LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P (2007)
Publisher: BioMed Central
Journal: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology (London, England)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Industrial medicine. Industrial hygiene, sports, Hypothesis, RC963-969

Abstract

Background

Supplement use by athletes is complex and research supports the alarming notion of misinformed decisions regarding supplements.

Hypothesis

A frequent divergence between the type of supplements chosen by athletes and the rationale dictating the supplement use is hypothesized. Thus, a potentially dangerous incongruence may exist between rationale and practice.

Testing the hypothesis

In the continued absence of reliable data on supplement use, an alternative approach of studying the reasons underlying supplement use in athletes is proposed to determine whether there is an incongruence between rationale and practice. Existing data from large scale national surveys can be used to investigate this incongruence.

Implications of the hypothesis

In this report, analyses of distinctive patterns between the use and rationale for use of supplements among athletes are recommended to explore this potentially dangerous phenomenon.

  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Palmer ME, Haller C, McKinney PE, Klein-Scwartz W, Tschirgi A, Smolinske SC, Woolf A, Sprague B, Ko R, Everson G: Adverse events associated with dietary supplements: an observational study. Lancet 2003, 361:101-106.
    • 2. Miller CK, Russell T, Kissling G: Decision-making patterns for dietary supplement purchases among women aged 25 to 45 years. J Am Diet Assoc 2003, 103:1523-1526.
    • 3. Neuhouser ML: Dietary supplement use by American women: challenges in assessing patterns of use, motives and costs. J Nutr 2003:1992-1996.
    • 4. Radimer K, Bindewald B, Hughes J, Ervin B, Swanson C, Picciano MF: Dietary supplement use by US adults: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999- 2000. Am J Epidem 2004, 160:339-349.
    • 5. WADA 2006: The World Anti-Doping Code. The 2007 Prohibited List. International standard. [http://www.wadaama.org/rtecontent/document/2007_List_En.pdf].
    • 6. Erdman KA, Fung TS, Reimer RA: Influence of performance level on dietary supplementation in elite Canadian athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006, 38:349-356.
    • 7. Huang S, Johnson K, Pipe A: The use of dietary supplements and medication by Canadian athletes in the Atlanta and Sydney Olympic Games. Clin J Sport Med 2006, 16:27-33.
    • 8. Maugham RJ: Contamination of dietary supplements and positive drug tests in sport. J Sport Sci 2005, 23:883-889.
    • 9. Nieper A: Nutritional supplement practices in UK junior national track and field athletes. Brit J Sport Med 2005, 39:645-649.
    • 10. Silver MD: Use of ergogenic aids by athletes. J Am Acad Orthopaed Surg 2001, 9:61-70.
    • 11. Slater G, Tan B, Teh KC: Dietary supplementation practices of Singaporean athletes. Int J Exerc Metab 2003, 13:20-32.
    • 12. Sundgot-Borgen J, Berglund B, Torsveit MK: Nutritional supplements in Norvegian elite athletes - impact of international ranking and advisors. Scand J Med Sci Sport 2003, 13:138-144.
    • 13. Aoi W, Naito Y, Yoshikawa T: Exercise and functional foods. Nutr J 2006, 5:15. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-5-15.
    • 14. Armsey TD, Green GA: Nutrition supplements: Science vs hype. Physician Sportmed 1997, 25:77-92.
    • 15. Kreider RB, Almada AL, Antonio J, Broeder C, Earnest C, Greenwood M, Incledon T, Kalman DS, Kleiner SM, Leutholtz B, Lowery LM, Mendel R, Stout JR, Willoughby DS, Ziegenfuss TN: ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendation. Sports Nutr Rev J 2004, 1:1-44.
    • 16. Lawrence ME, Kirby DF: Nutrition and Sports Supplements: Fact or Fiction. J Clin Gastroenterol 2002, 35:299-306.
    • 17. Telkin KA, Kravitz L: The growing trend of ergogenic drugs and supplements. ACSM Health Fitness J 2004, 8:15-18.
    • 18. Dorsch KD, Bell AB: Dietary supplement use in adolescents. Current Opin Pediatr 2005, 17:653-657.
    • 19. Green GA, Uryasz FD, Petr TA, Bray C: NCAA study of substance use and abuse habits of college student-athletes. Clin J Sport Med 2001, 11:51-56.
    • 20. Hespel P, Maughan RJ, Greenhaff PL: Dietary supplements for football. J Sports Sci 2006, 24:749-761.
    • 21. Massad SJ, Shier NW, Koceja DM, Ellis NT: High school athletes and supplements: A study of knowledge and use. Int J Sport Nutr 1995, 5:232-245.
    • 22. Ronsen O, Sundgot-Borgen J, Maehlum S: Supplement use and nutritional habits in Norvegian elite athletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports 1999, 9:28-35.
    • 23. Schulze MB, Hoffman K, Kroke A, Boeing H: Dietary patterns and their association with food and nutrient intake in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) - Potsdam study. Brit J Nutr 2001, 85:363-373.
    • 24. Burns RD, Schiller MR, Fada RD, Merrick MA, Wolf KN: Intercollegiate student athlete use of nutritional supplements and the role of athletic trainers and dietitians in nutrition counseling. J Am Diet Assoc 2004, 104:246-249.
    • 25. Economos R, Bortz S, Nelson M: Nutritional practices of elite athletes. Sports Med 1993, 16:381-389.
    • 26. Jonnalagadda SS, Rosenbloom CA, Skinner R: Dietary practices, attitudes and physiological status of collegiate freshman football players. J Strength Cond Res 2001, 15:507-513.
    • 27. Worme JD, Doubt TJ, Singh A, Ryan CJ, Moses FM, Deuster PA: Dietary patterns, gastrointestinal complaints, and nutrition knowledge of recreational triathletes. Am J Clin Nutr 1990, 51:690-697.
    • 28. Laure P, Binsinger C: Adolescent athletes and the demand and supply of drugs to improve their performance. J Sport Sci Med 2005, 4:272-277.
    • 29. O'Dea J: Consumption of nutritional supplements among adolescents: usage and perceived benefits. Health Educ Res 2003, 18:98-107.
    • 30. Bartee RT, Grandjean B, Dunn MS, Perko MA, Eddy JM, Wang MQ: Predictors of dietary supplement use among adolescent athletes. Pediatric Exerc Sci 2004, 16:250-264.
    • 31. Suchard JR, Suchard MA, Steinfeldt JL: Physician knowledge of herbal toxicities and adverse herb-drug interactions. Eur J Emerg Med 2004, 11:193-197.
    • 32. Kemper KJ, Gardiner P, Gobble J, Woods C: Expertise about herbs and dietary supplements among diverse health professionals. BMC Complement Altern Med 2006, 6:15. doi:10.1186/1472- 6882-6-15.
    • 33. Smith-Rockwell M, Nickols-Richardson SM, Thye FW: Nutrition knowledge, and practices of coaches and athletic trainers at a division 1 university. Int J Sport Nurt Exerc Metab 2001, 11:174-185.
    • 34. Calfee R, Fadale P: Popular ergogenic drugs and supplements in young athletes. Pediatrics 2006, 117:577-589.
    • 35. Juhn MS: Popular sports supplements and ergogenic aids. Sports Med 2003, 33:921-939.
    • 36. Maugham RJ: Nutritional ergogenic aids and exercise performance. Nutr Res Rev 1999, 12:255-280.
    • 37. Maugham RJ, King DS, Lea T: Dietary supplements. J Sport Sci 2004, 22:95-113.
    • 38. UK Sport. Drug-free sport survey. London UK Sport 2005.
    • 39. Baume N, Mahler M, Kamber P, Saugy M: Research of stimulants and anabolic steroids in dietary supplements. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2006, 16:41-48.
    • 40. Baylis AM, Cameron-Smith D, Burke M: Inadvertent doping through supplement use by athletes: assessment and management of the risks in Australia. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2001, 11:365-383.
    • 41. Green GA, Catlin DH, Starcevic B: Analysis of over-the-counter dietary supplements. Clin J Sport Med 2001, 11:254-259.
    • 42. Haller CA, Duan M, Benowitz NL, Jacob III P: Concentration of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine in commercial dietary supplements. J Analytic Toxicol 2004, 28:145-151.
    • 43. Kamber M, Baume N, Saugy M, Rivier L: Nutritional supplements as a source for positive doping cases? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2001, 11:258-263.
    • 44. Pipe A, Ayotte C: Nutritional supplements and doping. Clin J Sport Med 2002, 12:245-249.
    • 45. Striegel H, Vollcommer G, Hortsmann T, Niess AM: Contaminated nutritional supplements - legal protection for elite athletes who tested positive: A case report from Germany. J Sports Sci 2005, 23:723-726.
    • 46. Powers KM, Smith-Weller T, Franklin GM, Longstreth WT Jr, Swanson PD, Checkoway H: Parkinson's disease risks associated with dietary iron, manganese, and other nutrient intakes. Neurology 2003, 60:1761-1766.
    • 47. Zoller H, Vogel W: Iron supplementation in athletes - first do no harm. Nutrition 2004, 20:615-619.
    • 48. Wroblewski K: Can the administration of large doses of vitamin C have a harmful effect? Pol Merkuriusz Lek 2005, 19:600-603.
    • 49. Fisher AEO, Naughton DP: Iron supplements: the quick fix with long-term consequences. Nutr J 2004, 3:1475-2891.
    • 50. Benzi G, Ceci A: Creatine as nutritional supplementation and medical product. J Sport Med Phys Fitness 2001, 41:1-10.
    • 51. Tokish JM, Kocher MS, Hawkins RJ: Ergogenic Aids: A Review of Basic Science, Performance, Side Effects, and Status in Sports. Am J Sports Med 2004, 32:1543-1553.
    • 52. James JE: Critical review of dietary caffeine and blood pressure: a relationship that should be taken more seriously. Psychosom Med 2004, 66:63-71.
    • 53. Haller CA, Meier KH, Olson KR: Seizures reported in association with use of dietary supplements. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2005, 43:23-30.
    • 54. Shao A, Hathcock JN: Risk assessment for creatine monohydrate. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2006, 45:242-251.
    • 55. Shekelle PG, Hardy ML, Morton SC, Maglione M, Mojica WA, Suttorp MJ, Rhodes SL, Jungvig L, Gagné J: Efficacy and Safety of Ephedra and Ephedrine for Weight Loss and Athletic Performance. A Meta-analysis. JAMA 2003, 289:1537-1545.
    • 56. Lippi G, Franchini M, Guidi GC: Blood doping by cobalt. Should we measure cobalt in athletes? J Occupational Med Toxicol 2006, 1:18. doi:10.1186/1745-6673-1-18.
    • 57. Paulhus DL, Reid DB: Enhancement and denial in socially desirable responding. J Pers Soc Psychol 1991, 60:307-317.
    • 58. Tardia CH, Dindia K: Self-disclosure: Strategic revelation of information in personal and professional relationships. In The handbook of communication skills 3rd edition. Edited by: Hargie O. London Routledge; 2006:229-266.
    • 59. Lenth RV: Some Practical Guidelines for Effective Sample Size Determination. Am Statistician 2001, 55:187-193.
    • 60. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS: Using multivariate statistics. 4th edition. Boston, MA:Allyn & Bacon; 2001.
    • 61. Wayne WD: Applied nonparametric statistics. 2nd edition. Boston, MA: PWS-Kent; 1990.
    • 62. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, Simonetti RG, Gluud C: Mortality in randomised trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention. JAMA 2007, 297:842-857.
    • 63. Ziegler PJ, Nelson JA, Jonnalagadda SS: Use of dietary supplements by elite figure skaters. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2003, 13:266-276.
    • 64. Food Standards Agency [http://www.foodstandards.gov.uk/food industry]
    • 65. Food Standards Agency: Full regulatory impact assessment. The food supplements (England) regulations 2003 [http://www.food.gov.uk/ multimedia/pdfs/foodsuppsria.pdf].
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.