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Craven, A. (2008)
Publisher: Maney Publishing
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects:
Between 1642 and 1660, the Church of England was directed and administered by centrally-appointed government committees, who oversaw the appointment of clerics, arranged generous salaries for many ministers, and undertook ambitious policies that would have revolutionised the medieval parochial structure of the Church. Yet these committees have rarely been discussed, largely because historians remain sceptical about the nature of the Church in this period, and have too often been distracted by doctrinal matters. This essay will analyse the key activity of these committees within Lancashire, the augmentation of clerical wages, and demonstrate that there was a functioning, national, established Church in existence during this period, and that, for some of the clergy at least, this was a golden age of doctrinal tolerance and financial remuneration.
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    • Ronald Hutton, The Rise and Fall of Merry England: The Ritual Year, 1400-1700 (Oxford, 1994); Christopher Durston, Cromwell's Major-Generals: Godly Government during the English Revolution (Manchester, 2001); Christopher Hill, Society and Puritanism in Pre-Revolutionary England (1962); idem., Puritanism and Revolution (1958); idem., The World Turned Upside Down (1972); A. L. Morton, The World of the Ranters (1970); Radical Religion in the English Revolution, ed. Barry Reay and J. F. McGregor (Oxford, 1984). The recent collection of essays edited by Christopher Durston and Judith Maltby seeks to redress this situation, however: Religion in Revolutionary England, ed. Christopher Durston and Judith Maltby (Manchester, 2006).
    • [2] Judith Maltby, Prayer Book and People in Elizabethan and Early Stuart England (Cambridge, 1998), idem., „“The Good Old Way”: Prayer Book Protestantism in the 1640s and 1650s‟, Studies in Church History, XXXVIII (2004), 233-56; John Morrill, „The Church of England, 1643-1649‟, in Reactions to the English Civil War, ed. John Morrill (Basingstoke, 1982).
    • [3] Christopher Hill, Economic Problems of the Church: From Archbishop Whitgift to the Long Parliament (Oxford, 1956); Continuity and Change: Personnel and Administration in the English Church 1500-1642, ed. Rosemary O‟Day and Felicity Heal (Leicester, 1976); The Church and Society, Henry VIII to James I, ed. Rosemary O‟Day and Felicity Heal (Leicester, 1977). Rosemary O‟Day, The English Clergy: Emergence and Consolidation of a Profession, 1558-1642 (Leicester, 1979).
    • [4] A Directory for the Publique Worship of God Throughout the Three Kingdoms of England, Ireland and Scotland, Together with an Ordinance of Parliament for the taking away of the Book of Common Prayer and for establishing and observing this present Directory throughout the Kingdom of England and Dominion of Wales, (1645).
    • [5] Morrill, in Morrill, Reactions to the English Civil War, p. 90.
    • [6] Claire Cross, „The Church in England 1646-1660‟, in The Interregnum, ed. G E Aylmer (Basingstoke, 1972), p. 99. However, more recent work has tended to reject this pessimistic interpretation. See Ann Hughes‟s recent study of the national Church during the 1650s: Ann Hughes, „“The Public Profession of These Nations”: the National Church in Interregnum England‟, in Durston and Maltby, Religion in Revolutionary England,, pp. 93-114. I am grateful to Prof. Hughes for allowing me to see a copy of her chapter before publication. See also Jeffrey Collins, „The Church Settlement of Oliver Cromwell‟, History, LXXXVII (2002), 18-40.
    • [7] W. A. Shaw, A History of the English Church During the Civil Wars and Under the Commonwealth 1640-1660, 2 vols (1900), II, 185-97. Despite its inadequacies, this is still the most comprehensive account of the various experiments attempted in Church government by the successive regimes of the 1640s and 1650s.
    • [8] Shaw, History of the English Church, II, 204-15; Acts & Ordinances of the Interregnum [hereafter A&O], ed. C. H. Firth and R. S. Rait, 3 vols (1911), II, 142-48; Lancashire and Cheshire Commonwealth Church Surveys, ed. Henry Fishwick, Record Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, I, (1879) [hereafter Church Survey], xviii-xix; C[ommons] J[ournals], VI, 226-27.
    • [9] National Archives: Public Record Office, C47/21/15, 17-19, C94/1-3; Lambeth Palace Library, COMM/12A-C.
    • [10] Shaw, History of the English Church, II, 185-93; Rosemary O‟Day and Ann Hughes, „Augmentation and Amalgamation: was there a systematic approach to the reform of parochial finance, 1640-60?‟, in Princes and Paupers in the English Church, 1500-1800, ed. Rosemary O‟Day and Felicity Heal (Leicester, 1981), p. 167.
    • [11] J. E. C. Hill, „Puritans and “the dark corners of the land”‟, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser., XIII (1963), 77-102; Ernest Axon, „The King‟s Preachers in Lancashire, 1599-1845‟, Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, LVI (1941-2), 67-89.
    • [12] Hill, Economic Problems of the Church, pp. 54, 69-70.
    • [13] Victoria History of the County of Lancaster, ed. William Farrer, 8 vols (1906-14) [hereafter VCH Lancashire], VI, 349; Michael Mullett, „The Reformation in the parish of Whalley‟, in The Lancashire Witches: Histories and Stories, ed. Robert Poole (Manchester, 2002), pp. 88- 104; B G Blackwood, The Lancashire Gentry and the Great Rebellion 1640-60, Chetham Society, 3rd ser., xxv (1978), 3. In his edition of the 1650 Commonwealth Church Survey, Henry Fishwick counted sixty-four parishes. He included in this list, however, Newchurch-in-Culcheth chapel (Winwick parish), Horwich chapel (Deane parish), and Oldham chapel (Prestwich parish, although often treated as if it was a separate parish in its own right), whilst he excluded the ancient parish of Brindle (listed as a chapel): Church Survey, pp. xx-xxv.
    • [14] Haigh, Reformation and Resistance (Cambridge, 1975), pp. 22-30.
    • [15] The seventeen rectories were Aldingham (£140), Ashton-under-Lyne (£113), Bury (£162), Croston (£349), Eccleston (£115), Halsall (£169), Heysham (£100), Lancaster (£280), Middleton (£232), Prestwich (£120), Rochdale (£160), Sefton (£248), Standish (£199), Walton-on-the-Hill (£192), Whittington (£137), Wigan (£417) and Winwick (£660). The Warden and four Fellows of the Collegiate Church of Manchester shared £550 between themselves; the tithes of the rectory of Aughton were worth £97. Church Survey, pp. 4-5, 14-16, 19, 21-27, 38-42, 46-47, 59-60, 81-88, 94-95, 97-101, 108-17, 122, 125-28, 131, 133-34.
    • [16] The sixteen parishes were Bolton-le-Sands (£20), Chipping (£10), Dalton-in-Furness (£17 6s. 8d.), Deane (£10 13s. 4d.), Eccles (£18), Flixton (£20), Hawkshead (£20), Huyton (£10), Kirkby Ireleth (£13 10s.), Leigh (£16 14s. 8d.), Pennington (£12), Ribchester (£20), Tunstall (£15), Ulverston (£10), Urswick (£20) and Warton (£20). Church Survey, pp. 13-14, 16-17, 36-38, 55, 75, 118-19, 121, 129-30, 133, 135-41, 169-70.
    • [17] Church Survey, pp. 13-14, 37, 51, 78; Hill, Economic Problems of the Church, pp 140-41; VCH Lancashire, III, 417.
    • [18] R C Richardson, Puritanism in North-West England (Manchester, 1972), p. 3; Hill, Economic Problems of the Church, p. 113
    • [19] Church Survey, pp. xx-xxv.
    • [20] Because some churches were served by more than one minister, and because some ministers received more than one augmentation, it is easiest to talk of numbers of augmentations made rather than numbers of ministers or churches in receipt of augmentations.
    • [21] The eight sequestered benefices were Brindle, Bury, Garstang, Halsall, Lancaster, Sefton, Walton-on-the-Hill (rectory) and Wigan. Wigan had been held by the Bishop of Chester, whilst Bury and Halsall, and Garstang and Lancaster, had been held by pluralists, although the incumbents were sequestered for delinquency. [Minutes of the] C[ommittee for the Relief of] P[lundered] M[inisters], ed. W. A. Shaw, 2 vols, RSLC, XXVIII & XXXIV (1893 & 1897), I, 1-5, 7, 12, 41-42, 46. The original manuscripts of these minutes are spread between Lambeth Palace, the British Library, the Bodleian Library, and the PRO: Lambeth Palace Library, Commonwealth Records; British Library, Add. MSS. 15,669-71; Bodleian Library, Bodley MSS. 322-29; NA: PRO, SP22.
    • [22] The tithes were redistributed within the parishes of Bury, Halsall, Sefton, Walton, Wigan and, oddly, Winwick. Winwick was never sequestered, the resident rector, Charles Herle, being a respected member of the Westminster Assembly. Nevertheless, a settlement was made for the three chapels within the parish, although a new settlement had to be made for Newchurch-in-Culcheth shortly afterwards. Therefore, the latter will be treated as an augmentation of a fixed value for the remainder of this essay. CPM, I, 1- 8, 10, 41-42.
    • [23] CPM, I, 9-10.
    • [24] CPM, I, 23, 44, 58, 106-07. The award made to Ormskirk has been treated as a single augmentation of £90. Although originally a grant of £50 for the minister and £40 for an assistant, the Vicar had undertook the extra services himself, and so was awarded the full sum; CPM, I, 25, 122. The five awards also include a grant of £64 to the „severall chappells of Baley and Chageley‟; CPM, I, 40. There was no chapel at Chaigley, whilst Bailey chapel had fallen into disuse in the sixteenth century; VCH Lancashire, VII, 19.
    • [25] CPM, I, 17, 37-38.
    • [26] CPM, I, 69, 106; CPM, II, 20.
    • [27] CPM, I, 72-74, 120-21.
    • [28] CPM, I, 69-70, 87-89, 92.
    • [29] O‟Day and Hughes, in O‟Day and Heal, Princes and Paupers, pp. 173-74.
    • [30] Cross, in Aylmer, Interregnum, p. 104.
    • [31] Church Survey, pp. 118-19, 133.
    • [32] This figure includes £330 divided between the nine incumbents of the chapels of Manchester, an accommodation which appears to have been formalised in 1654. It does not include the incomes at Chorlton, Didsbury and Walmsley, all of which listed lump sums held in stock in the 1650 church survey, rather than an annual payment of interest, a fixed stipend or voluntary contributions from the parishioners.
    • [33] For example, CPM, I, 32.
    • [34] CPM, I, 47-48; Church Survey, p. 168.
    • [35] CPM, I, 86, 96, 106-07, 116; VCH Lancashire, vi, 360; Axon, TLCAS, LVI, 70.
    • [36] CPM, I, 1, 4, 8, 10, 13, 15, 18-19, 24, 32, 39-40, 49, 83-84, 252; VCH Lancashire, VI, 318.
    • [37] The augmentation for Lund was increased to £50 in December 1650. CPM, I, 9, 62, 83-84, 88-89, 94, 102-03; Church Survey, p. 148.
    • [38] CPM, I, 75-80, 259; O‟Day and Hughes, in O‟Day and Heal, Princes and Paupers, pp. 172-73, 187.
    • [39] O‟Day and Hughes, in O‟Day and Heal, Princes and Paupers, pp. 174-75.
    • [40] CPM, I, 68, 109.
    • [41] CPM, I, 74, 102, 108.
    • [42] CPM, I, 110, 113-14, 116, 124. The other three augmentations were Haslingden, Walmsley and the lectureship at Blackburn.
    • [43] NA: PRO, SP28/211; SP28/305-7. The county sequestration accounts record payments to sixty-five „livings‟, including payments for lectures at Blackburn and Preston. In January 1651, the stipend of the vicar of Bolton was paid from the sequestered estate of the lay rector, Christopher Anderton. Payments amounting to £4 10s. 1d. are also recorded to a Thomas Cudworth for officiating at Manchester College in the summer of 1650. These have been discounted, because they are not augmentations. NA: PRO, SP28/211/ fols 282, 916.
    • [44] O‟Day and Hughes, in O‟Day and Heal, Princes and Paupers, p. 177.
    • [45] Shaw, History of the English Church, II, 185-93, 199-202.
    • [46] Royalist Composition Papers, ed. J H Stanning and John Brownbill, 6 vols, RSLC, XXIV, XXVI, XXXVI, LXXII, LXXXXV & LXXXXVI (1891-2, 1898, 1916, 1941-2), I, 92, II, 74, III, 44, 132-33, 164, IV, 88; Calendar of the Committee of Compounding, pp. 1602-03, 1783; Lancashire Record Office, DDM/19/37-8, DDCa/8/19-20.
    • [47] A & O, II, 1000-1006; Shaw, History of the Church, II, 230.
    • [48] O‟Day and Hughes, in O‟Day and Heal, Princes and Paupers, p. 181.
    • [49] A&O, II, 142-48; Church Survey, pp. xviii-xix; CJ, VI, 359.
    • [50] A&O, II, 147.
    • [51] After protracted proceedings, the Trustees ultimately ordered Sir Richard Kirby to pay the arrears of the settlement he had made for the minister at Hawkshead. Although this was later reduced, when the chapel of Colton was raised to the status of a parish, it seems likely that the ministers never received the benefit of this award: LRO, DDSa/32/3; VCH Lancashire, VIII, 374; RCP, II, 161, 206-07, 234, 311. An abatement in the value of the rents of Bolton-le-Sands rectory led to a reduction in the augmentations at that church and at the chapel of Over Kellet; CPM, II, 143-44. It is not clear, but it seems that the settlement of £60 made by Sir George Middleton to the minister at Warton was continued after the expiry of his lease of the moiety of that rectory. The rectory, which had been held by the dean and chapter of Worcester, reverted back to the Trustees, who, in December 1654, granted the incumbent £40 from the small tithes of the parish. No continuation of the previous augmentation was mentioned, but an account of December 1657 noted that the minister of Warton was due both £40 from the small tithes and an augmentation of £60; CPM, II, 57, 225, 288; VCH Lancashire, VIII, 155, 157.
    • [52] The new grants were for Chorlton, Deane, Downham, Heapey, Longridge, Manchester College, Newton, Salford, Stretford, Silverdale and Whalley, and for Richard Hollinworth, a Fellow of Manchester‟s Collegiate Church.
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