LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Havlíček, J.; Gašová, Z.; Smith, Andrew Paul; Zvára, K.; Flegr, J. (2001)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: BF
Toxoplasma gondii is known to induce specific behavioural changes in its intermediate hosts. This is usually considered to be an evolutionary adaptation aimed to increase the probability of transmission of the parasite into its definitive host, the cat, by predation. In rodents an increase of reaction time as well as many other specific behavioural patterns have been observed. Here we report the results of our double blind study showing the significantly longer reaction times of 60 subjects with latent toxoplasmosis in comparison with those of 56 controls. Moreover, the existence of a positive correlation between length of infection and mean reaction time suggested that slow and cumulative effects of latent toxoplasmosis rather than a one-step (and possibly transient) effect of acute toxoplasmosis disease are responsible for the decrease of psychomotor performance of infected subjects. To our knowledge, this is the first study confirming the existence of such parasite-induced changes in human behaviour that could be considered in evolutionary history of the human species as adaptive from the point of view of parasite transmission.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • arendt, g., von giesen, h. j., hefter, h., neuen-jacob, e., roick, h. & jablonowski, h. (1999). Long-term course and outcome in AIDS patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 100, 178±184.
    • arsenijevic, d., girardier, l., seydoux, j., chang, h. r. & dulloo, a. g. (1997). Altered energy balance and cytokine gene expression in a murine model of chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii. American Journal of Physiology 272, E908±E917.
    • berdoy, m., webster, j. p. & macdonald, d. w. (2000). Fatal attraction in rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 267, 591±594.
    • derouin, f., gluckman, e., beauvais, b., devergie, a., melo, r., monny, m. & lariviere, m. (1986). Toxoplasma infection after human allogeneic bone marrow transplantation : clinical and serological study of 80 patients. Bone Marrow Transplantation 1, 67±73.
    • develoux, m., candolfi, e., hango-dounbo, s. & kien, t. (1988). La toxoplasmose au Niger. Bulletin de la socieU teU de Pathologie Exotique 81, 253±259.
    • figueiredo, j. f., moyses-neto, m., gomes, u. a., suaid, h., ferraz, a. s., martins, a. c. & fiorillo, a. m. (1983). Antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii in renal transplant patients. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 16, 235±239.
    • flegr, j. & havli! c)ek, j. (1999). Changes in the personality pro®le of young women with latent toxoplasmosis. Folia Parasitologica (Praha) 46, 22±28.
    • flegr, j. & hrdy! , i. (1994). In¯uence of chronic toxoplasmosis on some human personality factors. Folia Parasitologica (Praha) 41, 122±126.
    • flegr, j., kodym, p. & tolarova! , v. (2000). Correlation of duration of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection with personality changes in women. Biological Psychology 53, 57±68.
    • flegr, j., zitkova! , s., kodym, p. & frynta, d. (1996). Induction of changes in human behaviour by the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Parasitology 113, 49±54.
    • frenkel, j. k. & ruiz, a. (1980). Human toxoplasmosis and cat contact in Costa Rica. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 29, 1167±1180.
    • gallino, a., maggiorini, m., kiowski, w., martin, x., wunderli, w., schneider, j., turina, m. & follath, f. (1996). Toxoplasmosis in heart transplant recipients. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 15, 389±393.
    • grant, i. h., gold, j. w., rosenblum, m., niedzwiecki, d. & armstrong, d. (1990). Toxoplasma gondii serology in HIV-infected patients : the development of central nervous system toxoplasmosis in AIDS. AIDS 4, 519±521.
    • hall, s. r. & smith, a. p. (1996). Behavioural effects of infectious mononucleosis. Neuropsychobiology 33, 202±209.
    • halonen, s. k., lyman, w. d. & chiu, f. c. (1996). Growth and development of Toxoplasma gondii in human neurons and astrocytes. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 55, 1150±1156.
    • hay, j., aitken, p. p. & arnott, m. a. (1985). The in¯uence of Toxoplasma infection on the spontaneous running activity of mice. Zeitschrift fuX r Parasitenkunde 71, 459±462.
    • hay, j., aitken, p. p. & graham, d. i. (1984 a). Toxoplasma infection and response to novelty in mice. Zeitschrift fuX r Parasitenkunde 70, 575±588.
    • hay, j., aitken, p. p., hair, d. m., hutchison, w. m. & graham, d. i. (1984 b). The effect of congenital Toxoplasma infection on mouse activity and relative preference for exposed areas over a series of trials. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 78, 611±618.
    • hay, j., aitken, p. p., hutchison, w. m. & graham, d. i. (1983 a). The effect of congenital and adult-acquired Toxoplasma infections on the motor performance of mice. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 77, 261±277.
    • hay, j., hutchison, w. m. & aitken, p. p. (1983 b). Congenital Toxoplasma infection and response to novelty in mice. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 77, 437±439.
    • hengst, p. (1979). Zur Ha$ u®gkeit und Entwicklung der Kinder mit latenter konnataler Toxoplasma gondiiInfektion. Angewandte Parasitologie 20, 216±221.
    • hrda! , s) ., voty! pka, j., kodym, p. & flegr, j. (2000). Transient nature of Toxoplasma gondii-induced behavioral changes in mice. Journal of Parasitology 86, 657±663.
    • hutchison, w. m., aitken, p. p. & wells, b. w. p. (1980 a). Chronic Toxoplasma infection and familiarity-novelty discrimination in the mouse. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 74, 145±150.
    • hutchison, w. m., aitken, p. p. & wells, b. w. p. (1980 b). Chronic Toxoplasma infections and motor performance in the mouse. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 74, 505±510.
    • konishi, e. (1989). Annual change in immunoglobulin G and M antibody levels to Toxoplasma gondii in human sera. Microbiology and Immunology 33, 403±411.
    • ortona, l., antinori, a., tamburrini, e., capelli, a., familiari, u., marano, p. & colosimo, c. (1991). AIDS and the central nervous system : correlations between clinical, radiological and anatomopathological aspects. A critical review of 40 personal cases. Annali Italiani di Medicina Interna 6, 193±202.
    • perea, e. j. & borobio, m. v. (1974). Facteurs epidemiologiques et caracteres cliniques de la toxoplasmose en Espagne. Bulletin de la SocieU teU de Pathologie Exotique 67, 183±193.
    • petithory, j. c., ambroise thomas, p., deloye, j., pelloux, h., goullier fleuret, a., milgram, m., buffard, c., garin, j. p., bessieres, m. h., parishamelin, a., pestre alexandre, m., baufineducrocq, h., cazenave, j., couzineau, p., derouin, f., dupouycamet, j., jacquemin, j. l., kien, t., lecolier, b., niel, g., pinon, j. m., quilici, m., robert, r., seguela, j. p., senet, j. m., thulliez, p., jacquier, p., janitschke, k. & reiter, i. (1996). Serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis : A comparative multicentre study of a series of control sera using various currently available tests and expression of the results in International Units. World Health Organization Bulletin 74, 291±298.
    • pokorny! , j., fruhbauer, z., poledn) a! kova! , s., sy! kora, j., za! ste) ra, m. & fialova! , d. (1989). Assessment of antitoxoplasmatic IgG antibodies with the ELISA method. Cw eskoslovenskad Epidemiologie 38, 355±361.
    • remington, j. s. & krahenbuhl, j. l. (1982). Immunology of Toxoplasma gondii. In Immunology of Human Infection, Part II (ed. Nahmias, A. J. & O'Reilly, J.), pp. 327±371. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York.
    • schassan, h.-h. & kaskara, s. (1971). Die Durchseuchung mit Toxoplasma gondii in Hamburg. Zeitschrift fuX r Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie 22, 165±177.
    • smith, a. p., tyrrell, d. a. j., al-nakib, w., barrow, p. g., higgins, p. g., leekam, s. & trickett, s. (1989). Effects and after-effects of the common cold and in¯uenza on human performance. Neuropsychobiology 21, 90±93.
    • sparacia, g., brancatelli, g., sarno, c., demaria, m., lagalla, r. & filosto, l. (1998). Value of magnetic resonance in the diagnostic de®nition of neurotoxoplasmosis and in the assessment of the response to pharmacological treatment. Radiology and Medicine 96, 23±28.
    • warren, j. & sabin, a. b. (1942). The complement ®xation reaction in toxoplasmic infection. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 51, 11±16.
    • webster, j. p. (1994). The effect of Toxoplasma gondii and other parasites on activity levels in wild and hybrid Rattus norvegicus. Parasitology 109, 583±589.
    • webster, j. p., brunton, c. f. a. & macdonald, d. w. (1994). Effect of Toxoplasma gondii upon neophobic behaviour in wild brown-rats, Rattus norvegicus. Parasitology 109, 37±43.
    • werner, h., masihi, k. n. & senk, u. (1981). Latent Toxoplasma-infection as a possible risk factor for CNS-disorders. Zentralblatt fuX r Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie und Hygiene A 250, 368±375.
    • witting, p.-a. (1979). Learning capacity and memory of normal and Toxoplasma-infected laboratory rats and mice. Zeitschrift fuX r Parasitenkunde 61, 29±51.
    • zufferey, j., sugar, a., rudaz, p., bille, j., glauser, m. p. & chave, j. p. (1993). Prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and serological diagnosis of active infection in HIV-positive patients. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 12, 591±595.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article