Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Gorny, Samuel Victor
Languages: English
Types: Unknown

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: food and beverages
Despite current control measures, plant parasitic nematodes are estimated to be responsible for > $100 billion of damage to worldwide crop production per annum. Current nematicides are highly toxic, and due to health and environmental safety concerns, many are being withdrawn from the market under directive 914/414/EEC. Alternative control strategies are urgently required. The cysteine proteinases papain, actinidain and recombinant endoproteinase B isoform 2 (R.EP-B2) have been demonstrated to affect the mobility of M. incognita J2s; 50.7 μM R.EP-B2, 101.7 μM papain and 200.3 μM actinidain immobilised 50% of the M. incognita population. Papain has also been demonstrated to affect the infection of plants by M. incognita, 5 μM papain reduced the attraction to and invasion of A. thaliana by 41.2 + 25.6% and 80.4 + 10.5% respectively. M. incognita J2s showed extensive damage to and removal of the cuticle when treated with 100 μM papain. MALDI-TOF analysis identified a number of M. incognita proteins affected by the papain treatment; of particular interest were a cuticle preprocollagen and a rhodopsin-like GPCR chemoreceptor. Proteins of these types are essential for movement and host location, disrupting their function helps to explain the loss of mobility and reduction in A. thaliana infection observed in the bioassays. Finally transgenic A. thaliana was generated with the barley cysteine proteinase endoproteinase B isoform two under the control of the root cap specific MDK4-20. The preliminary testing of these plants showed a reduction in root invasion similar to that obtained with papain.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • JOBLING, S. A., JARMAN, C., TEH, M. M., HOLMBERG, N., BLAKE, C. & VERHOEYEN, M. E. 2003. Immunomodulation of enzyme function in plants by single-domain antibody fragments. Nature Biotechnology, 21, 77-80.
    • JONES, D. T., TAYLOR, W. R. & THORNTON, J. M. 1992. The rapid generation of mutation data matrices from protein sequences. Computer Applications in the Biosciences, 8, 275-282.
    • KAMPHUIS, I. G., KALK, K. H., SWARTE, M. B. A. & DRENTH, J. 1984. Structure of papain refined at 1.65 Å resolution. Journal of Molecular Biology, 179, 233- 256.
    • KILARA, A., SHAHANI, K. M. & WAGNER, F. W. 1977. Preparation and Properties of Immobilized Papain and Lipase. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 19, 1703- 1714.
    • KERRY, B., 1988. Fungal parasites of cyst nematodes. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 24, 293-305.
    • KIMMEL, J. R. & SMITH, E. L. 1954. Crystalline papain .1. Preparation, specificity, and activation. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 207, 515-531.
    • KINGSTON, I. B. 1991. Nematode Collagen Genes. Parasitology Today, 7, 11-15.
    • KOEHLER, S. & HO, T. H. D. 1988. Purification and Characterization of Gibberellic AcidInduced Cysteine Endoproteases in Barley Aleurone Layers. Plant Physiology, 87, 95-103.
    • KOEHLER, S. M. & HO, T. H. D. 1990a. A Major Gibberellic Acid-Induced Barley Aleurone Cysteine Proteinase Which Digests Hordein - Purification and Characterization. Plant Physiology, 94, 251-258.
    • KOEHLER, S. M. & HO, T. H. D. 1990b. Hormonal-regulation, processing, and secretion of Cysteine Proteinases in Barley Aleurone layers. Plant Cell, 2, 769-783.
    • LAMBERT, K. N., ALLEN, K. D. & SUSSEX, I. M. 1999. Cloning and characterization of an esophageal-gland-specific chorismate mutase from the phytoparasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 12, 328-336.
    • LEE, D. L. 2002. Cuticle, moulting and Exsheatment. In: LEE, D. L. (ed.) The Bilogy of Nematodes. Taylor & Francis.
    • LILLEY, C. J., BAKHETIA, M., CHARLTON, W. L. & URWIN, P. E. 2007. Recent progress in the development of RNA interference for plant parasitic nematodes. Molecular Plant Pathology, 8, 701-711.
    • LILLEY, C. J., DEVLIN, F., URWIN, P. E. & ATKINSON, H. J. 1999b. Parasitic nematodes, proteinases and transgenic plants. Parasitology Today, 15, 414-417.
    • LILLEY, C. J., URWIN, P. E. & ATKINSON, H. J. 1999a. Characterization of plant nematode genes: identifying targets for a transgenic defence. Parasitology, 118, S63-S72.
    • LILLEY, C. J., URWIN, P. E., JOHNSTON, K. A. & ATKINSON, H. J. 2004. Preferential expression of a plant cystatin at nematode feeding sites confers resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera pallida. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 2, 3-12.
    • LILLEY, C. J., URWIN, P. E., MCPHERSON, M. J. & ATKINSON, H. J. 1996. Characterization of intestinally active proteinases of cyst-nematodes. Parasitology, 113, 415-424.
    • LILLEY, C. J., WANG, D., ATKINSON, H. J. & URWIN, P. E. 2011. Effective delivery of a nematode-repellent peptide using a root-cap-specific promoter. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 9, 151-161.
    • LIU, S., KANDOTH, P. K., WARREN, S. D., YECKEL, G., HEINZ, R., ALDEN, J., YANG, C., JAMAI, A., EL-MELLOUKI, T., JUVALE, P. S., HILL, J., BAUM, T.J., CIANZIO, S., WHITHAM, S. A., KORKIN, D., MITCHUM, M. G., MEKSEM, K. 2012. A sotbean cyst nematode resistance gene points to a new mechanism of plant resistance to pathogens. Nature, 492, 256-262.
    • LO PIERO, A., PUGLISI, I. & PETRONE, G. 2011. Characterization of the purified actinidin as a plant coagulant of bovine milk. European Food Research and Technology, 233, 517-524.
    • LOVEGROVE, A., SALT, L. & SHEWRY, P. R. 2008. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics. Methods in Molecular Biology, Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats. Humana Press.
    • LUC, M., SIKORA, S. A., BRIDGE, J. 2005 Plant Parasitic Nematodes In Subtropical And tropical Agriculture 2nd Edition. CABI Publishing.
    • MALONE, L. A., TODD, J. H., BURGESS, E. P. J., PHILIP, B. A. & CHRISTELLER, J. T. 2005. Effects of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) cysteine protease on growth and survival of Spodoptera litura larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed with control or transgenic avidin‐expressing tobacco. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 33, 99-105.
    • MANN, M. & WILM, M. 1994. Error tolerant identification of peptides in sequence databases by peptide sequence tags. Analytical Chemistry, 66, 4390-4399.
    • PERRY, R. N. 1996. Chemoreception in plant parasitic nematodes. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 34, 181-199.
    • PLOEG, A. T. 2002. Effects of selected marigold varieties on root-knot nematodes and tomato and melon yields. Plant Disease, 86, 505-508.
    • POLGAR, L. & HALASZ, P. 1982. Current Problems in Mechanistic Studies of Serine and Cysteine Proteinases. Biochemical Journal, 207, 1-10.
    • PRAEKELT, U. M., MCKEE, R. A. & SMITH, H. 1988. Molecular Analysis of Actinidinn the Ctsteine Proteinase of Actinidia-Chinensis. Plant Molecular Biology, 10, 193-202.
    • PROUDFOOT, L., KUSEL, J. R., SMITH, H. V. & KENNEDY, M. W. 1991. Biophysical properties of the nematode surface, London UK, Taylor & Francis Ltd.
    • RAVOOF, A. A., FOX, R. L. & SANFORD, W. G. 1973. Low Soil Temperatures Depress Root Activity in the Tropics Illustrated Concepts in Tropical Agriculture, 6, 1.
    • RAWLINGS, N. D. & BARRETT, A. J. 1994. Families of Cysteine Peptidases. Proteolytic Enzymes: Serine and Cysteine Peptidases, 244, 461-486.
    • RAWLINGS, N. D., BARRETT, A. J. & BATEMAN, A. 2010. MEROPS: the peptidase database. Nucleic Acids Research, 38, D227-D233.
    • RAY, C. & HUSSEY, R. S. 1995. Evidence for proteolytic processing of a cuticle collagen in a plant-parasitic nematode. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 72, 243-246.
    • ROBINSON, A. F. & PERRY, R. N. 2006. Behaviour and Sensory Perception. In: PERRY, R. N. & MOENS, M. (eds.) Plant Nematology. King's Lynn: Biddles Ltd.
    • ROBINSON, M. P., ATKINSON, H. J. & PERRY, R. N. 1987. The Influence of Soil Moisture and Storage Time on the Motility Infectivity and Lipid Utillization of Second Stage Juveniles of the Potato Cyst Nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and Globodera pallida. Revue de Nematologie, 10, 343-348.
    • ROWAN, A. D., BUTTLE, D. J. & BARRETT, A. J. 1990. The Cysteine Proteinases of the Pineapple Plant. Biochemical Journal, 266, 869-875.
    • ROWE, J. 2006. The use of Cryo-SEM to study Nematodes: The modern alternative to criticle point drying. Gatan Applications Note. Gatan.
    • SALGADO, S. M. D. L. 2007. Nematodes of strawberry Nematoides em morangueiro. Informe Agropecuario, 28, 78-83.
    • SAMBROOK, J., FRITSCH, E. F. & MANIATIS, T. 1989. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
    • SASSER, J. N. & FRECKMAN, D. W. 1987. A world perspective on nematology: the role of the Society. Vistas on Nematology: A Commemoration of the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Society of Nematologists, 7-14.
    • SCHECHTER, I. & BERGER, A. 1967. On the size of the active site in proteases. I. Papain. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 27, 157-162.
    • SCHENK, H., DRIESSEN, R. A. J., DE GELDER, R., GOUBITZ, K., NIEBOER, H., BRUGGEMANN-ROTGANS, I. E. M. & DIEPENHORST, P. 1999. Elucidation of the structure of Solanoeclepin A, a natural hatching factor of potato and tomato cyst nematodes, by single-crystal x-ray diffraction. Croatica Chemica Acta, 72, 593-606.
    • SCHIERACK, P., LUCIUS, R., SONNENBURG, B., SCHILLING, K. & HARTMANN, S. 2003. Parasite-Specific Immunomodulatory Functions of Filarial Cystatin. Infection and Immunity, 71, 2422-2429.
    • SCHMID, M., DAVISON, T. S., HENZ, S. R., PAPE, U. J., DEMAR, M., VINGRON, M., SCHOLKOPF, B., WEIGEL, D. & LOHMANN, J. U. 2005. A gene expression map of Arabidopsis thaliana development. Nat Genet, 37, 501-506.
    • SCHOLL, E. H., THORNE, J. L., MCCARTER, J. P. & BIRD, D. M. 2003. Horizontally transferred genes in plant-parasitic nematodes: a high-throughput genomic approach. Genome Biology, 4, -.
    • SHARON, E., SPIEGEL, Y., SALOMON, R. & CURTIS, R. H. C. 2002. Characterization of Meloidogyne javanica surface coat with antibodies and their effect on nematode behaviour. Parasitology, 125, 177-185.
    • SHINDO, T. & VAN DER HOORN, R. A. 2008. Papain-like cysteine proteases: key players at molecular battlefields employed by both plants and their invaders. Mol Plant Pathol, 9, 119-25.
    • SIGMA-ALDRICH. 2011. Papain [Online]. http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/metabolomics/enzymeexplorer/analytical-enzymes/papain.html [Accessed 06-08-2012.
    • SOBCZAK, M., AVROVA, A., JUPOWICZ, J., PHILLIPS, M. S., ERNST, K. & KUMAR, A. 2005. Characterization of susceptibility and resistance responses to potato cyst nematode (Globodera spp.) infection of tomato lines in the absence and presence of the broad-spectrum nematode resistance Hero gene. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 18, 158-168.
    • SRIVASTAVA, S. S. 2004. Integration of soil solarisation in the management of Meloidogyne incognita on brinjal. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 12, 471-472.
    • STEPEK, G., BEHNKE, J. M., BUTTLE, D. J. & DUCEL, I. R. 2004. Natural plant cysteine proteinases as anthelmintics? Trends in Parasitology, 20, 322-327.
    • STEPEK, G., BUTTLE, D. J., DUCE, I. R., LOWE, A. & BEHNKE, J. M. 2005a. Assessment of the anthelmintic effect of natural plant cysteine proteinases against the gastrointestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, in vitro. Parasitology, 130, 203-211.
    • STEPEK, G., CURTIS, R. H., KERRY, B. R., SHEWRY, P. R., CLARK, S. J., LOWE, A. E., DUCE, I. R., BUTTLE, D. J. & BEHNKE, J. M. 2007a. Nematicidal effects of cysteine proteinases against sedentary plant parasitic nematodes. Parasitology, 134, 1831-8.
    • STEPEK, G., LOWE, A. E., BUTTLE, D. J., DUCE, I. R. & BEHNKE, J. M. 2007b. In vitro anthelmintic effects of cysteine proteinases from plants against intestinal helminths of rodents. Journal of Helminthology, 81, 353-360.
    • VOLKOV, R. A., PANCHUK, I. I. & SCHÖFFL, F. 2003. Heat‐stress‐dependency and developmental modulation of gene expression: the potential of house‐keeping genes as internal standards in mRNA expression profiling using real‐time RT‐PCR. Journal of Experimental Botany, 54, 2343-2349.
    • VORA, H., MCINTIRE, J., KUMAR, P., DESHPANDE, M. & KHOSLA, C. 2007. A scaleable manufacturing process for pro-EP-B2, a cysteine protease from barley indicated for Celiac Sprue. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 98, 177-185.
    • WALLACE, H. R. 1968. Dynamics of Nematode Movement. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 6, 91-114.
    • WANG, C. L., LOWER, S. & WILLIAMSON, V. M. 2009. Application of Pluronic gel to the study of root-knot nematode behaviour. Nematology, 11, 453-464.
    • WANG, K.-H., HOOKS, C. R. & PLOEG, A. T. 2007. Protecting Crops from Nematode Pests: Using Marigold as an Alternative to Chemical Nematicides. Plant Disease 35.
    • WANG, N., GOTTESMAN, S., WILLINGHAM, M. C., GOTTESMAN, M. M. & MAURIZI, M. R. 1993. A human mitochondrial ATP-dependent protease that is highly homologous to bacterial lon protease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 90, 11247-11251.
    • WANG, T., DEOM, C. M. & HUSSEY, R. S. 1998. Identification of a Meloidogyne incognita cuticle collagen gene and characterization of the developmental expression of three collagen genes in parasitic stages. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 93, 131-134.
    • WILKINSON, M. D., CASTELLS, N. & SHEWRY, P. R. 2012. Diversity of sequences encoded by the Gsp-1 genes in wheat and other grass species. Journal of Cereal Science, In Press.
    • WILLIAMSON, V. M. 1999. Plant nematode resistance genes. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 2, 327-331.
    • WILLIAMSON, V. M. & HUSSEY, R. S. 1996. Nematode pathogenesis and resistance in plants. Plant Cell, 8, 1735-1745.
    • WINTER, D., VINEGAR, B., NAHAL, H., AMMAR, R., WILSON, G. V. & PROVART, N. J. 2007. An "Electronic Fluorescent Pictograph" Browser for Exploring and Analyzing Large-Scale Biological Data Sets. Plos One, 2.
    • WINTER, M. D., MCPHERSON, M. J. & ATKINSON, H. J. 2002. Neuronal uptake of pesticides disrupts chemosensory cells of nematodes. Parasitology, 125, 561- 565.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article