Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Rushton, J (2015)
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Journal: Zoonoses and Public Health
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: public and private goods, Original Article, economics, trade-offs, Reducing Antimicrobial Usage in Agriculture and Aquaculture: Beyond Regulatory Policy. The Conference was Sponsored by the Oecd Co-Operative Research Programme on Biological Resource Management for Sustainable Agricultural Systems, the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (Zonmw) and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Whose Financial Support Made It Possible for Most of the Invited Speakers to Participate in the Conference. Guest Editors: Jaap a. Wagenaar and H. Morgan Scott, Antibiotics
Antimicrobials are widely used in preventive and curative medicine in animals. Benefits from curative use are clear ? it allows sick animals to be healthy with a gain in human welfare. The case for preventive use of antimicrobials is less clear cut with debates on the value of antimicrobials as growth promoters in the intensive livestock industries. The possible benefits from the use of antimicrobials need to be balanced against their cost and the increased risk of emergence of resistance due to their use in animals. The study examines the importance of animals in society and how the role and management of animals is changing including the use of antimicrobials. It proposes an economic framework to assess the trade-offs of anti-microbial use and examines the current level of data collection and analysis of these trade-offs. An exploratory review identifies a number of weaknesses. Rarely are we consistent in the frameworks applied to the economic assessment anti-microbial use in animals, which may well be due to gaps in data or the prejudices of the analysts. There is a need for more careful data collection that would allow information on (i) which species and production systems antimicrobials are used in, (ii) what active substance of antimicrobials and the application method and (iii) what dosage rates. The species need to include companion animals as well as the farmed animals as it is still not known how important direct versus indirect spread of resistance to humans is. In addition, research is needed on pricing antimicrobials used in animals to ensure that prices reflect production and marketing costs, the fixed costs of anti-microbial development and the externalities of resistance emergence. Overall, much work is needed to provide greater guidance to policy, and such work should be informed by rigorous data collection and analysis systems.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Acar, J. F., G. Moulin, S. W. Page, and P. P. Pastoret, 2012: Antimicrobial resistance in animal and public health: introduction and classification of antimicrobial agents. Rev. Sci. Tech. 31(1), 15-21.
    • Castanon, J. I. R., 2007: History of the use of antibiotic as growth promoters in European poultry feeds. Poult. Sci. 86 (11), 2466-2471.
    • Chee-Sanford, J. C., R. I. Aminov, I. J. Krapac, N. GarriguesJeanjean, and R. I. Mackie, 2001: Occurrence and diversity of tetracycline resistance genes in lagoons and groundwater underlying two swine production facilities. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67(4), 1494-1502.
    • Codex Alimentarius, 2011: Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance (CAC/GL 77-2011). Codex Alimentarius, Rome, Italy.
    • Cogliani, C., H. Goossens, and C. Greko, 2011: Restricting Antimicrobial Use in Food Animals: Lessons from Europe. Banning nonessential antibiotic uses in food animals is intended to reduce pools of resistance genes. Microbe 6(6), 274-279.
    • Collignon, P., H. C. Wegener, P. Braam, and C. D. Butler, 2005: The routine use of antibiotics to promote animal growth does little to benefit protein undernutrition in the developing world. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41(7), 1007-1013.
    • Costa, E., R. Re Uwiera, J. P. Kastelic, L. B. Selinger, and G. D. Inglis, 2011: Non-therapeutic administration of a model antimicrobial growth promoter modulates intestinal immune responses. Gut. Pathog. 3(1), 14.
    • Danzeisen, J. L., H. Bum Kim, R. E. Isaacson, Z. Jin Tu, and T. J. Johnson, 2011: Modulations of the chicken cecal microbiome and metagenome in response to anticoccidial and growth promoter treatment. PLoS ONE 6(11), e27949.
    • Davies, S., 2013: The drugs don't work. A global threat. Penguin, London.
    • Davis, B., P. Winters, G. Carletto, K. Covarrubias, E. J. Quin~ones, A. Zezza, K. Stamoulis, C. Azzarri, and S. DiGiuseppe, 2010: A Cross-Country Comparison of Rural Income Generating Activities. World Dev. 38(1), 48-63.
    • D'Costa, V. M., C. E. King, L. Kalan, M. Morar, W. W. L. Sung, C. Schwarz, D. Froese, G. Zazula, F. Calmels, R. Debruyne, G. B. Golding, H. N. Poinar, and G. D. Wright, 2011: Antibiotic resistance is ancient. Nature 477(7365), 457-461.
    • Dibner, J. J., and J. D. Richards, 2005: Antibiotic growth promoters in agriculture: history and mode of action. Poult. Sci. 84(4), 634-643.
    • Dierikx, C. M., J. A. van der Goot, H. E. Smith, A. Kant, and D. J. Mevius, 2013: Presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in the broiler production pyramid: a descriptive study. PLoS ONE, 8(11), e79005.
    • Egerv€arn, M., S. Bo€rjesson, S. Byfors, M. Finn, C. Kaipe, S. Englund, and M. Lindblad, 2014: Escherichia coli with extendedspectrum beta-lactamases or transferable AmpC beta-lactamases and Salmonella on meat imported into Sweden. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 171, 8-14.
    • FAO (2014): FAOSTAT database. Available at: http://faostat.fao.org.
    • Gerland, P., A. E. Raftery, H. Sevcikova, N. Li, D. Gu, T. Spoorenberg, L. Alkema, B. K. Fosdick, J. Chunn, N. Lalic, G. Bay, T. Buettner, G. K. Heilig, and J. Wilmoth, 2014: World population stabilization unlikely this century. Science Available at: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi/10.1126/science.1257469 [Accessed September 19, 2014].
    • Gilbert, W., and J. Rushton, 2014: Estimating farm-level private expenditure on veterinary medical inputs in England. Vet. Rec. 174(11), 276
    • Graham, J. P., J. J. Boland, and E. Silbergeld, 2007: Growth promoting antibiotics in food animal production: an economic analysis. Public Health Rep. 122(1), 79-87 .
    • Hennessy, D. A., 2013: Biosecurity Externalities and Indemnities for Infectious Animal Diseases. In Proceedings of the OECD Conference on “Livestock Disease Policies: Building Bridges between Animal Science and Economics.”Paris: OECD, pp. 139-150.
    • Herrero, M., P. K. Thornton, P. Gerber, and R. S. Reid, 2009: Livestock, livelihoods and the environment: understanding the trade-offs. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 1(2), 111-120.
    • Huijbers, P. M. C., E. A. M. Graat, A. P. J. Haenen, M. G. van Santen, A. van Essen-Zandbergen, D. J. Mevius, E. van Duijkeren, and A. H. A. M. van Hoek, 2014: Extended-spectrum and AmpC b-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in broilers and people living and/or working on broiler farms: prevalence, risk factors and molecular characteristics. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 69(10), 2669-2675
    • Johnson, J. R., M. R. Sannes, C. Croy, B. Johnston, C. Clabots, M. A. Kuskowski, J. Bender, K. E. Smith, P. L. Winokur, and E. A. Belongia, 2007: Antimicrobial drug-resistant Escherichia coli from humans and poultry products, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2002-2004. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13(6), 838-846 .
    • Kaier, K., and U. Frank, 2010: Measuring the externality of antibacterial use from promoting antimicrobial resistance. Pharmacoeconomics 28(12), 1123-1128.
    • Kaier, K., and S. Moog, 2012: Economic consequences of the demography of MRSA patients and the impact of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Appl. Health Econ. Health Policy 10(4), 227-234.
    • Laube, H., A. Friese, C. von Salviati, B. Guerra, A. K€asbohrer, L. Kreienbrock, and U. Roesler, 2013: Longitudinal monitoring of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli at German broiler chicken fattening farms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79(16), 4815-4820.
    • Liu, H. N., Y. Liu, L. L. Hu, Y. L. Suo, L. Zhang, F. Jin, X. A. Feng, N. Teng, and Y. Li, 2014: Effects of dietary supplementation of quercetin on performance, egg quality, cecal microflora populations, and antioxidant status in laying hens. Poult. Sci. 93(2), 347-353.
    • Maron, D. F., T. J. S. Smith, and K. E. Nachman, 2013: Restrictions on antimicrobial use in food animal production: an international regulatory and economic survey. Global. Health 9, 48.
    • Marshall, B. M., and S. B. Levy, 2011: Food animals and antimicrobials: impacts on human health. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 24 (4), 718-733.
    • Mathews, K. H., 2001: Antimicrobial Drug Use and Veterinary Costs in U.S. Livestock Production. USDA Agricultural Information Bulletin 766 May 2001 11 pages http:// www.ers.usda.gov/media/480677/aib766_1_.pdf (accessed September 2014)
    • McEwen, S. A., 2012: Quantitative human health risk assessments of antimicrobial use in animals and selection of resistance: a review of publicly available reports. Rev. Sci. Tech. 31 (1), 261-276.
    • Mclnerney, J., 1996: Old economics for new problems -livestock disease: presidential address. J. Agric. Econ. 47(1-4), 295-314.
    • Niewold, T. A., 2007: The nonantibiotic anti-inflammatory effect of antimicrobial growth promoters, the real mode of action? A hypothesis Poult. Sci. 86(4), 605-609.
    • Norwood, F. B., and J. L. Lusk, 2011: Compassion, by the pound: The Economics of Farm Animal Welfare. Oxford University Press, New York and London.
    • Ostrom, E., 2010: Beyond Markets and States: Polycentric Governance of Complex Economic Systems. Am. Econ. Rev. 100 (3), 641-672.
    • Pagel, S. W., and P. Gautier, 2012: Use of anti-microbial agents in livestock. Rev. Sci. Tech. 31(1), 145-188.
    • Rushton, J., 2009: Economic Analysis Tools. In: Rushton, J. (ed), The Economics of Animal Health and Production, pp. 65- 106. CABI, Wallingford, UK.
    • Rushton, J., P. K. Thornton, and M. J. Otte, 1999: Methods of economic impact assessment. Rev. Sci. Tech. 18(2), 315-342.
    • Smith, R., and J. Coast, 2013: The true cost of antimicrobial resistance. BMJ 346, f1493.
    • Smith, R. D., M. Yago, M. Millar, and J. Coast, 2006: A macroeconomic approach to evaluating policies to contain antimicrobial resistance: a case study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Appl. Health Econ. Health Policy 5(1), 55-65.
    • Snary, E. L., et al., 2004: Antimicrobial resistance: a microbial risk assessment perspective. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 53(6), 906-917.
    • SOU, 1997: Antimicrobial feed additives. Report from the commission on antimicrobial feed additives, Available at: http:// www.government.se/sb/d/574/a/54899.
    • Steinfeld, H., P. Gerber, T. Wassenaar, V. Castel, M. Rosales, and C. De Haan, 2006: Livestock's long shadow: Environmental issues and options. FAO, Rome, Italy. Available at: http:// www.fao.org/docrep/010/a0701e/a0701e00.HTM.
    • Tansarli, G. S., D. E. Karageorgopoulos, A. Kapaskelis, and M. E. Falagas, 2013: Impact of antimicrobial multidrug resistance on inpatient care cost: an evaluation of the evidence. Expert Rev. Anti. Infect. Ther. 11(3), 321-331.
    • Thomke, S., and K. Elwinger, 1993: Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. I. Growth and feed efficiency responses to antibiotic growth promotants. Annales de zootechnie, 47, 85-97.
    • Tisdell, C., 2009: Economics of Controlling Livestock Diseases: Basic Theory. In: Rushton, J. (ed), Economics of Animal Health & Production, pp. 46-49. CABI, Wallingford, UK.
    • Vagsholm, I., and S. Ho€jgard, 2010: Antimicrobial sensitivity-A natural resource to be protected by a Pigouvian tax? Prev. Vet. Med. 96(1-2), 9-18.
    • Warren, R. E., V. M. Ensor, P. O'Neill, V. Butler, J. Taylor, K. Nye, M. Harvey, D. M. Livermore, N. Woodford, and P. M. Hawkey, 2008: Imported chicken meat as a potential source of quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli producing extendedspectrum beta-lactamases in the UK. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 61(3), 504-508.
    • Wegener, H. C., 2012: Antibiotic resistance linking human and animal health. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary, pp. 331-349. National Academies Press, Washington DC.
    • Wolf, C. A., 2013: Livestock disease indemnity design: considering asymmetric information - 1. In Proceedings of the OECD Conference on “Livestock Disease Policies: Building Bridges between Animal Science and Economics.”Paris: OECD, pp. 127-138.
  • Inferred research data

    The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    Title Trust
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article