Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Stroh, Peter A.; Mountford, J. Owen; Hughes, Francine M.R.; Schwabe-Kratochwil, Angelika (2012)
Languages: English
Types: Article

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: food and beverages
Questions:\ud \ud Can free-roaming Konik horses digest and subsequently disperse seeds of plant species growing in a temperate fen environment? Which species have the potential to be dispersed internally (endozoochory), and do they share common plant and seed traits? How could potential dispersal via endozoochory impact upon grazing management and the natural recolonization of wetland vegetation at a landscape scale?\ud \ud \ud Location:\ud \ud Wicken Fen NNR, Cambridge, UK.\ud \ud Methods:\ud \ud Twelve dung samples were collected for one calendar year (Jun 2009–May 2010) from a free-roaming herd of Konik horses grazing vegetation at Wicken Fen NNR. Germinable seed content of the dung was determined by means of a seedling emergence study. Species presence and estimated cover/abundance were recorded for the grazed (background) vegetation in spring and summer 2009.\ud \ud Results:\ud \ud Almost one-third of all species present in the background vegetation were also identified in the dung samples. There was an equal split between graminoids and forbs, but substantially more graminoid germinable seeds. Species were dispersed year-round, with the number of species peaking in Sep and again in Dec. Of the 13 traits measured, there were significant differences between dung and background vegetation for six traits. Mean values for seed release heights (minimum and maximum) and dispersule weight were significantly lower in species found in the dung, whilst dung species had significantly greater numbers of seeds per shoot, inferred Ellenberg nitrogen values and seed bank persistence.\ud \ud Conclusion:\ud \ud Year-round free-roaming grazing has the potential to make a considerable contribution to the long-range dispersal of species growing in temperate fen habitats, and is likely to complement alternative dispersal strategies. However, germination and establishment of species post-dispersal fate will be governed by a wide range of environmental conditions.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Breedlow, P.A., Voris, P. V. & Rogers, L. E. 1988. Theoretical perspective on ecosystem disturbance and recovery. In Rickard, W. H., Rogers, L. E., Vaughan, B. E. & Liebetrau, S. F. (eds.) Shrub-steppe: Balance and change in a semi-arid terrestrial ecosystem. (Eds pp 257-269. Elsevier, New York.
    • Bruun, H.H. & Fritzbøger, B. 2002. The past impact of livestock husbandry on dispersal of plant seeds in the landscape of Denmark. Ambio 31: 425-431.
    • Bruun, H.H. & Poschlod, P. 2006. Why are small seeds dispersed through animal guts: large numbers or seed size per se? OIKOS 113: 402-411.
    • Bullock, J. M. & Clarke, R. T. 2000. Long distance seed dispersal by wind: Measuring and modelling the tail of the curve. Oecologia 124: 506-521.
    • Cain, M. L., Milligan, B. G. & Strand, A. E. 2000. Long-distance seed dispersal in plant populations. American Journal of Botany 87: 1217-1227.
    • Cheffings, C. M., Farrell, L., (Eds), Dines, T. D., Jones, R. A., Leach, S. J., McKean, D. R., Pearman, D. A., Preston, C. D., Rumsey, F. J. & Taylor, I. 2005. The Vascular Plant Red Data List for Great Britain. Report for the Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, UK.
    • Colston, A. 2004. Wicken Fen - realising the Vision. Ecos - British Association of Nature Conservationists 25: 42-45.
    • Cosyns, E., Claerbout, S., Lamoot, I. & Hoffmann, M. 2005a. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by cattle and horse in a spatially heterogeneous landscape. Plant Ecology 178: 149-162.
    • Cosyns, E. & Hoffmann, M. 2005b. Horse dung germinable seed content in relation to plant species abundance, diet composition and seed characteristics. Basic & Applied Ecology 6: 11-24.
    • Cosyns, E., Bossuyt, B., Hoffmann, M., Vervaet, H. & Lens, L. 2006. Seedling establishment after endozoochory in disturbed and undisturbed grasslands. Basic and Applied Ecology 7: 360-369.
    • Couvreur, M., Christiaen, B., Verheyen, K. & Hermy, M. 2004. Large herbivores as mobile links between isolated nature reserves through adhesive seed dispersal. Applied Vegetation Science 7: 229-236.
    • Couvreur, M., Cosyns, E., Hermy, M. & Hoffmann, M. 2005. Complementarity of epi- and endozoochory by free ranging donkeys. Ecography 28: 37-48.
    • Dai, X. 2000. Impact of cattle dung deposition on the distribution pattern of plant species in an alvar limestone grassland. Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 715-724.
    • Davies, K.W. & Sheley, R.L. 2007. Influence of Neighboring Vegetation Height on Seed Dispersal: Implications for Invasive Plant Management. Weed Science 55: 626-630.
    • Duffey, E. 1968. Ecological Studies on the Large Copper Butterfly Lycaena dispar Haw. Batavus Obth. at Woodwalton Fen National Nature Reserve, Huntingdonshire. Journal of Applied Ecology5: 69-96.
    • Eichberg, C., Storm, C. & Schwabe, A. 2007. Endozoochorous dispersal, seedling emergence and fruiting success in disturbed and undisturbed successional stages of sheep-grazed inland sand ecosystems. Flora 202: 3-26.
    • Gardener, C. J., Mcivor, J. G. & Jansen, A. 1993. Survival of seeds of tropical grassland species subjected to bovine digestion. Journal of Applied Ecology 30: 75-85.
    • Godwin, H. 1939. Studies in the post-glacial history of British vegetation. II. Fenland pollen diagrams. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Ser. B 230: 239-284.
    • Grime, J. P. 1977. Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. The American Naturalist 111: 1169- 1194.
    • Grime, J. P., Hodgson, J. G. & Hunt, R. 2007. Comparative Plant Ecology: A Functional Approach to common British Species. Castlepoint Press; 2nd Revised edition Hanski, I. 1998. Metapopulation dynamics. Nature 396: 41-49.
    • Harrison, S., Marson, J. & Huxel, G. 2000. Regional turnover and fluctuation in populations of five plants confined to serpentine seeps. Conservation Biology 14: 769-779.
    • Heinken, T., Hanspach, H., Raudnitschka, D. & Schaumann, F. 2002. Dispersal of vascular plants by four species of wild mammals in a deciduous forest in NE Germany. Phytocoenologia 32: 627-643.
    • Hill, M. O., Preston, C. D. & Roy, D. B. 2004. PLANTATT. Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats. NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, UK.
    • Hobbs, R.J. & Norton, D.A. 2004. Ecological filters, Thresholds, and Gradients in Resistance to Ecosystem Reassembly. In Temperton, V.M., Hobbs, R.J., Nuttle, T. & Halle, S. (eds.). Assembly Rules and Restoration Ecology. pp 72-95. Island Press.
    • Hughes, F.M.R., Stroh, P.A., Adams, W.A., Kirby, K., Mountford, J.O. & Warrington, S. 2011. Monitoring and evaluating landscape-scale, open-ended habitat creation projects: a journey rather than a destination. Journal for Nature Conservation doi:10.1016/j.jnc.2011.02.003.
    • Jakobsson, A. & Eriksson, O. 2000. A Comparative Study of Seed Number, Seed Size, Seedling Size and Recruitment in Grassland Plants. Oikos 88: 494-502.Jansen, A. J. M., Grootjans, A. P. & Jalink, M. H. 2000. Hydrology of Dutch Cirsio-Molinietum meadows: prospects for restoration. Applied Vegetation Science 3:51-64.Janzen, D. H. 1982. Differential seed survival and passage rates in cows and horses, surrogate Pleistocene dispersal agents. Oikos 38: 150-156.
    • Janzen, D. H. 1984. Dispersal of small seeds by big herbivores: Foliage is the fruit. American Naturalist 123: 338-353. Jaroszewicz, B., PiroŜ nikow, E., & Sagehorn, R. 2009. Endozoochory by European bison (Bison bonasus) in BiałowieŜ a Primeval Forest across a management gradient. Forest Ecology and Management 258: 11-17.
    • Jongejans, E. & Telenius, A. 2001. Field experiments on seed dispersal by wind in ten umbelliferous species (Apiaceae). Plant Ecology 152: 67-78.
    • Kéry, M., Matthies, D. & Spillmann, H.H. 2000 Reduced fecundity and offspring performance in small populations of the declining grassland plants Primula veris and Gentiana lutea. Journal of Ecology 88: 17-30.
    • Kleyer, M., Bekker, R.M., Knevel, I.C., Bakker, J.P., Thompson, K., Sonnenschein, M. et al. 2008. The LEDA Traitbase: a database of life-history traits of the Northwest European flora. Journal of Ecology 96: 1266-1274.
    • Kuiters, A.T. & Huiskes, H.P.J. 2010. Potential of endozoochorous seed dispersal by sheep in calcareous grasslands: correlations with seed traits. Applied Vegetation Science 13: 163- 172.
    • Laiolo, P., Dondero, F., Ciliento, E. & Rolando, A. 2004. Consequences of pastoral abandonment for the structure and diversity of the alpine avifauna. Journal of Applied Ecology 44: 294-304.
    • Leibold, M.A., Holyoak, M., Mouquet, N., Amarasekare, P., Chase, J.M., Hoopes, M.F. et al. 2004. The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology. Ecology Letters7: 601-613.
    • Linington, S.H. (2003). The design of seed banks, pp. 591-636 in Seed conservation, turning science into practice. Eds R.D. Smith, J.B. Dickie, S.H. Linington, H.W. Pritchard and R.J. Probert. pp 593-636.
    • Matus, G., Verhagen, R., Bekker, R.M. & Grootjans, A.P. 2003. Restoration of the Cirsio dissecti-Molinietum in the Netherlands: can we rely on soil seed bank? Applied Vegetation Science 6: 73-84.
    • Lundberg, J. & Moberg, F. 2003. Mobile link organisms and ecosystem functioning: implications for ecosystem resilience and management. Ecosystems 6: 87-98.
    • MacArthur, R.H. & Wilson, E.O. 1967. The theory of island biogeography. Princeton, Princeton University Press.
    • Malo, J.E. & Suárez, F. 1995. Herbivorous mammals as seed dispersers in a Mediterranean dehesa. Oecologia 104: 246-255.
    • McCartney, M. P. & de la Hera, A. 2004. Hydrological assessment for wetland conservation at Wicken Fen. Wetland Ecological Management 12: 189-204.
    • Meredith, T.C., & Grubb, P.J. 1993. Biological Flora of the British Isles: Peucedanum palustre (L.) Moench. Journal of Ecology 81: 813-826.
    • Middleton, B.A. & Mason, D.H. 1992. Seed Herbivory by Nilgai, Feral Cattle, and Wild Boar in the Keoladeo National Park, India. Biotropica 24: 538-543.
    • Middleton, B.A., Jensen, K. & van Diggelen, R. 2006. Seed dispersal in fens. Applied Vegetation Science 9: 279-284.
    • Miller, M. F. 1996. Dispersal of Acacia seeds by ungulates and ostriches in an African savanna. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12: 345-356.
    • Tackenberg, O., Poschlod, P. & Bonn, S. 2003. Assessment of wind dispersal potential in plant species. Ecological Monographs 73:191-205.
    • Ter Heerdt, G.N.J., Verweij, G.L., Bekker, R.M. & Bakker, J.P. 1996. An improved method for seed bank analysis: seedling emergence after removing the soil by sieving. Functional Ecology 10, 144-151.
    • Traba, J., Levassor, C. & Peco, B. 2003. Restoration of species richness in abandoned Mediterranean grasslands: seeds in cattle dung. Restoration Ecology 11: 378-384.
    • van Braeckel, A. & van Looy, K. 2002. Monitoring of Nature Management along the Meuse. Preliminary results from Kerkeweerd. Report Institute of Nature Conservation, Brussels.
    • Thompson, K., Bakker, J. P. & Bekker, R. M. 1997. The soil seed banks of North West Europe Methodology, Density and Longevity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK..
    • Vaughan, I.M. 1978. Lathyrus palustris (L.) var pilosus (Cham.) Ledeb in V.C.44. B.S.B.I. News 20: 14.
    • Vellend, M., Myers, J. A., Gardescu, S. & Marks, P. L. 2003. Dispersal of Trillium seeds by deer: implications for long-distance migration of forest herbs. Ecology 84: 1067-1072.
    • Welch, D. 1985. Studies in the grazing of heather moorland in north-east Scotland. IV. Seed dispersal and plant establishment in dung. Journal of Applied Ecology 22: 461-472.
    • Wigbels, V. 2000. Oostvaardersplassen: New Nature below Sea Level. MMI Staatsbosbeheer Flevoland-Overijssel.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article