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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Odiyo, P. Onyango (1975)
Publisher: Centre for Overseas Pest Research (COPR)
Languages: English
Types: Book
Subjects:
The larva of the near-cosmopolitan noctuid moth Agrotis ipsi/on (Hufnagel) (-A. ypsilon, Rhyacia ypsi/on (Rott.), R. ypsilon (Warren), Scotia ipsilon (Rott.)) is popularly known as the greasy cutworm in Asia and North America, the dark sword grass in Britain, and the black cutworm in Europe. The name 'cutworm' reflects. its feeding habit of cutting off plant seedlings at the base of the stem, and the adjectives 'greasy' or 'black' describe its greasy, earthy-brown, blackish or grey-green appearance which is due to its black head, numerous dark tubercles, and dorsal longitudinal dark stripes and lateral pale ones. The greasy cutworm can be of very considerable economic importance, not only because of its prolific and often localized breeding but also because its nocturnal feeding habits often cause outbreaks to escape notice until a late stage. \ud \ud The sudden appearances of A. ipsilon, often in large numbers, and its seasonal disappearances, especially in India, the Celebes, Egypt and the Middle East, caused this pest to be recognized as a migrant about half a century ago. The present author has attempted to obtain additional circumstantial biogeographical evidence of major seasonal redistributions of populations on a world-wide basis, particularly over continental land masses and remote islands. This has been done by plotting historical records, obtained from museum specimens, light-traps and the scientific literature, on monthly distribution maps. This type of analysis has previously been undertaken for the armyworm moth, Spodoptera exempta (Walk.), in Africa (Betts, Haggis & Odiyo 1968), and for the Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk.), throughout its vast distribution area in Africa, the Middle East and south-west Asia (Waloff 1946; Donnelly 1947; Davies 1952; Fortescue-Foulkes 1953). A further aim is to attempt an interpretation of the role of seasonal changes in the distribution of A. ipsilon as a natural means of adaptation.
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    • Wl LLIAMS, C. B., 1925. Notes on insect migration in Egypt and the Near East. Trans. ent. Soc. Land. 1924: 439-456. -. /
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    • 1. Z. WALOFF. Seasonal breeding and migrations of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal) in eastern Africa. 1946. 74 pp., 30 maps, 2 figs. (Out of print.)
    • 2. V. MO RANT. Migrations and breeding of the Red Locust (Nomadacris septemfasciata Serville) in Africa, 1927- 1945. 1947. 60 pp., 32 maps, 5 figs. (Out of print.)
    • 3. U. DONNELLY. Seasonal breeding and migrations of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal) in western and north-western Africa. 1947.43 pp., 19 maps, 1 fig. (Out of print.)
    • 4. D. E. DAVIES. Seasonal breeding and migrations of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal) in northeastern Africa and the Middle East. 1952. 57 pp., 13 maps, 2 figs. SBN 85135 010 0. Price 63p.
    • 5. J. FORTESCUE-FOULKES. Seasonal breeding and migrations of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal) in south-western Asia. 1953.36 pp., 14 maps, 1 fig. SBN 85135 0151. Price 50p.
    • 6. E. BETIS. Outbreaks of the African Migratory Locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides R. & F.) since 1871. 1961. 25 pp., 9 maps, 2 figs. SBN 85135 005 4. Price 37p.
    • 7. R. C. RAINEY. Meteorology and the migration of Desert Locusts. Applications of synoptic meteorology in locust control. 1963. 115 pp., 3 pis., 24 figs. Also issued as WMO tech. Note no. 54 (WMO no. 138 TP. 64). For sale only from the World Meteorological Organisation Geneva, Switzerland, price Sw. fr. 25.
    • 8. Z. WALOFF. The upsurges and recessions ofthe Desert Locust plague; an historical survey. 1966. 111 pp., 94 maps, 7 figs. SB N 85135 041 0. Price £1 ·25.
    • 9. G. POPOV and M. RATCLIFFE. The Sahelian Tree LocustAnacridium melanorhodon Walker. 1968.45 pp., 29 maps, 17 figs. SBN 85135 044 5. Price 53p.
    • 10. F. T. BULLEN. The distribution of the damage potential of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forsk.). 44 pp., 29 maps, 4 figs. SBN 85135 045 3. Price 53p.
    • 11. J. I. MAGOR. Outbreaks of the Australian Plague Locust (Chortoicetes terminifera Walk.) during the seasons 1937 to 1962, with particular reference to rainfall. 1970. 39 pp., 36 maps, 3 figs. SBN 85135 002 X. Price 70p.
    • 12. M. CAS IM IR and R. C. BAM ENT. An outbreak of the Australian Plague Locust, Chortoicetes terminifera (Walk.), during 1966-67 and the influence of weather on swarm flight. 1974. 27 pp., 5 maps, 7 figs. ISBN 0 85135 062 3. Price 65p.
    • 4. D. L. GUNN, J. F. GRAHAM, E. C. JAQUES, F. C. PERRY, W. G. SEYMOUR, T. M. TELFORD, J. WARD, E. N. WRIGHT and D. YEO. Aircraft spraying against the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal) in Kenya, 1945. 1948. 121 pp., 11 pis., 33 figs. (Out of print.)
    • 5. H. B. JOHNSTON and D. R. BUXTON. Field observations on locusts in eastern Africa. 1949. 74 pp., 5 pis., 6 figs. SBN 85135 008 9. Price 40p.
    • 6. M. J. NORRIS. Reproduction in the African Migratory Locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides R. & F.) in relation to density and phase. 1950. 50 pp., 7 figs. SBN 85135 025 9. Price 15p.
    • 7. P. E. ELLIS. The marching behaviour of hoppers of the African Migratory Locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides R. & F.) in the laboratory. 1951. 48 pp., 32 figs. SBN 85135 012 7. Price 15p.
    • 8. G. F. BURN ETI. Field observations on the behaviour of the Red Locust (Nomadacris septemfasciata Serville) in the solitary phase. 1951. 36 pp., 8 figs. SBN 85135 006 2. Price 13p.
    • 9. Z. WALOFF and R. C. RAINEY. Field studies on factors affecting the displacement of Desert Locust swarms in eastern Africa. R. C. RAINEY and Z. WALOFF. Flying locusts and convection currents. 1951. 72 pp., 9 figs. SBN 85135 042 9. Price 30p.
    • 10. B. P. UVAROV, E. CHAPMAN, N. WALOFF and A. R. WATERSTON. Observations on the Moroccan Locust Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunberg) in Cyprus, 1950. 1951. 55 pp., 12 figs. SBN 85135 039 9. Price 37p.
    • 11. R. J. V. J OYCE. The ecology of grasshoppers in East Central Sudan. 1952. 99pp., 34 figs. SBN 85135 019 4. Price 50p.
    • 12. D. L. GUNN and P. HUNTER-JONES. Laboratory experiments on phase differences in locusts. D. E. DAVIES. Statistical analysis of data on the selection experiments. 1952. 37 pp., 5 figs. SBN 85135 017 8. Price 25p.
    • 14. G. POPOV. Investigations of suspected outbreak areas of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forsklll) in Iran. 1953. 32 pp., 3 maps, 16 figs. SB N 85135 030 5. Price 27p.
    • 15. 0. W. RI CHARDS. The study of the numbers of the Red Locust (Nomadacris septemfasciata Serville). 1953. 31 pp. 4 figs. SBN 85135 032 1. Price 20p.
    • 16. V. M. DIRSH. Morphometrical studies on phases of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal}. 1953. 34 pp., 31 figs. ISBN 0 85135 066 6. Price 25p.
    • 17. 0. W. RICHARDS and N. WALOFF. Studies on the biology and population dynamics of British grasshoppers. 1954. 182 pp., 67 figs. SBN 85135 034 8. Price £1·63.
    • 18. M. J. NORRIS. Sexual maturation in the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forsklll) with special reference to the effects of grouping. 1954. 44 pp., 2 figs. SBN 85135 028 3. Price 23p.
    • 19. R. F. CHAPMAN. A laboratory study of roosting behaviour in hoppers of the African Migratory Locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides R. & F.). 1955.40 pp., 26 figs. SBN 85135 007 0. Price 23p.
    • 20. D. F. VESEY-FITZGERALD. The vegetation of the outbreak areas of the Red Locust (Nomadacris septemfasciata Serv.) in Tanganyika and Northern Rhodesia. 1955. 31 pp., 12 figs. SBN 85135 014 3. Price 17p.
    • 21. K. M. GUICHARD. Habitats of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal} in western Libya and Tibesti. 1955. 33 pp., 24 figs. SBN 85135 016 X. Price 25p.
    • 22. J. T. DAVEY and H. B. JOHNSTON. The African Migratory Locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides R. & F.) in Nigeria. 1956.91 pp., 26 figs. SBN 85135 009 7. Price 43p.
    • 23. F. 0. ALBRECHT. The anatomy of the Red Locust (Nomadacris septemfasciata Serville). 1956. 9 pp., 97 figs. ISBN 0 85135 067 4. Price 27p.
    • 24. B. NICKERSON. Pigmentation of hoppers of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forsklll) in relation to phase coloration. 1956.34 pp., 7 figs. SBN 85135 023 2. Price 20p.
    • 25. P. E. ELLIS and C. ASHALL. Field studies in diurnal behaviour, movement and aggregation in the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forsklll). 1957.94 pp., 44 figs. SBN 85135 013 5. Price 53p.
    • 26. R. C. RAINEY, Z. WALOFF and G. F. BURNETT. The behaviour of the Red Locust (Nomadacris septemfasciata Serville) in relation to the topography, meteorology and vegetation of the Rukwa rift valley, Tanganyika. 1957. 96 pp., 24 figs. SBN 85135 031 3. Price 57p.
    • 27. J. P. DEMPSTER. The population dynamics of the Moroccan Locust (Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunb.) in Cyprus. 1957. 60 pp., 27 figs. SBN 85135 011 9. Price 37p.
    • 28. M. J. NOR RIS. Factors affecting the rate of sexual maturation of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forsklll) in the laboratory. 1957. 26 pp., 2 figs. SBN 85135 024 0. Price 15p.
    • 29. P. HUNTER-JONES. Laboratory studies on the inheritance of phase characters in locusts. 1958. 32 pp., 6 figs. SBN 85135 018 6. Price 17p.
    • 30. W. J. STOWER, G. B. POPOV and D. J. GREATHEAD. Oviposition behaviour and egg mortality of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal) on the coast of Eritrea.1958. 33 pp., 17 figs. SBN 85135 037 2. Price 35p.
    • 31. G. B. POPOV. Ecological studies on oviposition by swarms of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forsklll) in Eastern Africa. 1958. 70 pp., 51 figs. SB N 85135 029 1. Price 75p.
    • 32. W. J. STOW ER. The colour patterns of hoppers of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forsklll}. 1959. 75 pp., 17 tables, 5 col. pis., 24 figs. SBN 85135 036 4. Price £2·25.
    • 33. R. F. CHAPMAN. Field observations of the behaviour of hoppers of the Red Locust (Nomadacris septemfasciata Serville). 1959.51 pp., 27 figs. SBN 85135 043 7. Price 47p.
    • 34. L. F. H. MERTON. Studies in the ecology of the Moroccan Locust (Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunberg) in Cyprus. 1959. 123 pp., 44 figs. SBN 85135 022 4. Price £1·00.
    • 35. J. H. LLOYD. Operational research on preventive control of the Red Locust (Nomadacris septemfasciata Serville) by insecticides. 1959. 65 pp., 16 figs. SBN 85135 020 8. Price 53p.
    • 36. M. J. NORRIS. Reproduction in the Red Locust (Nomadacris septemfasciata Serville) in the laboratory. 1959. 46 pp., 3 figs. SBN 85135 027 5. Price 37p.
    • 37. L. H. F. MERTON. The Moroccan Locust (Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunberg) in Iran. 1961. 66 pp., 12 figs. SBN 85135 021 6. Price 45p.
    • 38. C. AS HALL and P. E. EL LIS. Studies on numbers and mortality in field populations ofthe Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal). 1962. 59 pp., 17 figs. SBN 85135 004 6. Price 65p.
    • 39. J. ROFFEY. Observations on night flight in the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal). 1963. 32 pp., 9 figs. SBN 85135 033 X. Price 43p.
    • 40. Z. WALOFF. Field studies on solitary and transiens Desert Locusts in the Red Sea area. 1963. 93 pp., 28 figs. SBN 85135 040 2. Price £1·13.
    • 41. A. SHULOV and M. P. PEN ER. Studies on the development of eggs of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal) and its interruption under particular conditions of humidity. 1963. 59 pp., 11 figs. SBN 85135 035 6. Price 70p.
    • 42. J. G. THOMAS. The abdomen of the female Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal) with special reference to the sense organs. 1964. 19 pp., 45 figs. SBN 85135 038 0. Price 43p.
    • 43. M. J. NORRIS. Laboratory experiments on oviposition responses of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskal). 1968. 47 pp. SBN 85135 046 1. Price 43p.
    • 44. D. P. CLARK, C. AS HALL, Z. WALOFF and L. CHINNICK. Field studies on the Australian Plague Locust in the Channel Country of Queensland. 1969. 121 pp., 31 figs. SBN 85135 047 X. Price £1·25.
    • 45. K. WARDHAUGH, Y. ASH OUR, A. 0. IBRAHIM, A. M. KHAN and M. BASSONBOL. Experiments on the incubation and hopper development periods of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskill) in Saudi Arabia. 1969. 38 pp., 16 figs. SBN 85135 048 8. Price 73p.
    • 46. C. F. HEMMING and P. M. SYMMONS. The germination and growth of Schouwia purpurea (Forsk.) Schweinf. and its role as a habitat of the Desert Locust. 1969. 38 pp., 14 figs. SBN 85135 054 2. Price 53p.
    • 47. C. H. FRASER ROWELL. Environmental control of colouration in an acridid, Gastrimargus africanus (Saussure). 1970. 48 pp., 1 col. pi., 5 figs. SBN 85135 000 3. Price 95p.
    • 48. A. SHULOV. The development of eggs of the Red Locust, Nomadacris septemfasciata (Serv.), and the African Migratory Locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R. & F.) and its interruption under particular conditions of humidity. 1970.22 pp., 3 figs. SBN 85135 001 1. Price SOp.
    • 49. R. D. MacCUAIG and M. N. D. B. YEATES. Theoretical studies on the efficiency of insecticidal sprays for the control of flying locust swarms. 1972. 34 pp., 13 figs. SBN 85135 057 7. Price 95p.
    • 50. L. V. BEN NETT and P. M. SYMMONS. A review of estimates of the effectiveness of certain control techniques and insecticides against the Desert Locust. 1972. 15 pp. SBN 85135 060 7. Price 50p. ·
    • 1. J. I. MAGOR and P. WARD. Illustrated descriptions, distribution maps and bibliography of the species of Que/ea (weaver-birds: Ploceidae). 1972. 20 pp., 2 col. pis., 3 maps. SBN 85135 058 5. Price £1·00.
    • 2. E. JUDENKO. Analytical method for assessing yield losses caused by pests on cereal crops with and without pesticides. 1973. 31 pp. ISBN 0 85135 061 5. Price 40p.
    • 3. R. M. C. WILLIAMS. Evaluation of field and laboratory methods for testing termite resistance of timber and building materials in Ghana, with relevant biological studies. 1973. 64 pp., 19 pis., 4 figs. ISBN 0 85135 065 8. Price £1 ·85.
    • 4. P. 0. ODIYO. Seasonal distribution and migrations of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). 1975. 22 pp., 16 maps. ISBN 0 85135 070 4. Price 75p.
    • P. HUNTER-JONES. Rearing and breeding locusts in the laboratory. 1966. 12 pp., 8 figs.
    • In Memoriam- Sir Boris Uvarov KCMG, FRS, 1888-1970. 1970. 19+29 pp.
    • 1. W. J. KING and D. R. JOH NSTONE. A modified microburette for the production of very small liquid droplets. 1971. 6 pp.
    • 2. I. A. D. ROBERTSON and P. HUNTER-JONES. The grasshopperprobleminBarbados.1971.11 pp,_
    • 3. G. B. POPOV. Outbreak of the African Migratory Locust in the Bornu Province of NE Nigeria, October- November 1970. 1972. 7 pp.
    • 4. D. G. CAM PION. Some observations on the use ofpheromone traps as a survey too/for Spodoptera littoralis. 1972. 10 pp.
    • 5. I. A. D. ROBERTSON. Records of insects taken at light traps in Tanzania,/- The effect of moonlight on catches of Belostomatidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). 1972. 8 pp.
    • 6. E. G. HARRIS and J. E. H. GROSE. Toxic/ties of several insecticides by topical application to houseflies and stableflies. 1972. 4 pp.
    • 7. D. R. JOHNSTONE, K. A. HUNTINGTON and W. J. KING. Battery-operated ultra-low-vofvme hand sprayers. Part 1. Effect of voltage variation on droplet size characteristics. Part 2. Discharge characteristics and service life of batteries. 1973. 10 pp.
    • 8. W. S. WATTS and M. ALAM. Spray ttials against the citrus blackfly (Aieurocanthus woglumi) on limes in the Oman. 1973. 7 pp.
    • 9. W. J, KING and D. R. JOHNSTONE. Papers for sampling spray deposits of ultra-low-volume carrier solvents. 1973. 7 pp.
    • 10. A. H. COS ENS and G. CALLOW. A locust flight balance. 1973. 8 pp.
    • 11. E. G. HARRIS, J. E. H. GROSE and V. WESTON. Breeding and handling the stablef/y, Stomoxys calcitrans L. 1973.9 pp.
    • 12. G. G. POPE and W. J. KING. Spray trials against the Red-BilledC1uelea (Ouelea quelea) In Tanzania. 1973.3 pp.
    • 13. M. N. D. B. YEATES. Toxicity tests of various insecticides against the African armyworm, Spodoptera exempta (Walk.), East Africa 1969-71. Part 1. Laboratory tests. Part 2. Field trials. 1973. 10 pp.
    • 14. K. A. HUNTINGTON and D. R. JOHNSTONE. A remote-recording field installation for monitoring micrometeorological variables during spray trials. 1973. 12 pp.
    • 15. K. A. HUNTINGTON and D. R. JOHNSTONE. Cost comparison of methods of hand spraying of cotton in Malawi. 1973. 10 pp.
    • 16. D. J. McKINLEY. An attempt to develop a completely artifical diet for rearing the Red Bollworm, Diparopsis Castanea. 1974. 4 pp.
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