LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Bartlett, Hannah E.; Eperjesi, Frank (2003)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects:

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: eye diseases, sense organs, genetic structures
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe vision loss in the developed world. The lack of effective treatment modalities, coupled with evidence supporting an oxidative pathogenesis, has increased interest in the potential preventative role of nutritional supplementation. This article reviews seven randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that have investigated the role of nutritional supplementation in AMD. Three of these trials reported a positive effect of nutritional supplementation on AMD; the Age-related eye study (AREDS), the Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial (LAST), and the oral zinc trial by Newsome et al. (1988). However, the oral zinc trial by Newsome et al. (1988) was unlikely to detect any difference between treatments smaller than 72%, and the AREDS results were based on a subgroup of their study population. Lutein was considered for the AREDS formulation, but was not commercially available at that time. The findings of the LAST support a possible therapeutic role of lutein in AMD. © 2004 The College of Optometrists.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Abramson, D. and Abramson, H. (2002). High-Dose Supplements for AgeRelated Macular Degneration: Did You Leave Out Centrum? Archives of Ophthalmology. 120, 1602.
    • Algvere, P. V. and Seregard, S. (2002). Age-related maculopathy: pathogenetic features and new treatment modalities. Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80, 136-143.
    • Alvarez, R., Liou, G. and Fong, S. (1987). Levels of alpha- and gammatocopherol in human eyes: evaluation of the possible role of IRBP in intraocular alpha-tocopherol transport. Am J Clin Nutr. 46, 481-487.
    • Armstrong, R., Slade, S. and Eperjesi, F. (2000). An introduction to analysis variance (ANOVA) with special reference to data from clinical experiments in optometry. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 20, 235-241.
    • Beardsley, T. (1991). The A Team. Vitamin A and its cousins are potent regulators of cells. Sci. Am. 16-19.
    • Beatty, S., Boulton, M., Henson, D., Koh, H. H. and Murray, I. J. (1999). Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867-877.
    • Beatty, S., Koh, H., Carden, D. and Murray, I. (2000). Macular pigment optical density measurement: a novel compact instrument. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 20, 105-111.
    • Beatty, S., Murray, I. J., Henson, D. B., Carden, D., Koh, H. and Boulton, M. E. (2001). Macular pigment and risk for age-related macular degeneration in subjects from a Northern European population. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42, 439-446.
    • Berendschot, T. T., Goldbohm, R. A., Klopping, W. A., van de Kraats, J., van Norel, J. and van Norren, D. (2000). Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 41, 3322-3326.
    • Berger, A. (2002). Science commentary: What does zinc do? Br. Med. J. 325, 1063-1063.
    • Bernstein, P. S. (2002). New insights into the role of the macular carotenoids in age- related macular degeneration. Resonance Raman studies. Pure Appl. Chem. 74, 1419-1425.
    • Bielski, B. (1982). Chemistry of ascorbic acid radicals. Ascorbic acid: chemistry, metabolism, and uses. Adv Chem Ser. 200, 81-100.
    • Bird, A. (1996). Age-related macular disease. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80, 2-3.
    • Bird, A. and Marshall, J. (1986). Retinal pigment epithelium detachments in the elderly. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK. 105, 674-682.
    • Bird, A. E. C., Bressler, N. M., Bressler, S. B., Chisholm, I. H., Coscas, G., Davis, M. D., Dejong, P., Klaver, C. C. W., Klein, B. E. K., Klein, R., Mitchell, P., Sarks, J. P., Sarks, S. H., Sourbane, G., Taylor, H. R. and Vingerling, J. R. (1995). An International Classification and Grading System for Age- Related Maculopathy and Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Surv. Ophthalmol. 39, 367-374.
    • Bischoff, P. and Flower, R. (1983). High blood pressure in choroidal arteries as a possible pathogenetic machanism in senile macular degeneration. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 96, 398-399.
    • Bodannes, R. and Chan, P. (1979). Ascorbic acid as a scavenger of singlet oxygen. FEBBS Lett. 105, 195-196.
    • Bone, R., Landrum, J. and Tarsis, S. (1985). Preliminary identification of the human macular pigment. Vision Res. 25, 1531-1535.
    • Bone, R., Landrum, J. T. and Fernandez, L. (1988). Analysis of the macular pigment by HPLC: retinal distribution and age study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 29, 843-849.
    • Bone, R. A., Landrum, J. T., Mayne, S., Gomez, C., Tibor, S. and Twaroska, E. (2001). Macular pigment in donor eyes with and without AMD: A casecontrol study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 42, 235-240.
    • Bressler, N. M. and Bressler, S. B. (1995). Preventative Ophthalmology - AgeRelated Macular Degeneration. Ophthalmology. 102, 1206-1211.
    • Burton, G., Foster, D., Perly, B., Slater, T., Smith, I. and Ingold, K. (1985). Biological antioxidants. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 311, 565-578.
    • Burton, G. and Ingold, K. (1984a). Beta-carotene: an unusual type of lipid antioxidant. Science. 224, 569-573.
    • Burton., G. and Ingold, K. (1984). Autoxidation of biological molecules: 1: The antioxidant activity of vitamin E and related chain-breaking phenolic antioxidants in vitro. J Am Chem Assoc. 103, 6472-6477.
    • Chuang, E. and Bird, A. (1988). The pathogenesis of tears of the retinal pigment epithelium. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 105, 185-190.
    • Clarke, M. P., Pearson, J. C. G., Vernon, S. A. and Matthews, J. C. (1990). Influence of Pupil Size on Measurements Made with the Lens Opacity Meter 701. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 74, 526-527.
    • Costagliola, C., Iuliano, G., Marino, E., Paolercio, F., Trapanese, A. and Apponibattini, G. (1990). Quantification and Measurement of Human Lens Opacities Using the Lens Opacity Meter. Ophthalmologica. 201, 45- 48.
    • Curcio, C. and Millican, C. (1999). Basal linear deposits and large drusen are specific for early age-related maculopathy. Arch. Ophthalmol. 117, 329- 339.
    • Delcourt, C., Cristol, J. P., Tessier, F., Leger, C. L., Descomps, B. and Papoz, L. (1999). Age-related macular degeneration and antioxidant status in the POLA study. Arch. Ophthalmol. 117, 1384-1390.
    • Dilley, R., A; McConnell,D,G. (1970). Alpha-tocopherol in the retinal outer segment of bovine eyes. J. Membr. Biol. 2, 317-323.
    • Drevon, C. (1991). Absorption, transport and metabolism of vitamin E. Free Radic Res Commun. 14, 229-246.
    • Dunlap, W., James, G. and Hume, D. (1974). Anaemia and neutropenia caused by copper deficiency. Annals of Internal Medicine. 80, 470-476.
    • Eckhert, C. (1979). A comparative study of the concentrations of Ca, Fe, Zn and Mn in ocular tissues. Fed Proc. 38, 872.
    • EDCCS Group (1993). Antioxidant status and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The Eye Disease Case Control Study Group. Arch. Ophthalmol. 111, 104-109.
    • EDCCS Group (1992). Risk Factors for age-related macular degeneration. The Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group. Arch. Ophthalmol. 110, 1701-8.
    • Evans, J. (2002). Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplementation for preventing age-related macular degeneration. The Cochrane Library.
    • Evans, J. and Wormald, R. (1996). Is the incidence of registrable age-related macular degeneration increasing? Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80, 9-14.
    • Farber, D., Flannery, J., Lolley, R. and Bok, D. (1985). Distribution patterns of photoreceptors, protein, and cyclic nucleotides in the human retina. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 1558-68.
    • Feeney-Burns, L. and Ellersieck, M. (1985). Age-related changes in the ultrastructure of Bruch's membrane. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 100, 686-697.
    • Fischer, P., Giroux, A. and L'Abbe, M. (1983). Effects of zinc on mucosal copper binding and on the kinetics of copper absorption. J. Nutr. 113, 462-469.
    • Flanagan, P., Haist, J. and Valberg, L. (1983). Zinc absorption, intraluminal zinc and intestinal metallothionein levels in zinc-deficient and zinc-replete rodents. J. Nutr. 113, 962-972.
    • Friedman, E., Krupsky, S., Lane, A., Oak, S., Friedman, E., Egan, K. and Gragoudas, E. (1995). Ocular blood flow velocity in age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. 102, 640-646.
    • Fukuzawa, K. and Gebicki, J. (1983). Oxidation of alpha-tocopherol in micelles and liposomes by the hydroxyl, perhydroxyl, and superoxide free radicals. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 226, 242-251.
    • Galin, M., Nano, H. and Hall, T. (1962). Ocular zinc concentration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1, 142-148.
    • Gey, K., Stahalin, H. and Eichholzer, M. (1993). Poor plasma status of carotene and vitamin C is associated with higher mortality from ischaemic heart disease and stroke: Basel Prospective Study. Clin. Investig. 71(1), 3-6.
    • Gray, J. A. M. (1997). Evidence-based healthcare. How to make health body and mangement decisions. Churchill Livingstone,
    • Halliwell, B. G. J., M,C. (1999). Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Oxford University Press. 3rd edition,
    • Ham, W. (1983). Ocular hazards of light sources: review of current knowledge. J Occup Med. 25, 101-103.
    • Ham, W., Mueller, H. and Ruffolo, J. (1984). Basic mechanisms underlying the production of photochemical lesions in the mammalian retina. Curr Eye Res. 3, 165-174.
    • Ham, W. and Mueller, W. 1989 The photopathology and nature of the blue-light and near-UV retinal lesion produced by lasers and other optical sources Laser Applications in Medicine and Biology Plenum Press, New York, 191-246.
    • Hammond, B. and Caruso-Avery, M. (2000). Macular pigment optical density in a Southwestern sample. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 41, 1492-1497.
    • Hammond, B. J., Wooten, B. and Snodderly, D. (1997). Individual variations in the spatial profile of human macular pigment. J Am Optom Assoc. 14, 1187-1196.
    • Hammond, B. R., Ciulla, T. A. and Snodderly, D. M. (2002). Macular pigment density is reduced in obese subjects. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 47-50.
    • Handelman, G., Dratz, E. and Reay, C. (1988). Carotenoids in the human macula and the whole retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 29, 850-855.
    • Handelman, G., Machlin, L. and Fitch, K. (1985). Oral alpha-tocopherol supplements decrease plasma gamma-tocopherol levels in humans. J Nutr. 115, 807-813.
    • Hawkins, B. S., Bird, A., Klein, R. and West, S. K. (1999). Epidemiology of agerelated macular degeneration. Mol. Vis. 5, U7-U10.
    • Hemila, H., Roberts, P. and Wikstrom, M. (1985). Activated polymorphonuclear leucocytes consume vitamin C. FEBS Letters. 178, 25-30.
    • Huber, A. and Gershoff, S. (1975). Effects of zinc deficiency on the oxidation of etinol and ethanol in rats. Nutrition. 105, 1486-1490.
    • Hulley, S., Cummings, S., Browner, W., Grady, D., Hearst, N. and Newman, T. (2001). Designing Clinical Research. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.
    • Hunt, D., F; Organisciak,D,T; Wu,R,C (1984). Alpha-tocopherol in the developing rat retina: a high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis. Curr. Eye Res. 3, 1281-1288.
    • Huwiler-Muntener, K., Juni,P., Junker,C., Egger,M. (2002). Quality of Reporting Randomized Trials as a Measure of Methodologic Quality. J. Am. Med. Soc. 287, 2801-2804.
    • Hyman, L. G., Lilienfeld, A. M., Ferris, F. L. and Fine, S. L. (1983). Senile Macular Degeneration - a Case-Control Study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 118, 213-227.
    • Ishibashi, T., Sorgente, N., Patterson, R. and Ryan, S. (1986). Pathogenesis of drusen in the primate. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 27, 184-193.
    • Jacques, P. (1992a). Relationship of vitamin C status to cholesterol and blood pressure. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 669, 205-214.
    • Jacques, P. F. (1992b). Effects of vitamin C on high density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure. Am J Coll Nutr. 11(2), 139-144.
    • Kaiser, H. J., Flammer, J., Stumpfig, D. and Hendrickson, P. (1995). Visaline(R) in the Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration - a Pilot-Study. Ophthalmologica. 209, 302-305.
    • Kaplan, J., BGerber, S. and Larget-Piet, D. (1993). A gene for Stargardt's disease(fundus flavimaculatus) maps to the short arm of chromosome 1. Nat. Genet. 5, 308-311.
    • Karcioglu, Z. (1982). Zinc and the eye. Surv. Ophthalmol. 27, 114-122.
    • Khachik, F. and Beecher, G. (1987). Application of a c-45-b-carotene as an internal standard for the quantification of carotenoids in yellow/orange vegetables by liquid chromatography. J. Agric. Food Chem. 35, 732-738.
    • Khachik, F. and Beecher, G. (1988). Separation and identification of carotenoids and carotenol fatty acid esters in some squash products by liquid chromatography. 1. Quantification of carotenoids and related esters by HPLC. J. Agric. Food Chem. 36, 929-937.
    • Khachik, F., Beecher, G. and Goli, M. 1992 Separation and quantification of carotenoids in foods Methods Enzymol. Academic Press, San Diego, 347-359.
    • Khachik, F., Beecher, G. and Goli, M. (1991). Separation, identification, and quantification of carotenoids in fruits, vegetables and human plasma by higg performance liquid chromatography. Pure Appl. Chem. 63, 71-80.
    • Khachik, F., Beecher, G. and Lusby, W. (1989). Separation, identification, and quantification of the major carotenoids in extracts of apricots, peaches, cantaloupe and pink grapefruit by liquid chromoatography. J. Agric. Food Chem. 37, 1465-1473.
    • Khachik, F., Bernstein, P. S. and Garland, D. L. (1997). Identification of lutein and zeaxanthin oxidation products in human and monkey retinas. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 38, 1802-1811.
    • Klein, R., Klein, B. and Franke, T. (1993). The relationship of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors to age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 100, 406-414.
    • Klein, R., Klein, B. E. K. and Linton, K. L. P. (1992). Prevalence of Age-Related Maculopathy - the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 99, 933-943.
    • Klein, R., Wang, Q. and Klein, B. (1995). The relationship of age-related maculopathy, cataract, and glaucoma to visual acuity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 36, 182-191.
    • Klevay, L. M. (2000). Cardiovascular disease from copper deficiency - a history. J. Nutr. 130 (2), 489S-492S.
    • Kornzweig, A. (1977). Changes in the choriocapillaris associated with senile macular degeneration. Ann Ophthalmol. 9, 753-764.
    • Landrum, J. T. and Bone, R. A. (2001). Lutein, zeaxanthin, and the macular pigment. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 385, 28-40.
    • Lazarides, L. (1997). The Nutritional Health Bible. Harper Collins, London.
    • Leo, M. A. and Lieber, C. S. (1997). Risk factors for lung cancer and for intervention effects in CARET, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 89, 1722-1723.
    • Linder, M., Chang, T. S., Scott, I. U., Hay, D., Chambers, K., Sibley, L. M. and Weis, E. (1999). Validity of the Visual Function Index (VF-14) in patients with retinal disease. Arch. Ophthalmol. 117, 1611-1616.
    • Machlin, L. (1980). Vitamin E: a comprehensive treatise. Dekker, New York.
    • Machlin, L. and Bendich, A. (1987). Free radical tissue damage:protective role of antioxidant nutrients. Faseb J. 1, 441-445.
    • Mangels, A., Holden, J. and Beecher, G. (1993). Carotenoid content of fruits and vegetables: an evaluation of analytic data. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 93, 284-296.
    • Manson, J., Stampfer, M. and Willett, W. (1991). A prospective study of antioxidant vitamins and incidence of coronary heart disease in women. Circulation. 84(II), 546 (abstract).
    • Martin, H., Ruck, C., Schmidt, M., Sell, S., Beutner, S., Mayer, B. and Walsh, R. (1999). Chemistry of carotenoid oxidation and free radical reactions. Pure and Applied Chemistry. 71, 2253-2262.
    • Mathews-Roth, M. (1986). Beta-carotene therapy for erythropoietic protoporphyria and other photosensitivity diseases. Biochemie. 68, 875- 884.
    • McCay, P. (1985). Vitamin E: interactions with free radicals and ascorbate. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 5, 323-340.
    • McClain, C., Kararskis, E. and Allen, J. (1985). Functional consequences of zinc deficiency. Prog Food Nutr Sci. 9, 185-226.
    • Moore, D., Hussain, A. and Marshall, J. (1995). Age-related variation in the hydraulic conducitivity of bruch's membrane. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 36, 1290-1297.
    • Newsome, D. A., Swartz, M., Leone, N. C., Elston, R. C. and Miller, E. (1988). Oral Zinc in Macular Degeneration. Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 192-198.
    • Nishikimi, M. (1975). Oxidation of ascorbic acid with superoxide anion generated by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 63, 463-468.
    • Olson, J. A. (1984). Serum levels of vitamin A and carotenoids as reflectors of nutritional status. J Natl Cancer Inst. 73, 1439-1444.
    • Ong, A. and Tee, E. 1992 Natural sources of carotenoids from plants and oils Methods Enzymol. Academic Press, London, 142-167.
    • Osilesi, O., Trout, D. and Ogunwole, J. (1991). Blood pressure and plasma lipids during ascorbic acid supplementation in borderline hypertensive and normotensive adults. Nutr. Res. 11, 402-412.
    • Ozawa, T., Hanaki, A. and Matsuo, M. (1983). Reactions of superoxide ion with tocopherol and model compounds: correleation between the physiological activities of tocopherols and the concentration of chromanoxyl-radicals. Biochem. Int. 6, 685-692.
    • Pauleikhoff, D., Harper, C., Marshall, J. and Bird, A. (1990). Ageing changes in Bruch's membrane. A histochemical and morphological study. Ophthalmology. 97, 171-178.
    • Pippenger, C., Zianzhong, M. and Rothner, D. 1991 Free radical scavenging enzyme activity profiles in risk assessment of idiosyncratic drug reactions Idiosyncratic reactions to valproate: clinical risk patterns and mechanisms of toxicity Raven Press, New York, 75-88.
    • Potts, A. (1966). An hypothesis on macular disease. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 70, 1058-1062.
    • Richer, S., Stiles, W., Statkute, L., Pei, K., Frankowski, J., Nyland, J., Pulido, J. and Rudy, D. (2002). The Lutein Antioxidant Suplementation Trial (EAbstract 2542). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 43,
    • Ridgman, W. (1975). Experimentation in Biology. Blackie, London.
    • Schalch, W. (2001). Importance of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin for the human eye. Part 1. Chim. Oggi-Chem. Today. 19, 12-15.
    • Seddon, J. M. (1999). Nutrition and age-related eye disease. Vitamin Nutrition Information Service. Backgrounder. 2,
    • Seddon, J. M., Smith and Smith (1996). A prospective study of cigarette smoking and age-related macular degeneration in women. JAMA. 276,
    • Sheraidah, G., Syeinmetz, R., Maguire, J., Pauleikhoff, D., Marshall, J. and Bird, A. (1993). Corelation between lipids extracted from Bruch's membrane with age. Ophthalmology. 100, 47-51.
    • Siegel, E., Craig, G. and Crystal, M. (1961). Distribution of Zn in the prostate and other organs of man. Br J Cancer. 15, 647-664.
    • Sies, H. (1991). Oxidative stress: from basic research to clinical application. Am J Med. 91 (Suppl), 31-37.
    • Silvestri, G. (1997). Age-related macular degeneration: Genetics and implications for detection and treatment. Mol. Med. Today. 3, 84-91.
    • Smith, W. and Mitchell, P. (1996). Alcohol intake and age-related maculopathy. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122, 743-745.
    • Smith, W. and Mitchell, P. (1998). Family history and age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Arch. Ophthalmol. 26, 203-206.
    • Snodderly, D. M., Auran, J. and Delori, F. (1984). The macular pigment II. Spatial distribution in primate retinas. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 674-685.
    • Snodderly, D. M., Handelman, G. J. and Adler, A. J. (1991). Distribution of individual macular pigment carotenoids in central retinal of macaque and squirrel monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 32, 268-279.
    • Solomons, M. (1979). On the assessment of zinc and copper nutriture in man. Am J Clin Nutr. 32, 856-871.
    • Solomons, N. and Russell, R. (1980). The interaction of vitamin A and zinc: implications for human nutrition. Am J Clin Nut. 33, 2031-2040.
    • Sommerburg, O., Keunen, J. E., Bird, A. C. and van Kuijk, F. J. (1998). Fruits and vegetables that are sources for lutein and zeaxanthin: the macular pigment in human eyes. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82, 907-910.
    • Stainer, L., A; Eperjesi, F (2002). Literature review of randomised controlled trials (RCT) investigating the effects of nutritional supplements on agerelated eye disease. Unpublished report. Alcon.
    • Stone, E., Nichols, B., Kimura, A. and Weingeist, T. (1994). Clinical features of a Stargardt-like dominant progressive macular dystrophy with genetic linkage to chromosome 6q. Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 765-772.
    • Stone, E., Nichols, B. and Streb, L. (1992). Genetic linkage of vitelliform macular degeneration (Best's disease) to chromosome 11 q13. Nat. Genet. 1, 246-250.
    • Stur, M., Tittl, M., Reitner, A. and Meisinger, V. (1996). Oral zinc and the second eye in age-related macular degeneration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 37, 1225-1235.
    • Swanson, A. and Truesdale, A. (1971). Elemental analysis of normal and caractous human lens tissue. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 45, 1488- 1496.
    • Tamakoshi, A., Yuzawa, M., Matsui, M., Uyama, M., Fujiwara, N. K. and Ohno, Y. (1997). Smoking and neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration in late middle aged males: findings from a case- control study in Japan. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 81, 901-904.
    • Taylor, H. R., Tikellis, G., Robman, L. D., McCarty, C. A. and McNeil, J. J. (2002). Vitamin E supplementation and macular degeneration: randomised controlled trial. Br. Med. J. 325, 11.
    • Teikari, J. M., Laatikainen, L., Virtamo, J., Haukka, J., Rautalahti, M., Liesto, K., Albanes, D., Taylor, P. and Heinonen, O. P. (1998). Six-year supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta- carotene and agerelated maculopathy. Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 76, 224-229.
    • The AREDS Research Group (2001). A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss - AREDS Report No. 8. Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 1417-1436.
    • Turnland, J., Costa, F. and Fargen, S. (1981). Zinc, copper and iron balance in elderly men. Am J Clin Nutr. 34, 2641-2647.
    • Ujiie, M. (1979). Studies on metabolism of trace metals in aqueous humour, ocular tissues and other organ tissues of albino rabbit. Acta Soc Ophthal. 83, 2149-2157.
    • Urbach, C., Hickman, K. and Harris, P. (1951). Effect of individual vitamins A, C, E and carotene administered at high levels and their concentration in the blood. Exp. Med. Surg. 10, 7-20.
    • Van der Hagen, A., Yolton, D., Kaminski, M. and Yolton, R. (1993). Free radicals and antioxidant supplementation: a review of their roles in age related macular degeneration. J Am Optom Assoc. 64, 871-878.
    • Verhoeff, F. and Grossman, H. (1937). Pathogenesis of disciform degeneration of the macula. Arch. Ophthalmol. 18, 561-585.
    • Vinding, T. (1995). Age-related macular degeneration. Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 217, 1-32.
    • Vingerling, J. R., Hofman, A., Grobbee, D. E. and deJong, P. (1996). Agerelated macular degeneration and smoking - The Rotterdam study. Arch. Ophthalmol. 114, 1193-1196.
    • Vitale, S., West, S. and Hallfrisch, J. (1993). Plasma antioxidants and risk of cortical and nuclear cataract. Epidemiology. 43, 195-203.
    • Wagner, P. (1985). Zinc nutriture in the elderly. Geriatrics. 40, 111-125.
    • Wagner, P., Jernigan, J. and Bailey, L. (1983). Zinc nutriture and cell-mediated immunity in the aged. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 53, 94-101.
    • Wald, G. (1945). Human vision and the spectrum. Science. 101, 653-658.
    • Werner, J., Donnelly, S. and Kliegl, R. (1987). Aging and human macular pigment density: appended with translations from the work of Max Schultze and Ewald Hering. Vision Res. 27, 257-268.
    • West, S., Vitale, S., Hallfrisch, J., Munoz, B., Muller, D., Bressler, S. and Bressler, N. M. (1994). Are Antioxidants or Supplements Protective for Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 222-227.
    • Williams, H., Fenna, D. and MacBeth, R. (1971). Alpha-tocopherol in the treatment of intermittent claudication. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 132(4), 662-666.
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article