Shtilmark, Историография Российских Эаповедников (1895-1995), supra note 3, at 134.
    • 40 Tuvi, 'Establishment of Protected Areas in Different Ecoregions, Ecosystems, and Diversity Hotspots under Successive Political Systems', supra note 16, at 1728-1730.
    • 41 P.R. Pryde, 'The environmental basis for ethnic unrest in the Baltic republics' in J.M. Stewart (ed.), The Soviet Environment: Problems, Policies and Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 1992), 11-23, at 12.
    • 42 S. Sööt, 'Estonia' in in P.R. Pryde (ed.), Environmental Resources and Constraints in the Former Soviet Republics (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995), 95-108, at 105.
    • 43 E.V. Bragina et al., 'Rapid declines of large mammal populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union', Conservation Biology 29 (2015), (in press).
    • 44 M.R. Auer, 'Estonian environmental reforms: a small nation's outsized accomplishments' in M.R. Auer (ed.), Restoring Cursed Earth: Appraising Environmental Policy Reforms in Eastern Europe and Russia (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005), 117-143, at 133-34 (noting wholesale logging and illegal construction in previously secured sites).
    • 45 H. Veinla, 'Environmental considerations in Estonian land-use legislation', Juridica International 1 (1996), 48-56, at 50. Similar concerns were raised by the European Commission during Estonia's EU accession process: Caddell, 'Nature Conservation in Estonia: From Soviet Union to European Union', supra note 2, at 315-317.
    • 46 On the NCA generally see H. Veinla and K. Relve, Environmental Law in Estonia (Aalpen aan den Rijn: Kluwer, 2012), at 153-167.
    • 47 Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats of wild flora and fauna [1992] OJ L206/7.
    • 48 See further Chapter 8.
    • 49 Section 2(1). The protection of 'animals living freely in the wild' is vested exclusively in the NCA: see the Animal Protection Act 2000, Sections 1(2) and 6(1). Hunting and fishing is generally prohibited within designated conservation zones and is regulated respectively under the specific legislation governing these activities.
    • 50 Namely, protected areas, limited conservation areas, protected species and fossils, species protection sites, individual protected natural objects and natural objects protected at the local government level: Section 4(1).
    • 58 R.W. Smurr, 'Lahemaa: the paradox of the USSR's first national park', Nationalities Papers 36 (2008), 399-423, at 411. Similar parks - with broadly similar objectives - were soon established in Latvia (Gauja, 1972) and Lithuania (Augštaitija, 1974).
    • 59 Lahemaa Rahvuspargi Põhimäärus; reproduced ibid., at 404.
    • 60 P.R. Pryde, Environmental Management in the Soviet Union, supra note 14, at 162.
    • 61 Section 26(3). 62 Section 31.
    • 78 Section 29(2). 79 Section 15(1).
    • 80 Section 32(2). Access to shores and banks is guaranteed under Section 36 of the NCA.
    • 81 Section 32(2); the amendments entered into force on 14 March 2015. Provision for further restrictions on vehicular access to remote areas is established under Section 5(1) of the Roads Act 1999.
    • 82 Section 34. This general position is reinforced by Section 35 of the Forest Act 2006 in relation to woodland areas.
    • 83 Section 35(3). 84 Section 36.
    • 85 For full details see www.looduseakoos.ee (last visited 30 May 2015).
    • 86 Personal communication with Mr Uudo Timm of the Estonian Ministry of the Environment (on file with the author).
    • 87 Forest coverage increased from 929,000 hectares in 1940 to 2,022,000 hectares in 1993: E. Urbel-Piirsalu and A-K. Bäcklund, 'Exploring the sustainability of Estonian forestry: the socio-economic drivers', Ambio 38 (2009), 101-108, at 101.
    • 88 Section 5(1). 89 Article 23(1). 90 Article 26(6).
    • 91 R. Sirgmets, P. Kaimre and A. Padari, 'Economic impact of enlarging the area of protected forests in Estonia', Forest Policy and Economics 13 (2011) 155-158, at 155.
    • 92 Section 26(4).
    • 93 P. Põllumäe, H. Korjus and T. Paluots, 'Management motivations of Estonian forest owners', Forest Policy and Economics 42 (2014), 8-14, at 11.
    • 94 Section 7(2). Approximately one quarter of all WKHs are located on privately-owned land: Klein and Hermet, Estonian Nature Conservation in 2011, supra note 5, at 51.
    • 95 On the pristine nature of hiied see T. Jonuks, 'Holy groves in Estonian religion', Estonian Journal of Archaeology 11 (2007), 3-35, p.17.
    • 96 State Conservation Plan for Sacred Natural Sites 2008-12 (Tallinn: Estonian Ministry of Culture, 2008), Objective 1. Placing such items under formal legal protection remains an on-going process (Objective 2).
    • 97 Section 15. 98 Section 25(3). 99 Section 27.
    • 100 Section 4(1). Likewise, Estonia has also nominated a series of puisniidud for inclusion upon the Tentative List of the World Heritage Convention, although this specifically celebrates the fact that human cultivation prevents these distinct natural areas from becoming overgrown and subsumed into a wilderness environment.
    • 101 M. Kõivupuu, A. Printsmann and H. Palang, 'From inventory to identity? Constructing the Lahemaa National Park's (Estonia) regional cultural heritage' in T. Bloemers, H. Kars, A. van der Valk and M. Wijnen (eds.), The Cultural Landscape and Heritage Paradox (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2010), 115-131, at 124-125. Similar conflicts have occurred in Latvia: K.Z.S. Schwartz, '“Masters in our native place”: The politics of Latvian national parks on the road from communism to “Europe”', Political Geography 25 (2006), 42-71, at 55.
    • 102 Personal communication with Uudo Timm, supra note 86.
    • 103 Ü. Mander and R. Kuuba, 'Changing landscapes in Northern Europe based on examples from Baltic countries' in R.H.G. Jongman (ed.), The New Dimensions of the European Landscape (Dordrecht: Springer, 2004) 123-134, at 124.
    • 104 Currently, ninety-nine point eight per cent of all strict nature reserves are located on state-owned land, while ninety-two per cent of WCZs are state-owned, six per cent lie on unregistered land and two per cent occur upon private property: Klein and Hermet, Estonian Nature Conservation in 2011, supra note 5, at 62.
    • 105 European Commission, Guidelines for the Management of Wilderness and Wild Areas in Natura 2000, supra note 1, at 65-66.
    • 106 This has been particularly acute in Estonia: see M. Suškevičs and M. Külvik, 'The role of information, knowledge, and acceptance during landowner participation in the Natura 2000 designations: The cases of Otepää and Kõnumaa, Estonia' in M. Jones and M. Stenseke (eds.), The European Landscape Convention: Challenges of Participation (Dordrecht: Springer, 2011), 275-294. Similar problems have been experienced in Latvia: see I. Pavasars, 'Environmentalism in Latvia: Two realities', Journal of Baltic Studies 45 (2014), 39-54, at 42-51.
    • 107 On these developments see A. Marandi, H. Veinla and E. Karro, 'Legal aspects related to the effect of underground mining close to the site entered into the list of potential Natura 2000 network areas', Environmental Science and Policy 38 (2014), 217-224.
    • 108 H. Tooman and A. Ruukel, 'Sustainable development of a remote tourist destination: The case of Soomaa National Park, Estonia' in P. Sloane, C. Simons-Kaufman and W. Legrand (eds.), Sustainable Hospitality and Tourism as Motors of Development: Case Studies from Developing Regions in the World (Abingdon: Routledge, 2012), 276-295, at 278.
    • 109 See A.E. Gorusch, 'All This is Your World': Soviet Tourism at Home and Abroad after Stalin (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 49-78.
    • 110 R. Jaakson, 'Tourism in transition in post-Soviet Estonia', Annals of Tourism Research 23 (1996), 617-634, at 628.
    • 111 T. Unwin, 'Tourist development in Estonia: Images, sustainability and integrated rural development', Tourism Management (1996), 265-276, at 269-272.
    • 112 Cepkeliai-Dzukija National Park, located on the Lithuania-Belarus frontier, was incorporated into the PAN network in 2011. Soomaa National Park also received the EU's EDEN award in 2009 for promoting sustainable ecotourism.
    • 113 A clear map of the regulatory area is reproduced in Fisher et al., Review of Status and Conservation of Wild Land in Europe, supra note 1, at 105.
    • 114 Sustainable Tourism Strategy of the Soomaa NP Region 2009-2013 (Soomaa: Soomaa National Park, 2009), at 20-24.
    • 115 Some of the walkways placed for visitor access within Nigula National Park were subsequently considered to have affected the distribution pattern and population of birds: K. Kimmel et al., 'The status, conservation and sustainable use of Estonian wetlands', Wetlands Ecology and Management 18 (2010), 375-395, at 389.
    • 116 Tooman and Ruukel, 'Sustainable Development of a Remote Tourist Destination: The Case of Soomaa National Park, Estonia', supra note 101, at 292.
    • 117 See M. Reimann, M-L. Lamp and H. Palang, 'Tourism impacts and local communities in Estonian national parks', Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 11 (2011), 87-99.
    • 118 Tooman and Ruukel, 'Sustainable Development of a Remote Tourist Destination: The Case of Soomaa National Park, Estonia', supra note 101, at 291.
    • 119 As one leading operator notes in the context of the popular flying squirrel, tours should not be given in relation to species that are not currently able to support such activities and prospective clients are instead referred to reputable operators in Finland, with a view towards establishing a more ecologically viable experience in Estonia within 5-10 years: personal communication with Mr Eleri Lopp-Valdma of Estonian Wildlife Tours (on file with the author).
    • 120 Personal communication with Mr Aivar Ruukel of Soomaa.com (on file with the author); similar sentiments were expressed by Mr Lopp-Valdma, ibid.
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