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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Coombs, Steven (2015)
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: NA
This thesis tests the use of Welsh-grown timber in the building envelope, through the prototyping of a series of live design projects with a focus on species, technology and\ud tectonic form. Projects are clustered under 4 headings identified as significant to the Welsh timber industry: hardwoods, engineered timber, timber board products and\ud the complete timber envelope.\ud The Welsh timber industry relies heavily on the importation of sawnwood, timber board products and innovative, engineered timber systems to meet an increasing demand to improve construction efficiency and the environmental performance of the building envelope. Compared to Northern and Central Europe and regions such as the Vorarlberg, Austria, Wales is perceived as having an underdeveloped and\ud underperforming timber construction industry with only 15% forest cover to supply a variety of timber sectors.\ud This thesis analyses the properties of Welsh-grown soft and hardwoods, the technical and skill limitations and opportunities of the industry and highlights the impact of\ud the use of timber on the tectonic form of the building envelope. These evaluations inform the observations and reflections of 12 architectural prototype projects to\ud demonstrate potential to exploit the Welsh-grown timber crop in the design and construction of the architectural building envelope.\ud The research demonstrates that it is possible to use Welsh-grown timber for a variety of modular superstructure, cladding and external joinery systems. The conclusions\ud identify limitations, such as a lack of research and development investment, from government and business, and a lack of knowledge and focused direction across the industry. However, the prototype projects show that the unique properties of timber, sustainably grown, managed and processed in Wales can be innovatively manufactured and assembled into prefabricated, components for the design and\ud construction of the low-energy architectural building envelope. Furthermore, the properties, technology and skills available have informed an additive tectonic\ud approach that is specific to Welsh-grown timber.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 451 Fig. i Expressed roof structure of Sogn Benedetg chapel, Peter Zumthor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xlii Fig. ii Expressed detailing and tectonic elements of Shadowbox house,
    • home-design [accessed 25th March 2014] Fig. iii Standardised and prefabricated Bagsvaerd church, Jørn Utzon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xlii
    • Source: [accessed 25th March 2014] Fig. iv Demountable chair by Jean Prouvé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlii
    • Source: [accessed 25th March 2014] Fig. v Restoration of MG Midget MkIII, 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xlii Fig. vi 1:20 model of BArch thesis primer for a beach rescue station on the
    • minutes exposure to fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
    • (Basel: Birkhäuser, 2004) p.41 Fig 2.52 Charred wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
    • Source:
    • [accessed 1st September 2015] Fig 2.53 Durability and use classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
    • ARCA Publications Ltd, 2002) pp. 32-33 Fig 2.54 Treatment classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
    • Source: British Standards Institution, BS EN 350-2: 1994, Durability of wood and
    • wood-based products - Natural durability of solid wood, Part 2: Guide to the natural
    • (London: BSI, 1994) Fig 2.55 Indigenous and introduced tree species in Wales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
    • [accessed 17th August 2015] Fig 2.56 UK woodland area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
    • Source: Forestry Commission, Forestry Statistics 2014 (Edinburgh: Forestry
    • Commission, 2014), p.9 & 13 Fig 2.57 Map of Woodland in Wales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Fig 2.58 International woodland areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
    • Source: Forestry Commission, Forestry Facts and Figures 2010 (Edinburgh: Forestry
    • Commission, 2010) p.145 Fig 2.59 Coniferous and broadleaf tree areas in Wales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
    • (Edinburgh: Foresty Commission, 2002) / Forestry Commission, NFI 2011 Woodland
    • Source: [accessed 5th
    • September 2015] The act of making, projects by Assemble. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Source: [accessed 5th September 2015] Fig 5.18 Models and 1:1 Prototype, Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Center, Renzo Piano Building
    • Workshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
    • Source:
    • cultural-center/models/page/1/> [accessed 5th September 2015] Fig 5.19 Learning by doing, The Wood Program, Helsinki . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
    • Publishing, 2007) p.2 Fig 5.20 Prototype definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
    • Press 8th edition, 1992) Fig 5.21 Lab and Field Research definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
    • Publishing, 2001) p.119 Olivier theatre foyer green oak post and beam structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
    • Source: Matilda McQuaid, Shigeru Ban, (London: Phaidon, 2003) p.166-167, 169 Semper's primitive hut model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
    • Source:
    • [accessed 9th September 2015] Simple and inexpensive material and construction detailing, Latapie House, Floirac, Lacaton & Vassal, 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
    • Source: Monica Gili, SL, 2G: Lacaton & Vassal, (Barcelona: Editorial
    • Gustavo Gili, 2006) p. 26, 30 East End Sawmills, Glasgow by NORD with timber structure constructed entirely from material sourced within the adjacent warehouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
    • nordarchitecture.com/projectseast-end-sawmills/> [accessed 6th August 2013] Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama, Cardif by BFLS uses birch faced plywood cladding in main auditorium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
    • college-of-music-and-drama/> [accessed 8th September 2015] Casa da Musica, Oporto, OMA with plywood fixed to the two flanking walls to balance the acoustic requirements of the two glazed ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
    • Source: [accessed 8th
    • September 2015] Completed Eisteddfod Pavilion, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 Aerial view of site, Tredegar Park . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
    • Source: “Tredegar Park” 51°33'52.68” N and 3°01'50.02” W Google Earth.
    • [accessed 8th September 2015] Fig 9.1 Sitka spruce forest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458 Fig 9.2 Sitka spruce properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 Fig 9.3 The General Panel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
    • (Basel: Birkhäuser, 1995) Fig 9.4 The Segal system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
    • Source: Jon Broome, 'The Segal Method', Architect's Journal, 183 (1986), 31-68 Fig 9.5 The Espansiva System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
    • Source: Jørn Utzon, 'Espansiva', Architektur, 14 (1970), 3-12 Fig 9.6 Module elements and arrangement types based on Espansiva system . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 Fig 9.7 Spatial configuration concept of room modules leaving space for circulation . . . . . . 470 Fig 9.8 Fabricating the box sections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Fig 9.9 End grain bolted connection detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Fig 9.10 'L' shaped insert connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Fig 9.11 Box section beam testing at Cowley Timberwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476 Fig 9.12 Box beam sizes and loadings table prepared by Burroughs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
    • (Cardif: Burroughs, 2009) p.18 Fig 9.13 Completed prototype portal frame using end grain bolting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 Fig 9.14 Infill panel development studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 Fig 9.15 Sequence of installing initial proposal for prefabricated infill box sections within a
    • mono pitched portal frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 Fig 9.16 Ladder beam panel development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 Fig 9.17 Ladder beam structural testing at Glamorgan University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 Fig 9.18 Structural engineer's sketch of ladder beam options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
    • Source: Burroughs Fig 9.19 Box section and ladder cassette connection assembly with t&g spruce lapping top
    • of box section and bearing batten fixed to side of box beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 Fig 9.20 Constructing a 1:1 prototype of 2.4x2.4x2.4m pavilion module with box section
    • frames and ladder infill panels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 Fig 9.21 Exploded isometric of 2.4x2.4x2.4m pavilion module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
    • Source: Rob Thomas Fig 9.22 Generic house type plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 Fig 9.23 Single storey 'slipped plan' house type for rural Wales as 3B6P and 2B4P based on
    • room modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 Fig 9.24 Proposed perspective of rural house type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 Fig 9.25 Twisted 47 x 225mm Sitka spruce boards prior to drying highlighting typical
    • properties of Welsh spruce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 Fig 9.26 Typical spans and centres for the principal Ty Unnos components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
    • Source: Burroughs, Ty Unnos Component Toolkit, (Cardif: Burroughs, 2011) p.5
  • No related research data.
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