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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Ahmed, T. (2015)
Publisher: Hart Publishing
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
Subjects: KZ
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 3 Singular 'Rom'. On terminology, see GD Kwiek, 'Afterword: Rom, Roma, Romani, Kale, Gypsies, Travellers, and Sinti … Pick a name and stick with it, already!', in D Le Bas and T Acton (eds), All Change! Romani Studies through Romani eyes (Hatfield, University of Hertfordshire Press, 2010) 79-83; Roma Center for Social Intervention and Studies from Romania, 'Roma and the Council of Europe's Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities', www.romanicriss.org/Roma%20 and%20the%20Framework%20Convention%20for%20the%20Protection%20of%20National%20 Minorities%20ENG.pdf, 9; Yaron Matras, 'Scholarship and the Politics of Roma Identity: Strategic and Conceptual Issues' (2011) 10 European Yearbook of Minority Issues 211-47.
    • 4 As illustrated by the links found between the language of the Roma (Romani) and the Sanskrit script of other Indian languages. See the Patrin Web Journal 'A Brief History of the Roma', www. reocities.com/Paris/5121/history.htm.
    • 5 European Commission, 'EU and Roma', http://ec.europa.eu/justice/discrimination/roma/index_ en.htm; Council of Europe Special Representative of the Secretary General of the Council of Europe for Roma Issues, 'Estimates and Official Numbers of Roma in Europe' http://hub.coe.int/c/ document_library/get_file?uuid=3f6c4a82-0ca7-4b80-93c1-fef14f56fdf8&groupId=10227.
    • 6 See a critical analysis of the ECtHR's 'stereotyped' jurisprudence on this: Doris Farget, 'Defining Roma Identity in the European Court of Human Rights' (2012) International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 291-316.
    • 7 Travelling communities.
    • 19 OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities, Report on the Situation of Roma and Sinti (2000), p 128.
    • 20 Roma Center for Social Intervention and Studies from Romania, 'Roma and the Council of Europe's Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities', www.romanicriss. org/Roma%20and%20the%20Framework%20Convention%20for%20the%20Protection%20of%20 National%20Minorities%20ENG.pdf, p 7.
    • 21 A Mirga and N Gheorghe, 'The Roma in the Twenty-First Century: A Policy Paper', Project on Ethnic Relations, www.per-usa.org/1997-2007/21st_c.htm, p 23. 148 Tawhida Ahmed
    • 25 Advisory Committee Opinion on Romania, Adopted on 6 April 2001, para 31.
    • 26 Advisory Committee Opinion on Italy, Adopted on 14 September 2001.
    • 27 Executive summary, p 2.
    • 28 See further on comments made by the Advisory Committee: Roma Center for Social Intervention and Studies from Romania (n 20 above).
    • 29 Robert Dunbar, Comparative Study of the Working Methods and Conclusions of the Committee of Experts of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages and the Advisory Committee of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 2005).
    • 30 It thus corresponds to the explanations given to the Charter, Explanations to the Charter, para 31.
    • 31 Explanations to the Charter, paras 36-37.
    • 32 Application of the Charter in Romania, 1st Monitoring Cycle, Report of the Committee of Experts on the Charter, 19 June 2012, ECRML (2012) 3, para 7.
    • 33 See for eg in relation to Hungary, Dunbar, Comparative Study (n 29 above), 27.
    • 34 Dunbar quotes that this was the case for only 30 per cent of the Roma community in Hungary: Dunbar, Comparative Study (n 29 above), 28.
    • 35 For more detailed analysis of the ECRML and the Romani language, see Vesna Crnic-Grotic, 'Developments in the Field of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2011' (2011) 10 European Yearbook of Minority Issues 469-85.
    • 36 Munoz Diaz v Spain (1982) Series A no 44, 4 EHRR 34. 150 Tawhida Ahmed
    • 37 European Parliament and Council (2000) Decision 508/2000/EC 00 establishing the Culture 2000 programme, [2000] OJ L63/1; European Parliament and Council (2008) Decision 1352/2008/ EC amending Decision 1855/2006/EC establishing the Culture Programme (2007 to 2013) [2008] OJ L348/128.
    • 38 European Commission, 'Creative Europe', http://ec.europa.eu/culture/policy/strategic-framework/intercultural-dialogue_en.htm. Promotion of intercultural dialogue is also a key priority of the European agenda on culture (COM (2007) 242).
    • 39 See further www.khamoro.cz; European Commission, EU Projects in Favour of the Roma Community, Exhibition Catalogue (Brussels, European Commission, 2010) 20.
    • 45 Complaint No 64/2011 European and Travellers Forum v France, Decision on merits 24/1/2012; Complaint No 62/2010 International Federation of Human Rights (FIDH) v Belgium, Decision on Merits 21/3/2012; Complaint No 67/2011 Medecins du Monde-International v France, Decision on Merits 11/9/2012; Complaint No 46/2007 ERRC v Bulgaria, Decision on Merits 3/12/2008; Complaint No 58/2009 Centre for Housing Rights and Evictions (COHRE) v Croatia, Decision on Merits 25/6/2010; Complaint No 63/2010 European Council of Police Trade Unions (ESP) v COHRE (Portugal), Decision on Merits 28/6/2011; Complaint No 61/2010 ERRC v Portugal, Decision on Merits 23/4/2010.
    • 46 Connors v United Kingdom (2005) 40 EHRR 189. For analysis, see Farget (n 6 above).
    • 47 Moldovan et al and others v Romania (2005) 44 EHRR 16.
    • 48 Nachova and Others v Bulgaria (2006) 42 EHRR 43. See also Cobzaru v Romania (2005) 47 EHRR 10. In Nachova and Cobzaru, previous incidents indicating anti-Roma attitudes by state officials were sufficient to trigger this investigation duty. However, in subsequent cases, the Court narrowed its protection by requiring that incidents related to the specific case at hand, Soare et al and others v Romania App no 24329/02 (ECtHR, 22 February 2011); Carabulea v Romania App no 45661/99 (ECtHR, 13 July 2010); Mizigarova v Slovakia App no 74832/01 (ECtHR, 14 December 2010).
    • 49 DH and Others v Czech Republic (2008) 47 EHRR 3.
    • 50 Oršuš and Others v Croatia (2011) 52 EHRR 7, ECtHR (Grand Chamber).
    • 51 Mižigarova v Slovakia App no 74832/01 (ECtHR, 14 December 2010).
    • 52 For further discussion of many of these cases, see Bill Bowring, 'Protecting Minority Rights through an Individual Rights Mechanism: The Strasbourg Court and some Significant Developments to June 2012', (2011) 9 European Yearbook of Minority Issues 437-60 and K Henrard, 'The Council of Europe and the Rescue of Roma as a Paradigmatic Case of Failed Integration? Abstract Principles versus Protection in Concreto' (2011) 10 European Yearbook of Minority Issues 271-316.
    • 53 Aksu v Turkey App nos 4149/04, 41029/04 (ECtHR, 15 March 2012).
    • 54 The Council of Europe: Protecting the rights of Roma, file:///G:/RESEARCH/EU%20Roma%20 chapter/CoE/roms_en.pdf.
    • 55 Sejdic and Finci v Bosnia and Herzegovina (2009) ECHR 2122, ECtHR (Grand Chamber).
    • 56 Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, Commentary on the Effective Participation of Persons Belonging to National Minorities in Cultural, Social and Economic life and in Public Affairs, SCFC/31DOC(2008)001.
    • 57 Art 45 TFEU; Directive 2004/38 EU Citizens Directive.
    • 58 Directive 2000/43/EC.
    • 59 Art 3 Race Directive.
    • 60 There are four features of the European Employment Strategy, as found in Art 128 ECT: 1) The employment guidelines outline a general set of objectives for all the member states. 2) National Action Plans are formulated for each member state. Funding is provided to assist in meeting those aims. 3) The Joint Employment Report of the EU and each member state is issued. 4) The Council may issue country-specific recommendations, as additional guidelines.
    • 61 Lisbon European Council, 23/24 March 2000.
    • 62 European Commission, Report on the Implementation of National Roma Integration Strategies, SWD (2014) 121 final p 5.
    • 63 COM (2011) 173 final [2011] OJ L76/68; followed by Council Recommendation of 9 December 2013 on effective Roma integration measures in the member states [2013] OJ C378/01.
    • 64 See European Commission, EU Projects in Favour of the Roma Community (n 39 above); and European Commission, Report on the Implementation of National Roma Integration Strategies, SWD (2014) 121 final.
    • 65 Nonetheless it has done so on ad-hoc occasions, such as a project teaching Roma women how to sew traditional Roma clothing. Above, n 32.
    • 66 Art 3 Race Directive.
    • 76 ibid, 377; and Lilla Farkas 'A Good Way to Equality: Roma seeking judicial protection against discrimination in Europe' (2006) 3 European Anti-Discrimination Law Review 21-29 (in relation to the EU Race Directive).
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