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Kendall, Sara; Nouwen, Sarah (2016)
Publisher: American Society of International Law
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: K
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    • 3 Letter Dated 15 May 2015 from the President of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda Addressed to the President of the Security Council, Report on the Completion Strategy of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda as of 5 May 2015, UN Doc. S/2015/340, paras. 1, 5 (May 15, 2015).
    • 4 ICTR, ICTR Legacy Project Proposals, at http://www.unmict.org/ictr-remembers/docs/legacy_projects.pdf.
    • 8 On which, see, for example, Filip Reyntjens, Chronique Politique du Rwanda, 2014 -2015, in L'AFRIQUE DES GRANDS LACS: ANNUAIRE 2014 -2015 251 (Filip Reyntjens, Stef Vandeginste & S. Marysse eds., 2015).
    • 9 ICTR Press Release, supra note 2.
    • 11 Viviane E. Dittrich, Legacies in the Making: Assessing the Institutionalized Legacy Endeavor of the Special Court for Sierra Leone, in THE SIERRA LEONE SPECIAL COURT AND ITS LEGACY: THE IMPACT FOR AFRICA AND INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW 663 (Charles C. Jalloh ed., 2013).
    • 12 OFFICE OF THE UN HIGH COMM'R FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, RULE OF LAW TOOLS FOR POSTCONFLICT STATES, MAXIMIZING THE LEGACY OF HYBRID COURTS, at 4 -5, UN Sales No. HR/PUB/08/2 (2008).
    • 13 ZYGMUNT BAUMAN, MORTALITY, IMMORTALITY AND OTHER LIFE STRATEGIES 2 (1992).
    • 14 Id.
    • 15 Legal rhetorician Marianne Constable notes the “peculiar temporality” of speech acts such as legal decisions that will turn out to have had particular effects, such as the phenomenon of establishing legal precedent through judgments. See MARIANNE CONSTABLE, OUR WORD IS OUR BOND: HOW LEGAL SPEECH ACTS 73 (2014).
    • 16 In her work on what she terms “revisionary practices,” such as truth commissions and international criminal trials, philosopher Jill Stauffer illustrates how the meaning of the past in the present changes over time. See JILL STAUFFER, ETHICAL LONELINESS: THE INJUSTICE OF NOT BEING HEARD 112 (2015).
    • 17 BAUMAN, supra note 13, at 54.
    • 18 U.N. Secretary-General, Budget for the International Criminal Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Genocide and Other Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan Citizens Responsible for Genocide and Other Such Violations Committed in the Territory of Neighbouring States Between 1 January and 31 December 1994 for the Biennium 2004 -2005, Annex, UN Doc. A/58/269 (Aug. 12, 2003).
    • 19 S.C. Res. 1966 (Dec. 22, 2010).
    • 20 See also Nigel Eltringham, A Legacy Deferred? The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda at 20 Years (Apr. 29, 2014), available at http://www.e-ir.info/2014/04/29/a-legacy-deferred-the-international-criminal-tribunalfor-rwanda-at-20-years/.
    • 21 U.N. Charter Art. 39.
    • 22 S.C. Res. 955 (Nov. 8, 1994).
    • 23 Id. at pmbl.
    • 24 For diverging expectations among Security Council members, see U.N. SCOR, 49th Sess., 3453d mtg., UN Doc. S/PV.3453 (Nov. 8, 1994).
    • 25 ICTR PRESS & PUBLIC AFFAIRS UNIT, LEARNING FROM THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR RWANDA: THE LEGACY (2009).
    • 26 ICTR officials themselves have widely diverging views on the Tribunal's mandate. See Nigel Eltringham, “When We Walk Out, What Was It All About?”: Views on New Beginnings from Within the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 45 DEV. & CHANGE 543 (2014) and NICOLA PALMER, COURTS IN CONFLICT: INTERPRETING THE LAYERS OF JUSTICE IN POST-GENOCIDE RWANDA (2015).
    • 27 ICTR Legacy Video, supra note 2.
    • 28 LEARNING FROM THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR RWANDA, supra note 25 at 39.
    • 29 Judge Dennis Byron's Address to the UN General Assembly, ICTR NEWSLETTER, Oct. 2008, at 1, at http:// www.unmict.unictr.org/sites/unictr.org/files/news/newsletters/oct08.pdf. Based on research conducted within the ICTR, however, Palmer asserts that Tribunal officials are divided over whether creating a historical record is part of the ICTR's mandate and on whether the Tribunal has accomplished this. See PALMER, supra note 26, at 64 - 67.
    • 30 See ICTR, ICTR Milestones, at http://www.unmict.unictr.org/en/ictr-milestones; ICTR Legacy Video, supra note 2; LEARNING FROM THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR RWANDA, supra note 25; Dennis C. M. Byron, Looking at Legacy and Looking Back on the Legacy Symposium, 14 NEW ENG. J. INT'L & COMP. L. 319 (2008); Erik Møse, Main Achievements of the ICTR, 3 J. INT'L CRIM. JUST. 920 (2005).
    • 31 Press Release, ICTR, ICTR Prosecutor Releases Best Practices Manual on Referral of International Criminal Cases to National Jurisdictions (Feb. 11, 2015), at http://www.unmict.unictr.org/en/news/ictr-prosecutor-releasesbest-practices-manual-referral-international-criminal-cases-national.
    • 32 Id.
    • 33 ICTR Legacy Video, supra note 2.
    • 34 See, e.g., Francois-Xavier Nsanzuwera, The ICTR Contribution to National Reconciliation, 3 J. INT'L CRIM. JUST. 944 (2005) (setting forth theories as to how the ICTR may contribute to reconciliation).
    • 35 See also David S. Koller, The Faith of the International Criminal Lawyer, 40 N.Y.U. J. INT'L L. & POL. 1019 (2008); Sarah M. H. Nouwen, Justifying Justice, in THE CAMBRIDGE COMPANION TO INTERNATIONAL LAW 327 ( James Crawford & Martti Koskenniemi eds., 2012); Carsten Stahn, Between “Faith” and “Facts”: By What Standards Should We Assess International Criminal Justice?, 25 LEIDEN J. INT'L L. 251 (2012).
    • 36 See Bert Ingelaere, Do We Understand Life after Genocide? Center and Periphery in the Construction of Knowledge in Post-genocide Rwanda, 53 AFR. STUD. REV. 41 (2010); Longman & Rutagengwa, supra note 7, at 164.
    • 37 See Ingelaere, supra note 6, at 522; Ingelaere, supra note 36, at 52-54; JOHAN POTTIER, REIMAGINING RWANDA: CONFLICT, SURVIVAL AND DISINFORMATION IN THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY (2002); FILIP REYNTJENS, POLITICAL GOVERNANCE IN POST-GENOCIDE RWANDA 228 -29 (2013).
    • 38 Susan Thomson, Getting Close to Rwandans Since the Genocide: Studying Everyday Life in Highly Politicized Research Settings, 53 AFR. STUD. REV. 19, 22-23 (2010). See also Susan Thomson, Reeducation for Reconciliation: Participant Observations on Ingando, in REMAKING RWANDA: STATE BUILDING AND HUMAN RIGHTS AFTER MASS VIOLENCE 331 (Scott Straus & Lars Waldorf eds., 2011).
    • 39 REYNTJENS, supra note 37, at xv, 125-26.
    • 40 See, e.g., LARISSA VAN DEN HERIK, THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE RWANDA TRIBUNAL TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW (2005); Hassan Bubacar Jallow, The Contribution of the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda to the Development of International Criminal Law, in AFTER GENOCIDE: TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE, POSTCONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION, AND RECONCILIATION IN RWANDA AND BEYOND 261 (Philip Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman eds., 2008).
    • 41 See ICTR Milestones, supra note 30.
    • 42 See sources cited at note 40, supra. See also, Payam Akhavan, The Crime of Genocide in the ICTR Jurisprudence, 3 J. INT'L CRIM. JUST. 989 (2005); Kelly D. Askin, Gender Crimes Jurisprudence in the ICTR: Positive Developments, 3 J. INT'L CRIM. JUST. 1007 (2005); and articles by John Cerone, Suzanne Chenault, and Catherine A. MacKinnon, in 14 NEW ENG. J. INT'L & COMP. L. 211 (2008).
    • 43 Eltringham, supra note 20.
    • 44 See Mikkel Jarle Christensen, From Symbolic Surge to Closing Courts: The Transformation of International Criminal Justice and its Professional Practices, 43 INT'L J. LAW, CRIME & JUST. 609 (2015).
    • 45 See also Morten Bergsmo & Philippa Webb, Some Lessons for the International Criminal Court from the International Judicial Response to the Rwandan Genocide, in AFTER GENOCIDE, supra note 40, at 351.
    • 46 ICTR Legacy Video, supra note 2.
    • 47 Leila N. Sadat, The Contribution of the ICTR to the Rule of Law, in PROMOTING ACCOUNTABILITY UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR GROSS HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN AFRICA: ESSAYS IN HONOUR OF PROSECUTOR HASSAN BUBACAR JALLOW 118, 129 (Charles C. Jalloh & Alhagi B. M. Marong eds., 2015) (also referring to a speech by Judge Meron to that effect).
    • 48 As of Mid-November 2015, the ICTR reported that it had indicted ninety-three individuals and concluded proceedings for seventy-eight accused (including four individuals whose cases were transferred to other jurisdictions, two instances in which the indictment was withdrawn, and two instances in which the accused died before judgment), with six individuals' cases remaining on appeal. The Tribunal also transferred the cases of nine fugitives to other jurisdictions. ICTR, ICTR Key Figures, at http://www.unmict.unictr.org/sites/unictr.org/files/publications/ ictr-key-figures-en.pdf.
    • 49 See, e.g., Møse, supra note 30, at 933. See also ICTR/Legacy - Rwanda Tribunal Has Blazed a Trail Despite Its Weaknesses, Says Expert, HIRONDELLE NEWS, Dec. 31, 2013, at http://www.hirondellenews.com/ictr-rwanda/ 404-ictr-institutional-news/34529-311213-ictrlegacy-rwanda-tribunal-has-blazed-a-trail-despite-its-weaknesses-says-expert.
    • 50 ALISON DES FORGES, “LEAVE NONE TO TELL THE STORY”: GENOCIDE IN RWANDA, 16, 734 (1999).
    • 51 Carla Del Ponte with Chuck Sudetic, MADAME PROSECUTOR: CONFRONTATIONS WITH HUMANITY'S WORST CRIMINALS AND THE CULTURE OF IMPUNITY, A MEMOIR 229 (2009).
    • 52 S.C. Res. 1503, paras. 8 -9 (Aug. 28, 2003).
    • 53 Statement by Hassan B. Jallow, Prosecutor of the ICTR, to the UN Security Council, UN Doc. S/PV.5904, at 11 ( Jun. 4, 2008).
    • 54 Victor Peskin, Victor's Justice Revisited: Rwandan Patriotic Front Crimes and the Prosecutorial Endgame at the ICTR, in REMAKING RWANDA, supra note 38, at 180.
    • 59 See the open letter Ensuring ICTR Prosecutions for RPF War Crimes to the UN Secretary-General, President Barack Obama, and Prime Minister Gordon Brown, dated June 1, 2009, signed by fifty Rwanda scholars, available at http://uk-africa.blogspot.com/2009/06/ensuring-ictr-prosecutions-for-rpf-war.html.
    • 60 For a more optimistic reading, see the comments of Professor Guichaoua in ICTR/Legacy, supra note 49.
    • 61 Responsibility for three of them has been handed over to the Residual Mechanism; Rwanda would try the other five. United Nations Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals, Searching for the Fugitives, at http://www. unmict.org/en/cases/searching-fugitives.
    • 62 Caroline Buisman & Kate Gibson, Acquitted by Law, Prosecuted by Propaganda, JUST. IN CONFLICT (Mar. 31, 2014), at http://justiceinconflict.org/2014/03/31/acquitted-by-law-prosecuted-by-propaganda/.
    • 63 See Filip Reyntjens, Chronique Politique du Rwanda, 2012-2013, in L'AFRIQUE DES GRANDS LACS: ANNUAIRE 2012-2013 287, 300 (Filip Reyntjens, Stef Vandeginste & M. Verpoorten eds., 2013).
    • 64 See, e.g., Joseph Rwagatare, ICTR Acquittals Shocking but Expected, THE NEW TIMES, Feb. 11, 2013, at http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2013-02-11/62785/. See also Beth S. Lyons, Acquitted but Still Not Free, INTLAWGRRLS (May 19, 2014), at http://ilg2.org/2014/05/19/acquitted-but-still-not-free/.
    • 65 Address by Judge Vagn Joensen, President of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda to the United Nations Security Council ( Jun. 3, 2015), at http://unictr.unmict.org/en/news/address-judge-vagn-joensenpresident-international-criminal-tribunal-rwanda-united-nations.
    • 66 Chine Labbé, Fumbuka Ng'wanakilala & Thomas Escritt, Rwanda Court's Forgotten Men Pose Challenge to International Justice, REUTERS, Sept. 28, 2014, at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/09/28/uk-un-justiceinsight-idUKKCN0HN0NI20140928.
    • 67 On the role of NGO advocacy concerning victim compensation, see Emily Haslam, Law, Civil Society and Contested Justice at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, in PATHS TO INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE: SOCIAL AND LEGAL PERSPECTIVES 57 (Marie-Be´ne´dicte Dembour & Tobias Kelly eds., 2007).
    • 68 See, e.g., Press Release, Office of the Prosecutor, Address to the Security Council by Carla Del Ponte, Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (Nov. 24, 2000), at http:// www.icty.org/sid/7803; Press Release, ICTR, ICTR President Calls for Compensation for Victims (Oct. 31, 2002), at http://unictr.unmict.org/en/news/ictr-president-calls-compensation-victims. Note, however, that ICTR judges advocated against changing the ICTR statute to incorporate provisions for victims as in the ICC Statute. See Letter Dated 14 December 2000 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council (annexing Letter dated 9 November 2000 from the President of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda Addressed to the Secretary-General), UN Doc. S/2000/1198 (Dec. 15, 2000).
    • 69 See Kingsley C. Moghalu, International Humanitarian Law from Nuremberg to Rome: The Weighty Precedents of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 14 PACE INT'L L. REV. 273, 302 (2002).
    • 70 Whether victim participation should in fact be included as a “best practice” in international criminal law remains to be seen. For an account of some of the challenges in “juridifying” victimhood as a category of legal identity, see Sara Kendall & Sarah Nouwen, Representational Practices: The Gap Between Juridified and Abstract Victimhood, 76 L. & CONTEMP. PROBS. 235 (2014).
    • 74 Press Release, ICTR, ICTR Appeals Chamber Takes Judicial Notice of Genocide in Rwanda ( Jun. 20, 2006), at http://www.unmict.unictr.org/en/news/ictr-appeals-chamber-takes-judicial-notice-genocide-rwanda.
    • 77 POTTIER, supra note 37; Ge´rard Prunier, Rwanda's Ghosts Refuse to Be Buried, BBC FOCUS, Apr. 8, 2009, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7981964.stm.
    • 79 On the role of archives more generally, see Kirsten Campbell, The Laws of Memory: The ICTY, the Archive, and Transitional Justice, 22 SOC. & LEGAL STUD. 247 (2013).
    • 80 Tom A. Adami, ''Who Will Be Left to Tell the Tale?'' Recordkeeping and International Criminal Jurisprudence, 7 ARCHIVAL SCI. 213, 217 (2007) (emphasis added; footnote omitted).
    • 81 See Edmund Kagire, Rwanda Presses for ICTR Records, THE EAST AFRICAN, Dec. 20, 2014, at http://www. theeastafrican.co.ke/news/Rwanda-presses-for-ICTR-records/-/2558/2563806/-/14sscne/-/index.html; Edwin Musoni, Experts On Why Rwanda Should Take Custody of ICTR Archives, THE NEW TIMES, Feb. 10, 2015, at http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2015-02-10/185831/.
    • 82 Rwanda/UN - Kigali Reiterates Its Request to Shelter ICTR's Archives, HIRONDELLE NEWS, Oct. 21, 2009, at http://www.hirondellenews.com/ictr-rwanda/410-rwanda-other-countries/23678-en-en-211009- rwandaun-kigali-reiterates-its-request-to-shelter-ictrs-archives1272912729. See also Permanent Mission of Rwanda to the United Nations, Statement for the Consideration of the 20th Annual Report of the ICTR and ICTY by First Counselor, Sana Maboneza (Oct. 12, 2015), available at http://rwandaun.org/site/2015/10/12/statementfor-the-consideration-of-the-20th-annual-report-of-the-ictr-and-icty-by-first-counselor-sana-maboneza/.
    • 87 S.C. Res. 1966 (Dec. 22, 2010) (annexing the Statute of the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals, Arts. 3, 27, para. 2).
    • 91 Seventh Annual Report of the ICTR, for the Period from July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2002, July 2, 2002, para. 10, UN Doc. S/2002/733; Eighth Annual Report of the ICTR, for the period from July 1, 2002 to June 30, 2003, July 11, 2003, para. 6, UN Doc. S/2003/707.
    • 92 S.C. Res. 1503, supra note 52, at pmbl (8th recital).
    • 93 By June 2010, the ICTR Prosecutor had transferred fifty-five such files to Rwanda. See COMPLEMENTARITY IN ACTION, supra note 88, at 7, n. 18.
    • 94 For the most recent version, see ICTR Rules of Procedure and Evidence, adopted on Jun. 29, 1996, last Amended May 13, 2015, rule 11 bis (A) and (B). The rule was first introduced in 2002, and substantially amended in 2004, 2005, and, to a lesser extent, 2011.
    • 95 Prosecutor v. Bagaragaza, Case No. ICTR-2005-86-R11bis, Decision on Prosecution's Motion for Referral to the Kingdom of Norway, para. 7 (May 19, 2006).
    • 96 Organic Law n° 11/2007 of 16/03/2007 Concerning Transfer of Cases to the Republic of Rwanda from the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and from Other States, Arts. 21, 24, Official Gazette, Special Issue, Mar. 19, 2007.
    • 97 Organic Law n° 31/2007 of 25/07/2007 Relating to the Abolition of the Death Penalty, Arts. 2-3, Official Gazette, Special Issue, July 25, 2007.
    • 98 See the Rule 11 bis decisions by the Trial Chamber in the Munyakazi, Kanyarukiga, Hategekimana, Gatete, and Kayishema cases, each of which was upheld on appeal (decisions available at http://unictr.unmict.org/en/cases).
    • 99 COMPLEMENTARITY IN ACTION, supra note 88, at 26. See also AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL, RWANDA: SUSPECTS MUST NOT BE TRANSFERRED TO RWANDAN COURTS FOR TRIAL UNTIL IT IS DEMONSTRATED THAT TRIALS WILL COMPLY WITH INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS OF JUSTICE 5 (2007), at https://www.amnesty. org/en/documents/afr47/013/2007/en/.
    • 106 See Stephen A. Lamony, Rwanda and the ICC: Playing Politics with Justice, AFRICAN ARGUMENTS, Oct. 21, 2013, at http://africanarguments.org/2013/10/21/rwanda-and-the-icc-playing-politics-with-justice-by-stephena-lamony/.
    • 107 Robert Mugabe, Rwanda Will Not Join Rome Statute-Justice Minister, GREAT LAKES VOICE, Jul. 31, 2014, at http://greatlakesvoice.com/rwanda-will-not-join-rome-statute-justice-minister/.
    • 109 Ban Ki-Moon, Remarks at the Commemoration of the 20th Anniversary of the Rwandan Genocide, Kigali (Apr. 7, 2014), at http://www.un.org/sg/statements/index.asp?nid!7572.
    • 125 Id. at 131-32.
    • 126 MOGHALU, supra note 55, at 207; Haskell & Waldorf, supra note 55, at 75-78.
    • 127 Sadat, supra note 47, 128.
    • 128 See Ian S. McIntosh, A Creative Approach to Measuring Reconciliation in Rwanda, 1 CONFLICT TRENDS 33 (2013).
    • 129 Kamatali, supra note 121, at 116.
    • 130 Longman, Connecting Justice to Human Experience: Attitudes Toward Accountability and Reconciliation in Rwanda, in MY NEIGHBOR, MY ENEMY, supra note 7, at 206.
    • 131 Id. at 219.
    • 132 See also MOGHALU, supra note 55, at 202; Gallimore, supra note 112, at 241.
    • 133 Kamatali, supra note 121, at 133.
    • 134 Laurel E. Fletcher & Harvey M. Weinstein, Violence and Social Repair: Rethinking the Contribution of Justice to Reconciliation, 24 HUM. RTS. Q. 573, 600 (2002).
    • 138 In this sense the Tribunal's mode of address that privileges outsiders over the Rwandan people appears to adopt an orientation that parallels other responses to the genocide, such as prominent public apologies from political leaders. See Nesam McMillan, Regret, Remorse and the Work of Remembrance: Official Responses to the Rwandan Genocide, 19 SOC. & LEGAL STUD. 85 (2010).
    • 139 Jens Meierhenrich, Topographies of Remembering and Forgetting: The Transformation of Lieux de M´emoire in Rwanda, in REMAKING RWANDA, supra note 38, at 283.
    • 140 Address to the 70th United Nations General Assembly: Twentieth Annual Report of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda by Judge Vagn Joensen, President, Oct. 13, 2015, available at http://unictr.unmict.org/ en/news/address-70th-united-nations-general-assembly-twentieth-annual-report-international-criminal.
    • 141 Meierhenrich, supra note 139.
    • 142 Nigel Eltringham, “A War Crimes Community?”: The Legacy of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda Beyond Jurisprudence, 14 NEW ENG. J. INT'L & COMP. L. 309, 312 (2008).
    • 143 See Eltringham, supra note 26. For a similar article concerning the legacy of the ICTY, see Fre´de´ric Me´gret, The Legacy of the ICTY as Seen through Some of Its Actors and Observers, 3 GOETTINGEN J. INT'L L. 1011, 1013 (2012).
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