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King, P.; Ward, R. (2015)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
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    • [INSERT TABLE 1] viii (585), (1819), 164-7. Population estimates taken from P. Deane and W. Cole, British Economic Growth 1688-1959, 2nd edn. (Cambridge, 1967), 103.
    • 36 The 1819 returns contain good data for an increasing number of areas by the final quarter of the eighteenth century, and Figures 1 and 2 use this data, along with pre-1780 information from the sheriffs' expense records.
    • 37 Well discussed in Douglas Hay, 'War, Dearth and Theft in the Eighteenth Century: The Record of the English Courts', Past and Present, xc (1982).
    • 38 On the Home Circuit it rose by a third. On the Norfolk Circuit it increased by 50 per cent: see King, Crime, Justice, 275, and Hay, 'Hanging', 134.
    • 39 Ipswich Journal, 14 Aug. and 23 Nov. 1782; Simon Devereaux, 'In Place of Death: Transportation, Penal Practices and the English State 1770-1830', in Carolyn Strange (ed.), Qualities of Mercy: Justice, Punishment and Discretion (Vancouver, 1996), 57.
    • Common Law', ix (46), (1829), 454. Before 1773 the Welsh judges could also appoint deputies - see Parl. Papers, 'Administration of Justice in Wales', v (461), (1817), 9.
    • 114 Parl. Papers, 'Administration of Justice in Wales', v (461), (1817), 14, 68; 'Practice and Proceedings of the Courts of Common Law', ix (46), (1829), 419.
    • 115 Parl. Papers, 'Administration of Justice in Wales', v (461), (1817), 14, for a Welsh judge holding another lucrative local office under Lord Cholmondley.
    • 116 Parl. Papers, 'Administration of Justice in Wales', v (461), (1817), 42.
    • 117 As late as the 1891 census 54 per cent spoke Welsh: P. O'Leary, 'Accommodation and Resistance: A Comparison of Cultural Identities in Ireland and Wales 1880-1914', in Connolly (ed.), Kingdoms United?, 124. Witnesses giving evidence in Welsh were examined by means of an interpreter: William Russell Oldnall, The Practice of the Court of Great Sessions on the Carmarthen Circuit (London, 1814), 24; Parl. Papers, 'Administration of Justice in Wales', v (461), (1817), 6.
    • 118 Howard, 'Investigating', 414; Williams, 'The History of the Great Sessions', 19, suggests that less than 15 per cent were born in Wales and not all of these would have been native speakers; Jones, '“An Invidious Attempt”', 232; Parl. Papers, 'Practice and Proceedings of the Courts of Common Law', ix (46), (1829), 443.
    • 119Geraint H. Jenkins, The Foundations of Modern Wales (Oxford, 1987), 334; Parry, A Guide, p. xxxi; Jones, Crime in Nineteenth-century Wales, 221-2.
    • 120 Minkes, 'Wales', 675.
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