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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Howells, Robin (2005)
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
Subjects: CAL
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Confessions, CW5.7-11; Dialogues, CW1.123. References are to The Collected Writings of Rollsseau, e d . Roger D. Masters and Christopher Kelly (Hanover and London: New England University Press, 1990- ), by volume and page-number(s). I also give references to the authoritative French edition of Rousseau's Euvres completes, in the Ple'iade (5 vols; Paris: Gallimard, 1959-95)' especially when supplying the French text (modernised) in notes. The translations here, attempting to convey the quality as well as the sense of Rousseau's writing, are usually my own.
    • 2. Plutarch presents the austere republican heroes of Sparta and Rome; the romances of La Calprenede or Mme dc ScudCry (fiction mostly set in ancient times) feature Alexander and Cyrus, CIeopatra and Clelia. On the continuing cultural significance of t h e seventeenth-century French romances even in mid-eighteenth-century England,
    • 14. Fie was sickened by the sight of bitches [sic: 'des chiennes'] coupling, and by seeing holes in t h e earth where h e was told that whores and debauchees did the same ['des cavites dans la terre ou I'on m e dit que ces gens-l2 faisaient leurs accouplements']: CW5.14; Pleiade i, p. 16. Horror of the female 'hole' is surely implicit.
    • 15. 'Ce vice, q u e la honte et la timidite trouvent si commode, a d e plus u n grand attrait pour les imaginations vives: c'est de disposer pour ainsi dire a leur gre de tout le sexe [...l sans avoir besoin d'obtenir son aveu': CWS.91; Pleiade i, p. 109.
    • 16. Rousseau's accounts of t h e 'illumination' that h e experienced in 1749 o n the road to Vincennes can be found in CW5.294-5, 575, and CW8.20; Pleiade i, pp. 351, 1015, 1135-6.
    • 17. For Rousseau 'utopias were genuine portraits of t h e human heart', as Judith Shklar nicely puts it, embracing t h e aspirational, philosophical a n d fictional dimensions of his writing: Men and Citizens: a Study of Rousseau's Social Theory (Cambridge UP, 1969), p. 8.
    • 18. CW1.123, 153-4, and CW5.577-9; Pleiade i, pp. 817, 857-8, 1138-42.
    • 19. 'Jarnais il n e m'embrassa q u e je n e sentisse a ses soupirs, a ses convulsives etreintes, qu'un regret amer se mslait 2 ses caresses'; "'Ah", disait-il en gemissant, "Rends-la-moi, console-moi d'elle"': CW5.7; Pleiade, i, p. 7.
    • 20. 'Une fois que m o n pPre le chitoyait rudement et avec coli.re, je me jettai impetueusement entre deux l'embrassant etroitement. Je le couvris ainsi de mon corps recevant les coups qui lui etaient portks': CW5.9; Pleiade i, pp. 9-10.
    • 21. It seems that the minister and his sister had actually been accused of improper intimacies: see Clement, De 1'Eros coupable, p. 60, note 36; Coz, La Ckne, p. 36. But JeanJacques is unlikely t o have known that. Our concern anyway is less with the putative 'facts' than with t h e sexual imclginaire - as i n our reading of the text of the Confessions itself.
    • 22. O n games with Mlle Goton, a n d o n t h e idyllic 'journee des cerises', see respectively CW5.23, 1 13-16; Pleiade i, pp. 27, 134-9.
    • 23. 'Je fus atteint et saisi par u n grand h o m m e portant une grande moustache, [...l, un grand sabre': CW5.74-5; Pleiade i, p. 89.
    • 24. 'J'etais comme si j'avais commis u n inceste': CW5.165; Pleiade i, p. 197.
    • 25. 'As h e was serious, even grave, and I was younger than him, h e became for me a kind of tutor ['gouverneur'], saving me from many follies; for h e overawed me and I dared not forget myself before him ['car il m'en imposait, et je n'osais m'oublier devant lui']': CW5.149; Pleiade i, p. 177.
    • 26. '11 nous regardait presque comme deux enfants dignes d'indulgence' ; 'Combien de fois elle attendrit nos cceurs et nous fit embrasser avec larmes'; 'Ainsi il s'etablit entre nous trois une societe sans autre exemple peut-Gtre sur la terre': CW5.169; Pleiade i, p. 201.
    • 27. 'Je devenais tout a fait son e u v r e , tout a fait son enfant et plus que si elle etit et6 ma vraie mere': CW5.186; Pleiade i, p. 222. The interpretation of his illness is proposed in the Pleiade edition, p. 218, note 6.
    • 28. See Starobinski, Transparency, 'On Rousseau's illness' (an essay first published in 1962); Clement, Lle I'Eros coupable, ch. 19, 'LIEtrange maladie'; Adamy, Les Corps, ch. 13, 'Le corps persecute'.
    • 29. Other critics who perceive a sexual bivalence in Rousseau argue for a n essential homosexuality (Adamy, Les Corps), or - more persuasively - point t o a dream of hermaphroditism which is also of autarchy (ClPment, De I'Eros coupable, ch. 20; Joel Schwartz, The Sexual Politics of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Chicago UP, 1984), ch. 4; Robert J . Ellrich, 'Rousseau's androgynous dream: the minor works of 1752-62', French Forum 1 3 (1988), 319-38). I am using the term 'homo-eroticism' t o signify the male subject's susceptibility t o sexual arousal by masculine qualities (or secondarily by perceiving a n attraction of the same between females).
    • 30. 'Ihe boy had accidently crushed Jean-Jacques's finger-ends between two metal rollers, Jean-Jacques having felt 'tempted t o place my fingers there and running them pleasur-
    • 46. '11 faut vous fuir, mademoiselie' (I, 1); 'Quand cette redoutable Julie me poursuit, je me refugie auprPs de madame de Wolmar, et je suis tranquille': VI, 7.
    • 47. 'A I'instant il l'a port6 d'un bras vigoureux dans la chaise, et ils sont partis en se tenant etroitement embrassks': I, 65.
    • 48. For this reading, see Tony Tanner, Adultery in the novel (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1979))ch.2, 'La Nouvelle He'loije'.
    • 49. The clearest manifestation of the CEdipus complex is the sentiment of guilt towards the father: see Paul Pelckmans, Le Sncre du pere: Fictions des Lumikres et historicite' d1Qldipe (1699-1775) (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1983). The argument that Freud's model of family relations is less a universal t h a n a product of t h e rise of the bourgeois sentimental family has been proposed by a number of cultural historians: for a recent presentation, see Charlotte Daniels, Subverting the Family Romance (Lewisburg and London: Bucknell University Press, 2000).
    • 50. Essay on the Origin of Languages: CW7.310-15; Pleiade v, pp. 400-5. O n Rousseau and water, see t h e archetypal study by Monique Anne Gyalokay, Rousseau, Northrop Frye et la Bible (Paris: Champion, 1999), ch. 3.
    • 51. 'Une lettre d'un amant vraiment passion6 sera [...l comme une source vive qui coule sans cesse et n e s'epuise jamais'; 'cette douce persuasion qui coule de sa bouche'; '0 ma Julie! [...l clue ne puis-je couler mes jours avec toi': The New Heloise, Second Preface; V, 5; 1, 23.
    • 52. Her married name is 'Wolmar', which might suggest 'veut la mer' ('wants water') - or 'veut la mere' for Saint-Preux. Water indeed represents the negation of her married and social condition. Claire reminds her (for our benefit) that she loves boating but denies herself because her husband dislikes water, and her children might be exposed to danger: IV, 13.
    • 53. 'Je [le] fis et mis au net durant cet hiver avec u n plaisir inexprimable, employant pour cela le plus beau papier dore, d e la poudre d'or e t d'azur pour secher l'ecriture, [...l.' confession.^ 9: CW5.367; Pleiade i, p. 436.)
    • 54. 'Je destine les soirees d cette occupation charmante, et j'avancerais lentement pour la prolonger' (11, 15).
    • 55. 'Je fixerais par l'ecriture celles qui pourront m e venir encore; chaque fois que je les relirai rn'en rendra la jouissance': CW8.7; Pleiade, i, p. 999. 'Jouissance' like 'jouir' had (and still has) a specifically erotic meaning in French. There is n o adequate English equivalent. See Victor Reinking, 'Rousseau's bliss: jouissances', SVEC 332 (1995), 335-48.
    • 56. 'Ne le laissez seul ni jour ni nuit [...l. S'il connait une fois ce dangereux supplement, il est perdu. D$s lors il aura toujours le corps et le c e u r enerves [...l.' Emile:trans. and ed. Allan Bloom (Harmondsworth: Penguin Classics, 1991), pp. 333-4; Plkiade iv, p. 663.
    • 57. See Ernile Rook 5: ed. Bloom, pp. 359, 369, 428, 477-9; Pleiade iv, pp. 695, 709, 795, 863-6.
    • 58. 'Aucun de ces echanges ne se fait sans perte, et ces pertes multipliees reduisent presque a rien d'assez grands tnoyens': He'loi'se, V, 2.
    • 59. '?'he first sentiment that gave me life' ['le premier sentiment qui m'a fait vivre']: Ii'i?loi:$e, VI, 12.
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