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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Catarino, Rui; Ceddia, Graziano; Areal, Francisco J.; Park, Julian (2015)
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Languages: English
Types: Article

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: fungi, food and beverages
The intensification of agriculture and the development of synthetic insecticides enabled worldwide grain production to more than double in the last third of the 20th century. However, the heavy dependence and, in some cases, overuse of insecticides has been responsible for negative environmental and ecological impacts across the globe, such as a reduction in biodiversity, insect resistance to pesticides, negative effects on nontarget\ud species (e.g. natural enemies) and the development of secondary pests. The use of recombinant DNA technology to develop genetically engineered (GE) insect resistant crops could mitigate many of the negative side effects of pesticides. One such genetic alteration enables crops to express toxic crystalline (Cry) proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Despite the widespread adoption of Bt crops, there are still a\ud range of unanswered questions concerning longer term agro-ecosystem interactions. For instance, insect\ud species that are not susceptible to the expressed toxin can develop into secondary pests and cause significant\ud damage to the crop. Here we review the main causes surrounding secondary pest dynamics in Bt crops and the\ud impact of such outbreaks. Regardless of the causes, if non-susceptible secondary pest populations exceed\ud economic thresholds, insecticide spraying could become the immediate solution at farmers’ disposal, and the\ud sustainable use of this genetic modification technology may be in jeopardy. Based on the literature, recommendations for future research are outlined that will help to improve the knowledge of the possible longterm ecological trophic interactions of employing this technology.
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