Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Catarino, Rui; Ceddia, Graziano; Areal, Francisco J.; Park, Julian (2015)
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Languages: English
Types: Article

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: fungi, food and beverages
The intensification of agriculture and the development of synthetic insecticides enabled worldwide grain production to more than double in the last third of the 20th century. However, the heavy dependence and, in some cases, overuse of insecticides has been responsible for negative environmental and ecological impacts across the globe, such as a reduction in biodiversity, insect resistance to pesticides, negative effects on nontarget\ud species (e.g. natural enemies) and the development of secondary pests. The use of recombinant DNA technology to develop genetically engineered (GE) insect resistant crops could mitigate many of the negative side effects of pesticides. One such genetic alteration enables crops to express toxic crystalline (Cry) proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Despite the widespread adoption of Bt crops, there are still a\ud range of unanswered questions concerning longer term agro-ecosystem interactions. For instance, insect\ud species that are not susceptible to the expressed toxin can develop into secondary pests and cause significant\ud damage to the crop. Here we review the main causes surrounding secondary pest dynamics in Bt crops and the\ud impact of such outbreaks. Regardless of the causes, if non-susceptible secondary pest populations exceed\ud economic thresholds, insecticide spraying could become the immediate solution at farmers’ disposal, and the\ud sustainable use of this genetic modification technology may be in jeopardy. Based on the literature, recommendations for future research are outlined that will help to improve the knowledge of the possible longterm ecological trophic interactions of employing this technology.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Altieri, M.A. (1999) The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 74, 19-31.
    • Andow, D.A. and Hilbeck, A. (2004) Science-based risk assessment for nontarget effects of transgenic crops. BioScience 54, 637-649.
    • Andow, D.A., Lövei, G.L. and Arpaia, S. (2006) Ecological risk assessment for Bt crops. Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 749-751.
    • Andow, D.A., Lövei, G.L. and Arpaia, S. (2009) Cry toxins and proteinase inhibitors in transgenic plants do have non-zero effects on natural enemies in the laboratory: Rebuttal to Shelton et al. 2009. Environ. Entomol. 38, 1528-1532.
    • Appel, L.L., Wright, R.J. and Campbell, J.B. (1993) Economic injury levels for western bean cutworm, Loxagrotis albicosta (Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), eggs and larvae in field corn. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc., 434-438.
    • Archer, T.L., Patrick, C., Schuster, G., Cronholm, G., Bynum Jr, E.D. and Morrison, W.P. (2001) Ear and shank damage by corn borers and corn earworms to four events of Bacillus thuriengiensis transgenic maize. Crop. Prot. 20, 139-144.
    • Areal, F.J. and Riesgo, L. (2015) Probability functions to build composite indicators: A methodology to measure environmental impacts of genetically modified crops. Ecol. Indic. 52, 498-516.
    • Areal, F.J., Riesgo, L. and Rodriguez-Cerezo, E. (2013) Economic and agronomic impact of commercialized GM crops: a meta-analysis. J. Agric. Sci. 151, 7-33.
    • Arpaia, S. (2010) Genetically modified plants and “non-target” organisms: analysing the functioning of the agro-ecosystem. Collection of Biosafety Reviews 5, 12-80.
    • Ascough II, J.C., Maier, H.R., Ravalico, J.K. and Strudley, M.W. (2008) Future research challenges for incorporation of uncertainty in environmental and ecological decision-making. Ecol. Model. 219, 383-399.
    • Bača, F. (1994) New member of the harmful entomofauna of Yugoslavia Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Zaštita bilja 45, 125-131.
    • Baker, R., Sansford, C., Jarvis, C., Cannon, R., MacLeod, A. and Walters, K. (2000) The role of climatic mapping in predicting the potential geographical distribution of non-indigenous pests under current and future climates. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 82, 57-71.
    • Bastos, C.S., Cardoso Galvao, J.C., Picanco, M.C., Gomes Pereira, P.R. and Cecon, P.R. (2007) Nutrient content affecting Spodoptera frugiperda and Dalbulus maidis occurrence in corn. Insect Sci. 14, 117-123.
    • Bennett, R., Ismael, Y., Morse, S. and Shankar, B. (2004) Reductions in insecticide use from adoption of Bt cotton in South Africa: impacts on economic performance and toxic load to the environment. J. Agric. Sci. 142, 665-674.
    • Bergé, J.B. and Ricroch, A.E. (2010) Emergence of minor pests becoming major pests in GE cotton in China: What are the reasons? What are the alternatives practices to this change of status? GM Crops 1, 214-219.
    • Berryman, A.A. (1987) The theory and classification of outbreaks. In: Insect Outbreaks (Barbosa, P. and Schultz, J. eds), pp. 3-30. San Diego: Academic Press.
    • Bianchi, F.J.J.A., Booij, C.J.H. and Tscharntke, T. (2006) Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 273, 1715-1727.
    • Bohanec, M., Messéan, A., Scatasta, S., Angevin, F., Griffiths, B., Krogh, P.H., Žnidaršič, M. and Džeroski, S. (2008) A qualitative multi-attribute model for economic and ecological assessment of genetically modified crops. Ecol. Model. 215, 247-261.
    • Brévault, T., Heuberger, S., Zhang, M., Ellers-Kirk, C., Ni, X., Masson, L., Li, X., Tabashnik, B.E. and Carrière, Y. (2013) Potential shortfall of pyramided transgenic cotton for insect resistance management. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110, 5806-5811.
    • Carpenter, J.E. (2010) Peer-reviewed surveys indicate positive impact of commercialized GM crops. Nat. Biotechnol. 28, 319-321.
    • Carrasco, L.R., Mumford, J.D., MacLeod, A., Knight, J.D. and Baker, R.H.A. (2010) Comprehensive bioeconomic modelling of multiple harmful non-indigenous species. Ecol. Econ. 69, 1303-1312.
    • Carrière, Y., Crowder, D.W. and Tabashnik, B.E. (2010) Evolutionary ecology of insect adaptation to Bt crops. Evol. Appl. 3, 561-573.
    • Carrière, Y., Ellsworth, P.C., Dutilleul, P., Ellers-Kirk, C., Barkley, V. and Antilla, L. (2006) A GISbased approach for areawide pest management: the scales of Lygus hesperus movements to cotton from alfalfa, weeds, and cotton. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 118, 203-210.
    • Catangui, M.A. and Berg, R.K. (2006) Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as a potential pest of transgenic Cry1Ab Bacillus thuringiensis corn hybrids in South Dakota. Environ. Entomol. 35, 1439-1452.
    • Cattaneo, M.G., Yafuso, C., Schmidt, C., Huang, C., Rahman, M., Olson, C., Ellers-Kirk, C., Orr, B.J., Marsh, S.E. and Antilla, L. (2006) Farm-scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide use, and yield. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 7571- 7576.
    • Chen, M., Ye, G.-y., Liu, Z.-c., Fang, Q., Hu, C., Peng, Y.-f. and Shelton, A.M. (2009) Analysis of Cry1Ab toxin bioaccumulation in a food chain of Bt rice, an herbivore and a predator. Ecotoxicology 18, 230-238.
    • Chen, M., Ye, G.Y., Liu, Z.C., Yao, H.W., Chen, X.X., Shen, Z.C., Hu, C. and Datta, S.K. (2006) Field assessment of the effects of transgenic rice expressing a fused gene of Cry1ab and Cry1ac from Bacillus thuringiensis berliner on nontarget planthopper and leafhopper populations. Environ. Entomol. 35, 127-134.
    • Codling, E.A. (2014) Pest insect movement and dispersal as an example of applied movement ecology: Comment on “Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks” by Petrovskii, Petrovskaya and Bearup. Phys. Life Rev 11, 533-535.
    • Conway, G. and Toenniessen, G. (1999) Feeding the world in the twenty-first century. Nature 402, C55-C58.
    • Cordeiro, E.M.G., de Moura, I.L.T., Fadini, M.A.M. and Guedes, R.N.C. (2013) Beyond selectivity: Are behavioral avoidance and hormesis likely causes of pyrethroid-induced outbreaks of the southern red mite Oligonychus ilicis? Chemosphere 93, 1111-1116.
    • Crost, B., Shankar, B., Bennett, R. and Morse, S. (2007) Bias from farmer self‐selection in genetically modified crop productivity estimates: Evidence from indian data. J. Agric. Econ. 58, 24-36.
    • Crowder, D.W. and Jabbour, R. (2014) Relationships between biodiversity and biological control in agroecosystems: Current status and future challenges. Biol. Control 75, 8-17.
    • Daly, T. and Buntin, G.D. (2005) Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic corn for lepidopteran control on nontarget arthropods. Environ. Entomol. 34, 1292-1301.
    • Deguine, J.-P., Ferron, P. and Russell, D. (2008) Sustainable pest management for cotton production. A review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 28, 113-137.
    • DeJonge, K.C., Ascough II, J.C., Ahmadi, M., Andales, A.A. and Arabi, M. (2012) Global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of a dynamic agroecosystem model under different irrigation treatments. Ecol. Model. 231, 113-125.
    • Denno, R.F., McClure, M.S. and Ott, J.R. (1995) Interspecific interactions in phytophagous insects: competition reexamined and resurrected. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 40, 297-331.
    • Dorhout, D.L. and Rice, M.E. (2010) Intraguild competition and enhanced survival of western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on transgenic Cry1Ab (MON810) Bacillus thuringiensis corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 103, 54-62.
    • Douglass, J., Ingram, J., Gibson, K. and Peay, W. (1957) The western bean cutworm as a pest of corn in Idaho. J. Econ. Entomol. 50, 543-545.
    • Dowd-Uribe, B. (2014) Engineering yields and inequality? How institutions and agro-ecology shape Bt cotton outcomes in Burkina Faso. Geoforum 53, 161-171.
    • Dutton, A., Klein, H., Romeis, J. and Bigler, F. (2002) Uptake of Bt‐toxin by herbivores feeding on transgenic maize and consequences for the predator Chrysoperla carnea. Ecol. Entomol. 27, 441-447.
    • Eckert, J., Schuphan, I., Hothorn, L.A. and Gathmann, A. (2006) Arthropods on maize ears for detecting impacts of Bt maize on nontarget organisms. Environ. Entomol. 35, 554-560.
    • Ecobichon, D.J. (2001) Pesticide use in developing countries. Toxicology 160, 27-33.
    • EFSA (2010) EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO): Scientific opinion on the assessment of potential impacts of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms. EFSA Journal 8(11), 73.
    • Eichenseer, H., Strohbehn, R. and Burks, J.C. (2008) Frequency and severity of western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) ear damage in transgenic corn hybrids expressing different Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins. J. Econ. Entomol. 101, 555-563.
    • Eizaguirre, M., Madeira, F. and López, C. (2010) Effects of Bt maize on non-target lepidopteran pests. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 52, 49-55.
    • Erasmus, A., Rensburg, J.B.J.V. and Berg, J.V.D. (2010) Effects of Bt Maize on Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): A Pest of Maize Seedlings. Environ. Entomol. 39, 702-706.
    • FAOSTAT (data 2011) Food and agriculture organization of the united nations statistics division - Pesticides (use) Database. Rome: FAOSTAT. http://faostat3.fao.org/download/R/RP/E, (accessed: 15 September 2014).
    • FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (1998) Transmittal of the final report of the FIFRA scientific advisory panel subpanel on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plant-pesticides and resistance management. 9-10 Feb. 1998. Docket No. OPPTS-00231 59.
    • Fitt, G.P. (2000) An Australian approach to IPM in cotton: integrating new technologies to minimise insecticide dependence. Crop. Prot. 19, 793-800.
    • García, M., Ortego, F., Castañera, P. and Farinós, G.P. (2012) Assessment of prey-mediated effects of the coleopteran-specific toxin Cry3Bb1 on the generalist predator Atheta coriaria (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 102, 293-302.
    • Garcia, M.A. and Altieri, M.A. (2005) Transgenic crops: implications for biodiversity and sustainable agriculture. Bull. Sci. Technol. Soc. 25, 335-353.
    • Gatehouse, A.M.R., Ferry, N., Edwards, M.G. and Bell, H.A. (2011) Insect-resistant biotech crops and their impacts on beneficial arthropods. Phil. Trans. R. Soc B 366, 1438-1452.
    • Glover, D. (2010a) Exploring the resilience of Bt cotton's 'pro-poor success story'. Dev. Change 41, 955-981.
    • Glover, D. (2010b) Is Bt cotton a pro-poor technology? A review and critique of the empirical record. J.Agrar Change 10, 482-509.
    • González-Cabrera, J., García, M., Hernández-Crespo, P., Farinós, G.P., Ortego, F. and Castañera, P. (2013) Resistance to Bt maize in Mythimna unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is mediated by alteration in Cry1Ab protein activation. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 43, 635-643.
    • González-Núñez, M., Ortego, F. and Castañera, P. (2000) Susceptibility of Spanish populations of the corn borers Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to a Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin. J. Econ. Entomol. 93, 459- 463.
    • González-Zamora, J.E., Camúñez, S. and Avilla, C. (2007) Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins on developmental and reproductive characteristics of the predator Orius albidipennis (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) under laboratory conditions. Environ. Entomol. 36, 1246-1253.
    • Gray, M.E., Sappington, T.W., Miller, N.J., Moeser, J. and Bohn, M.O. (2009) Adaptation and invasiveness of western corn rootworm: intensifying research on a worsening pest. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 54, 303-321.
    • Groot, A.T. and Dicke, M. (2002) Insect-resistant transgenic plants in a multi-trophic context. Plant J. 31, 387-406.
    • Gross, K. and Rosenheim, J.A. (2011) Quantifying secondary pest outbreaks in cotton and their monetary cost with causal-inference statistics. Ecol. Appl. 21, 2770-2780.
    • Guedes, R.N.C. and Cutler, G.C. (2014) Insecticide-induced hormesis and arthropod pest management. Pest Manag. Sci. 70, 690-697.
    • Gutierrez, A.P., Adamczyk, J.J., Ponsard, S. and Ellis, C. (2006) Physiologically based demographics of Bt cotton-pest interactions: II. Temporal refuges, natural enemy interactions. Ecol. Model. 191, 360-382.
    • Hardin, M.R., Benrey, B., Coll, M., Lamp, W.O., Roderick, G.K. and Barbosa, P. (1995) Arthropod pest resurgence: an overview of potential mechanisms. Crop. Prot. 14, 3-18.
    • Hardke, J.T., Leonard, B.R., Huang, F. and Jackson, R. (2011) Damage and survivorship of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on transgenic field corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins. Crop. Prot. 30, 168-172.
    • Harper, C.R. (1991) Predator-prey systems in pest management. Northeast. J. Agric. Resour. Econ. 20, 15-23.
    • Harper, C.R. and Zilberman, D. (1989) Pest externalities from agricultural inputs. American J. Agric. Econ. 71, 692-702.
    • Hilbeck, A., Baumgartner, M., Fried, P.M. and Bigler, F. (1998) Effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn fed prey on mortality and development time of immature Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Environ. Entomol. 27, 480-487.
    • Hilbeck, A., Weiss, G., Oehen, B., Römbke, J., Jänsch, S., Teichmann, H., Lang, A., Otto, M. and Tappeser, B. (2014) Ranking matrices as operational tools for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops on non-target organisms. Ecol. Indic. 36, 367-381.
    • Ho, P., Zhao, J.H. and Xue, D. (2009) Access and control of agro-biotechnology: Bt cotton, ecological change and risk in China. J. Peasant Stud. 36, 345-364.
    • Hofs, J.-L., Fok, M. and Vaissayre, M. (2006) Impact of Bt cotton adoption on pesticide use by smallholders: A 2-year survey in Makhatini Flats (South Africa). Crop. Prot. 25, 984-988.
    • Holmes, T.P., Liebhold, A.M., Kovacs, K.F. and Von Holle, B. (2010) A spatial-dynamic value transfer model of economic losses from a biological invasion. Ecol. Econ. 70, 86-95.
    • Hooper, D.U., Chapin, F.S., Ewel, J.J., Hector, A., Inchausti, P., Lavorel, S., Lawton, J.H., Lodge, D.M., Loreau, M., Naeem, S., Schmid, B., Setälä, H., Symstad, A.J., Vandermeer, J. and Wardle, D.A. (2005) Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecol. Monogr. 75, 3-35.
    • Huang, J., Mi, J., Chen, R., Su, H., Wu, K., Qiao, F. and Hu, R. (2014) Effect of farm management practices in the Bt toxin production by Bt cotton: evidence from farm fields in China. Transgenic Res. 23, 397-406.
    • Huang, J., Rozelle, S., Pray, C. and Wang, Q. (2002) Plant biotechnology in China. Science 295, 674-676.
    • Hutchison, W.D., Burkness, E.C., Mitchell, P.D., Moon, R.D., Leslie, T.W., Fleischer, S.J., Abrahamson, M., Hamilton, K.L., Steffey, K.L., Gray, M.E., Hellmich, R.L., Kaster, L.V., Hunt, T.E., Wright, R.J., Pecinovsky, K., Rabaey, T.L., Flood, B.R. and Raun, E.S. (2010) Areawide suppression of European corn borer with Bt maize reaps savings to non-Bt maize growers. Science 330, 222-225.
    • Hutchison, W.D., Hunt, T.E., Hein, G.L., Steffey, K.L., Pilcher, C.D. and Rice, M.E. (2011) Genetically engineered Bt corn and range expansion of the Western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the United States: A response to Greenpeace Germany. J. Int. Pest Manag. 2, B1-B8.
    • Jaleel, W., Saeed, S., Naqqash, M.N. and Zaka, S.M. (2014) Survey of Bt cotton in Punjab Pakistan related to the knowledge, perception and practices of farmers regarding insect pests. Int. J. Agric. Crop Sci. 7, 10.
    • James, C. (2013) Global status of commercialised biotech/GM crops: 2013, ISAAA Brief No. 46. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications, Ithaca, NY. ISBN 978-1-892456-55-9.
    • Jeyaratnam, J. (1990) Acute pesticide poisoning: a major global health problem. World Health Statistics Quarterly 43, 139-144.
    • Kaplan, I. and Denno, R.F. (2007) Interspecific interactions in phytophagous insects revisited: a quantitative assessment of competition theory. Ecol. Lett. 10, 977-994.
    • Keller, R.P., Lodge, D.M. and Finnoff, D.C. (2007) Risk assessment for invasive species produces net bioeconomic benefits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 203-207.
    • Kouser, S. and Qaim, M. (2011) Impact of Bt cotton on pesticide poisoning in smallholder agriculture: A panel data analysis. Ecol. Econ. 70, 2105-2113.
    • Krebs, J.R., Wilson, J.D., Bradbury, R.B. and Siriwardena, G.M. (1999) The second silent spring? Nature 400, 611-612.
    • Krishna, V.V. and Qaim, M. (2012) Bt cotton and sustainability of pesticide reductions in India. Agric. Syst. 107, 47-55.
    • Kruger, M., Rensburg, J.R.J.V. and Berg, J.V.D. (2011) Resistance to Bt maize in Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Vaalharts, South Africa. Environ. Entomol. 40, 477-483.
    • Kruger, M., Van Rensburg, J. and Van den Berg, J. (2012) Transgenic Bt maize: farmers' perceptions, refuge compliance and reports of stem borer resistance in South Africa. J. Appl. Entomol. 136, 38-50.
    • Lang, A. and Otto, M. (2010) A synthesis of laboratory and field studies on the effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize on non‐target Lepidoptera. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 135, 121- 134.
    • Li, G., Feng, H., McNeil, J.N., Liu, B., Chen, P. and Qiu, F. (2011) Impacts of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae), in northern China. Crop. Prot. 30, 1573-1578.
    • Li, Y. and Romeis, J. (2010) Bt maize expressing Cry3Bb1 does not harm the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, or its ladybird beetle predator, Stethorus punctillum. Biol. Control 53, 337-344.
    • Liang, J., Tang, S. and Cheke, R.A. (2012) An integrated pest management model with delayed responses to pesticide applications and its threshold dynamics. Nonlinear Anal. Real World Appl. 13, 2352-2374.
    • Lindroth, E., Hunt, T.E., Skoda, S.R., Culy, M.D., Lee, D. and Foster, J.E. (2012) Population genetics of the western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) across the United States. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 105, 685-692.
    • Lövei, G. and Arpaia, S. (2005) The impact of transgenic plants on natural enemies: a critical review of laboratory studies. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 114, 1-14.
    • Lövei, G.L., Andow, D.A. and Arpaia, S. (2009) Transgenic insecticidal crops and natural enemies: a detailed review of laboratory studies. Environ. Entomol. 38, 293-306.
    • Lu, Y., Wu, K., Jiang, Y., Guo, Y. and Desneux, N. (2012) Widespread adoption of Bt cotton and insecticide decrease promotes biocontrol services. Nature 487, 362-365.
    • Lu, Y., Wu, K., Jiang, Y., Xia, B., Li, P., Feng, H., Wyckhuys, K.A.G. and Guo, Y. (2010) Mirid bug outbreaks in multiple crops correlated with wide-scale adoption of Bt cotton in China. Science 328, 1151-1154.
    • Luckey, T. (1968) Insecticide Hormoligosis. J. Econ. Entomol. 61, 7-12.
    • Lundgren, J.G., Gassmann, A.J., Bernal, J., Duan, J.J. and Ruberson, J. (2009) Ecological compatibility of GM crops and biological control. Crop. Prot. 28, 1017-1030.
    • Maiorano, A., Cerrani, I., Fumagalli, D. and Donatelli, M. (2014) New biological model to manage the impact of climate warming on maize corn borers. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 34, 609-621.
    • Malvar, R., Butrón, A., Alvarez, A., Ordas, B., Soengas, P., Revilla, P. and Ordas, A. (2004) Evaluation of the European Union maize landrace core collection for resistance to Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 97, 628-634.
    • Mancini, F., Termorshuizen, A.J., Jiggins, J.L.S. and van Bruggen, A.H.C. (2008) Increasing the environmental and social sustainability of cotton farming through farmer education in Andhra Pradesh, India. Agric. Syst. 96, 16-25.
    • Marino, P.C. and Landis, D.A. (1996) Effect of landscape structure on parasitoid diversity and parasitism in agroecosystems. Ecol. Appl. 6, 276-284.
    • Marvier, M. (2002) Improving risk assessment for nontarget safety of transgenic crops. Ecol. Appl. 12, 1119-1124.
    • Marvier, M., McCreedy, C., Regetz, J. and Kareiva, P. (2007) A meta-analysis of effects of Bt cotton and maize on nontarget invertebrates. Science 316, 1475-1477.
    • Matson, P.A., Parton, W.J., Power, A. and Swift, M. (1997) Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Science 277, 504-509.
    • McDermott, S.M., Irwin, R.E. and Taylor, B.W. (2013) Using economic instruments to develop effective management of invasive species: insights from a bioeconomic model. Ecol. Appl. 23, 1086-1100.
    • Meinke, L.J., Sappington, T.W., Onstad, D.W., Guillemaud, T., Miller, N.J., Komáromi, J., Levay, N., Furlan, L., Kiss, J. and Toth, F. (2009) Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) population dynamics. Agric. For. Entomol. 11, 29-46.
    • Meissle, M., Mouron, P., Musa, T., Bigler, F., Pons, X., Vasileiadis, V., Otto, S., Antichi, D., Kiss, J. and Pálinkás, Z. (2010) Pests, pesticide use and alternative options in European maize production: Current status and future prospects. J. Appl. Entomol. 134, 357-375.
    • Meissle, M. and Romeis, J. (2009) The web-building spider Theridion impressum (Araneae: Theridiidae) is not adversely affected by Bt maize resistant to corn rootworms. Plant Biotech. J. 7, 645-656.
    • Meissle, M., Romeis, J. and Bigler, F. (2011) Bt maize and integrated pest management‐a European perspective. Pest Manag. Sci. 67, 1049-1058.
    • Meissle, M., Vojtech, E. and Poppy, G. (2005) Effects of Bt maize-fed prey on the generalist predator Poecilus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Transgenic Res. 14, 123-132.
    • Men, X., Ge, F., Edwards, C.A. and Yardim, E.N. (2004) The influence of pesticide applications on Helicoverpa armigera Hübner and sucking pests in transgenic Bt cotton and non-transgenic cotton in China. Crop. Prot. 24, 319-324.
    • Metcalf, R. (1980) Changing role of insecticides in Crop Protection. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 25, 219- 256.
    • Metcalf, R. (1987) Benefit/risk considerations in the use of pesticides. Agric. Hum. Values 4, 15-25.
    • Michel, A.P., Krupke, C.H., Baute, T.S. and Difonzo, C.D. (2010) Ecology and management of the western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn and dry beans. J. Int. Pest Manag. 1, A1-A10.
    • Miller, N., Estoup, A., Toepfer, S., Bourguet, D., Lapchin, L., Derridj, S., Kim, K.S., Reynaud, P., Furlan, L. and Guillemaud, T. (2005) Multiple transatlantic introductions of the western corn rootworm. Science 310, 992-992.
    • Morse, J.G. (1998) Agricultural implications of pesticide-induced hormesis of insects and mites. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 17, 266-269.
    • Morse, S., Bennett, R. and Ismael, Y. (2007) Inequality and GM crops: A case-study of Bt cotton in India. AgBioForum 10, 44-50.
    • Morse, S., Bennett, R.M. and Ismael, Y. (2005) Genetically modified insect resistance in cotton: some farm level economic impacts in India. Crop. Prot. 24, 433-440.
    • Musser, F.R. and Shelton, A.M. (2003) Bt sweet corn and selective insecticides: Impacts on pests and predators. J. Econ. Entomol. 96, 71-80.
    • Nagrare, V., Kranthi, S., Biradar, V., Zade, N., Sangode, V., Kakde, G., Shukla, R., Shivare, D., Khadi, B. and Kranthi, K. (2009) Widespread infestation of the exotic mealybug species, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley)(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on cotton in India. Bull. Entomol. Res. 99, 537-541.
    • Naranjo, S.E. (2005) Long-term assessment of the effects of transgenic Bt cotton on the abundance of nontarget arthropod natural enemies. Environ. Entomol. 34, 1193-1210.
    • Naranjo, S.E. (2009) Impacts of Bt crops on non-target invertebrates and insecticide use patterns. CAB Reviews: perspectives in agriculture, veterinary science, nutrition and natural resources 4, 1-11.
    • Naranjo, S.E. (2011) Impacts of Bt transgenic cotton on integrated pest management. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59, 5842.
    • Naranjo, S.E. and Ellsworth, P.C. (2009) The contribution of conservation biological control to integrated control of Bemisia tabaci in cotton. Biol. Control 51, 458-470.
    • Nguyen, H.T. and Jehle, J.A. (2009) Expression of Cry3Bb1 in transgenic corn MON88017. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, 9990-9996.
    • Obrist, L.B., Dutton, A., Albajes, R. and Bigler, F. (2006) Exposure of arthropod predators to Cry1Ab toxin in Bt maize fields. Ecol. Entomol. 31, 143-154.
    • Oerke, E.-C. (2006) Crop losses to pests. J. Agric. Sci. 144, 31-43.
    • Park, J., McFarlane, I., Phipps, R. and Ceddia, G. (2011) The role of transgenic crops in sustainable development. Plant Biotech. J 9, 2-21.
    • Pemsl, D. and Waibel, H. (2007) Assessing the profitability of different Crop. Prot. strategies in cotton: Case study results from Shandong Province, China. Agric. Syst. 95, 28-36.
    • Pemsl, D.E., Voelker, M., Wu, L. and Waibel, H. (2011) Long-term impact of Bt cotton: findings from a case study in China using panel data. Int. J. Agr. Sustain. 9, 508-521.
    • Pérez-Hedo, M., López, C., Albajes, R. and Eizaguirre, M. (2012) Low susceptibility of non-target Lepidopteran maize pests to the Bt protein Cry1Ab. Bull. Entomol. Res. 102, 737.
    • Petrovskii, S., Petrovskaya, N. and Bearup, D. (2014) Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks. Phys. Life Rev, 467-525.
    • Pilcher, C.D., Rice, M.E., Obrycki, J.J. and Lewis, L.C. (1997) Field and laboratory evaluations of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn on secondary lepidopteran pests (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 90, 669-678.
    • Pons, X., Lumbierres, B., Lopez, C. and Albajes, R. (2005) Abundance of non-target pests in transgenic Bt-maize: A farm scale study. European Journal of Entomology 102, 73.
    • Poppy, G.M. and Sutherland, J.P. (2004) Can biological control benefit from genetically-modified crops? Tritrophic interactions on insect-resistant transgenic plants. Physiol. Entomol. 29, 257-268.
    • Pray, C., Huang, J., Hu, R. and Rozelle, S. (2002) Five years of Bt cotton in China-the benefits continue. Plant J. 31, 423-430.
    • Qaim, M. (2003) Bt cotton in India: Field trial results and economic projections. World Dev. 31, 2115-2127.
    • Qaim, M., Subramanian, A. and Sadashivappa, P. (2009) Commercialized GM crops and yield. Nat. Biotech. 27, 803-804.
    • Qaim, M. and Zilberman, D. (2003) Yield effects of genetically modified crops in developing countries. Science 299, 900-902.
    • Ramaswami, B., Pray, C.E. and Lalitha, N. (2012) The spread of illegal transgenic cotton varieties in India: Biosafety regulation, monopoly, and enforcement. World Dev. 40, 177-188.
    • Razze, J.M. and Mason, C.E. (2012) Dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt corn. J. Econ. Entomol. 105, 1214-1223.
    • Riesgo, L., Areal, F. and Rodriguez-Cerezo, E. (2012) How can specific market demand for nonGM maize affect the profitability of Bt and conventional maize? A case study for the middle Ebro Valley, Spain. Span. J. Agric. Res. 10, 867-876.
    • Ripper, W. (1956) Effect of pesticides on balance of arthropod populations. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 1, 403-438.
    • Romeis, J., Dutton, A. and Bigler, F. (2004) Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Cry1Ab) has no direct effect on larvae of the green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). J. Insect Physiol. 50, 175-183.
    • Romeis, J., Meissle, M. and Bigler, F. (2006) Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and biological control. Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 63-71.
    • Romeis, J., Meissle, M., Raybould, A. and Hellmich, R. (2009) Impact of insect-resistant transgenic crops on above-ground non-target arthropods. In: Environmental impact of genetically modified crops (Ferry, N. and Gatehouse, A.M.R. eds), pp. 165-198. UK: CAB International.
    • Sanglestsawai, S., Rejesus, R.M. and Yorobe, J.M. (2014) Do lower yielding farmers benefit from Bt corn? Evidence from instrumental variable quantile regressions. Food Policy 44, 285- 296.
    • Sanvido, O., Romeis, J. and Bigler, F. (2009) An approach for post-market monitoring of potential environmental effects of Bt-maize expressing Cry1Ab on natural enemies. J. Appl. Entomol. 133, 236-248.
    • Schnurr, M.A. (2012) Inventing Makhathini: Creating a prototype for the dissemination of genetically modified crops into Africa. Geoforum 43, 784-792.
    • Shantharam, S., Sullia, S. and Shivakumara Swamy, G. (2008) Peer review contestations in the era of transgenic crops. Curr. Sci. 95, 25.
    • Sharma, H. and Ortiz, R. (2000) Transgenics, pest management, and the environment. Curr. Sci. 79, 421-437.
    • Shelton, A.M., Naranjo, S.E., Romeis, J., Hellmich, R.L., Wolt, J.D., Federici, B.A., Albajes, R., Bigler, F., Burgess, E.P. and Dively, G.P. (2009) Setting the record straight: a rebuttal to an erroneous analysis on transgenic insecticidal crops and natural enemies. Transgenic Res. 18, 317-322.
    • Shi, G., Chavas, J.-P. and Lauer, J. (2013) Commercialized transgenic traits, maize productivity and yield risk. Nat. Biotech. 31, 111-114.
    • Shivankar, V.J., Shyam, S. and Rao, C.N. (2007) Secondary pest resurgence. In: Encyclopedia of Pest Management, Volume II (Pimentel, D. ed) pp. 597-601. CRC Press.
    • Showalter, A.M., Heuberger, S., Tabashnik, B.E. and Carrière, Y. (2009) A primer for using transgenic insecticidal cotton in developing countries. J. Insect Sci. 9, 1-39.
    • Sisterson, M.S., Carrière, Y., Dennehy, T.J. and Tabashnik, B.E. (2005) Evolution of resistance to transgenic crops: interactions between insect movement and field distribution. J. Econ. Entomol. 98, 1751-1762.
    • Sisterson, M.S., Carrière, Y., Dennehy, T.J. and Tabashnik, B.E. (2007) Nontarget effects of transgenic insecticidal crops: Implications of source-sink population dynamics. Environ. Entomol. 36, 121-127.
    • Smale, M. (2012) Rough terrain for research: studying early adopters of biotech crops. AgBioForum 15, 114-124.
    • Smale, M., Zambrano, P., & Cartel, M. (2006) Bales and balance: A review of the methods used to assess the economic impact of Bt cotton on farmers in developing economies. AgBioForum 9, 195-212.
    • Snow, A.A., Andow, D.A., Gepts, P., Hallerman, E.M., Power, A., Tiedje, J.M. and Wolfenbarger, L. (2005) Genetically engineered organisms and the environment: Current status and recommendations. Ecol. Appl. 15, 377-404.
    • Snyder, W.E., Snyder, G.B., Finke, D.L. and Straub, C.S. (2006) Predator biodiversity strengthens herbivore suppression. Ecol. Lett. 9, 789-796.
    • Stephens, E.J., Losey, J.E., Allee, L.L., DiTommaso, A., Bodner, C. and Breyre, A. (2012) The impact of Cry3Bb Bt-maize on two guilds of beneficial beetles. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 156, 72-81.
    • Stone, G.D. (2011) Field versus farm in Warangal: Bt cotton, higher yields, and larger questions. World Dev. 39, 387-398.
    • Storer, N.P., Van Duyn, J.W. and Kennedy, G.G. (2001) Life history traits of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on non-Bt and Bt transgenic corn hybrids in Eastern North Carolina. J. Econ. Entomol. 94, 1268-1279.
    • Sujii, E.R., Togni, P.H.B., de A Ribeiro, P., de A Bernardes, T., Milane, P., Paula, D.P., Pires, C.S.S. and Fontes, E.M.G. (2013) Field evaluation of Bt cotton crop impact on nontarget pests: Cotton aphid and boll weevil. Neotrop. Entomol. 42, 102-111.
    • Symstad, A.J., Chapin, F.S., Wall, D.H., Gross, K.L., Huenneke, L.F., Mittelbach, G.G., Peters, D.P.C. and Tilman, D. (2003) Long-term and large-scale perspectives on the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. BioScience 53, 89-98.
    • Tabashnik, B.E., Carrière, Y., Dennehy, T.J., Morin, S., Sisterson, M.S., Roush, R.T., Shelton, A.M. and Zhao, J.-Z. (2003) Insect resistance to transgenic Bt crops: Lessons from the laboratory and field. J. Econ. Entomol. 96, 1031-1038.
    • Tabashnik, B.E., Gassmann, A.J., Crowder, D.W. and Carrière, Y. (2008) Insect resistance to Bt crops: evidence versus theory. Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 199-202.
    • Thirtle, C., Beyers, L., Ismael, Y. and Piesse, J. (2003) Can GM-technologies help the poor? The impact of Bt cotton in Makhathini Flats, KwaZulu-Natal. World Dev. 31, 717-732.
    • Tilman, D., Fargione, J., Wolff, B., D'Antonio, C., Dobson, A., Howarth, R., Schindler, D., Schlesinger, W.H., Simberloff, D. and Swackhamer, D. (2001) Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Science 292, 281-284.
    • Traxler, G. and Godoy-Avila, S. (2004) Transgenic cotton in Mexico. AgBioForum 7, 57-62.
    • Truter, J., Hamburg, H.V. and Berg, J.V.D. (2014) Comparative diversity of arthropods on Bt maize and non-Bt maize in two different cropping systems in South Africa. Environ. Entomol. 43, 197-208.
    • Tscharntke, T., Klein, A.M., Kruess, A., Steffan‐Dewenter, I. and Thies, C. (2005) Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity-ecosystem service management. Ecol. Lett. 8, 857-874.
    • Van den Berg, J. and Van Wyk, A. (2007) The effect of Bt maize on Sesamia calamistis in South Africa. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 122, 45-51.
    • van den Bosch, R. (1978) The pesticide conspiracy. University of California Press, Berkeley, p. 226.
    • Van Wyk, A., Van den Berg, J. and Van Hamburg, H. (2007) Selection of non-target Lepidoptera species for ecological risk assessment of Bt maize in South Africa. Afr. Entomol. 15, 356- 366.
    • Van Wyk, A., Van den Berg, J. and Van Hamburg, H. (2008) Diversity and comparative phenology of Lepidoptera on Bt and non-Bt maize in South Africa. Int. J. Pest Manag. 54, 77-87.
    • Van Wyk, A., Van den Berg, J. and Van Rensburg, J. (2009) Comparative efficacy of Bt maize events MON810 and Bt11 against Sesamia calamistis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in South Africa. Crop. Prot. 28, 113-116.
    • Vasileiadis, V.P., Sattin, M., Otto, S., Veres, A., Pálinkás, Z., Ban, R., Pons, X., Kudsk, P., van der Weide, R., Czembor, E., Moonen, A.C. and Kiss, J. (2011) Crop. Prot. in European maizebased cropping systems: Current practices and recommendations for innovative Integrated Pest Management. Agric. Syst. 104, 533-540.
    • Velasco Pazos, P., Revilla Temiño, P., Monetti, L., Butrón Gómez, A.M., Ordás Pérez, A. and Malvar Pintos, R.A. (2007) Corn borers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae; Crambidae) in northwestern Spain: population dynamics and distribution. Maydica 52, 195-203.
    • Virla, E.G., Casuso, M. and Frias, E.A. (2010) A preliminary study on the effects of a transgenic corn event on the non-target pest Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Crop. Prot. 29, 635-638.
    • Vitousek, P.M., Mooney, H.A., Lubchenco, J. and Melillo, J.M. (1997) Human domination of Earth's ecosystems. Science 277, 494-499.
    • Waage, J.K. and Mumford, J.D. (2008) Agricultural biosecurity. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 363, 863-876.
    • Wilby, A. and Thomas, M.B. (2002) Natural enemy diversity and pest control: patterns of pest emergence with agricultural intensification. Ecol. Lett. 5, 353-360.
    • Wilson, L., Downes, S., Khan, M., Whitehouse, M., Baker, G., Grundy, P. and Maas, S. (2013) IPM in the transgenic era: a review of the challenges from emerging pests in Australian cotton systems. Crop Pasture Sci. 64, 737-749.
    • Wolfenbarger, L.L., Naranjo, S.E., Lundgren, J.G., Bitzer, R.J. and Watrud, L.S. (2008) Bt crop effects on functional guilds of non-target arthropods: a meta-analysis. PLoS One 3, e2118.
    • Wolfenbarger, L.L. and Phifer, P.R. (2000) The ecological risks and benefits of genetically engineered plants. Science 290, 2088-2093.
    • Wu, K. and Guo, Y. (2005) The evolution of cotton pest management practices in China. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50, 31-52.
    • Wu, K., Li, W., Feng, H. and Guo, Y. (2002) Seasonal abundance of the mirids, Lygus lucorum and Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Bt cotton in northern China. Crop. Prot. 21, 997- 1002.
    • Xu, N., Fok, M., Bai, L. and Zhou, Z. (2008) Effectiveness and chemical pest control of Bt-cotton in the Yangtze River Valley, China. Crop. Prot. 27, 1269-1276.
    • Yang, J., Wang, Z.-R., Yang, D.-L., Yang, Q., Yan, J. and He, M.-F. (2009) Ecological risk assessment of genetically modified crops based on cellular automata modeling. Biotechnol. Adv. 27, 1132-1136.
    • Yang, P., Iles, M., Yan, S. and Jolliffe, F. (2005a) Farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in transgenic Bt cotton in small producer systems in Northern China. Crop. Prot. 24, 229-239.
    • Yang, P., Li, K., Shi, S., Xia, J., Guo, R., Li, S. and Wang, L. (2005b) Impacts of transgenic Bt cotton and integrated pest management education on smallholder cotton farmers. Int. J. Pest Manag. 51, 231-244.
    • Zeilinger, A.R., Olson, D.M. and Andow, D.A. (2011) Competition between stink bug and heliothine caterpillar pests on cotton at within-plant spatial scales. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 141, 59-70.
    • Zhao, J.-Z., Cao, J., Collins, H.L., Bates, S.L., Roush, R.T., Earle, E.D. and Shelton, A.M. (2005) Concurrent use of transgenic plants expressing a single and two Bacillus thuringiensis genes speeds insect adaptation to pyramided plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 8426-8430.
    • Zhao, J.H., Ho, P. and Azadi, H. (2011) Benefits of Bt cotton counterbalanced by secondary pests? Perceptions of ecological change in China. Environ. Monit. Assess. 173, 985-994.
  • Inferred research data

    The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    Title Trust
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article