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Rogaten, Jekaterina (2014)
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: dewey370
The goal of this Ph.D. research was to develop an empirical foundation suitable for designing educational interventions and programmes aiming to improve students’ learning. In order to achieve this, a series of studies was conducted that supported the development and test of a comprehensive, chained mediation model of academic performance. The proposed chained mediation model comprised of adaptive-positive and maladaptive-negative submodels. The adaptive-positive submodel hypothesised firstly that trait intrinsic motivation and adaptive metacognition would facilitate the use of creative cognition in studying (first-level mediator). Secondly, the model hypothesised that the use of creative cognition in studying would lead to the experience of positive affect in studying, and to the development of adaptive approaches to studying (second-level mediators). Finally, the submodel hypothesised that positive affect in studying and adaptive approaches to studying would facilitate academic performance. The maladaptive-negative submodel hypothesised firstly that trait extrinsic motivation and maladaptive metacognition would lead to evaluation anxiety (first-level mediator). Secondly, the model hypothesised that evaluation anxiety would lead to the experience of negative affect in studying, and to the development of a maladaptive approach to studying (second-level mediators). Finally, the submodel hypothesised that negative affect in studying and the maladaptive approach to studying would undermine academic performance.\ud \ud A total of five studies were conducted employing 2140 university students. Study 1 tested the effects of approaches to studying and positive and negative affect in studying on students’ academic performance. The results strongly indicated that positive and negative affect in studying explains students’ academic performance better than approaches to studying. Studies 2 and 3 developed and validated a new Use of Creative Cognition Scale (UCCS), which measures students’ tendency to deploy creative thinking strategies in studying. Study 4 tested longitudinal relationship between positive affect in studying and the use of creative cognition. The results supported the reciprocal, longitudinal relationship between the two constructs. Finally, Study 5 proposed and tested the comprehensive, chained mediation model of academic performance. Structural equation modelling (SEM) showed that the model explained 90% of the variance in students’ academic performance, and that prior academic performance and positive affect in studying were the only significant correlates. The use of creative cognition in studying was the strongest correlate of positive affect in studying, and also mediated the effect of trait intrinsic motivation and adaptive metacognition on positive affect. Overall, adaptive-positive psychological variables were superior to maladaptive-negative ones in explaining students’ academic performance. Therefore, educational interventions aiming to enhance students’ learning should target particularly adaptive-positive psychological variables in students. The possible model-based intervention is outlined.
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    • Students' Approaches to Learning ........................................... 1
    • 1.1.2 Measures of approaches to studying........................... 7
    • 1.1.3 Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI) and academic performance ....................................... 12
    • 1.1.4 Revised Approaches to Studying Inventory (RASI) and academic performance .......................... 18
    • 1.1.5 Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) and academic performance .............................................................. 24
    • 1.1.6 Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) and Two-factor Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) and academic performance .................. 33
    • 1.1.7 Overall evaluation of the relationship between approaches to studying and academic performance.............................................. 42
    • 1.2 Emotions in Studying.............................................................. 46 1.2.1 Evaluation and test anxiety....................................... 47 1.2.2 Control-value theory of achievement emotions ................................................................... 49 1.2.3 Control-process theory ............................................. 53 1.2.4 Mood-as-input theory ............................................... 56 1.2.5 Broaden-and-build theory......................................... 59 1.2.6 Emotions and academic performance....................... 61
    • 1.3 Creativity in Education ........................................................... 69 1.3.1 Creative cognitive processes .................................... 72 1.3.2 Creativity and academic performance ...................... 78 1.3.3 Overall evaluation of the relationship between creativity and learning, and academic performance.............................................. 87
    • 1.4 Main Research Objectives....................................................... 90
    • Academic Performance as a Function of Approaches to Studying and Affect in Studying ..................................................................... 94
    • 2.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 95
    • 2.2 Method .................................................................................... 99 2.2.1 Participants ............................................................... 99 2.2.2 Measures................................................................. 102 2.2.3 Procedure ................................................................ 106 2.2.4 Data analysis........................................................... 107
    • 2.3 Results ................................................................................... 108 2.3.1 Descriptive statistics ............................................... 108 2.3.2 Two-Step Hierarchical Regression Modelling ............................................................... 111 2.3.3 Three-Step Hierarchical Regression Modelling ............................................................... 115 2.3.4 Mediation analyses ................................................. 119 2.3.5 Sensitivity analyses on background variables.................................................................. 120
    • 3.2 Study 2: Scale Development and Exploration of its Factor Structure.................................................................. 131
    • 3.4 Results ................................................................................... 138 3.4.1 Exploration of the factor structure of the CPAC scale............................................................. 138 3.4.2 Development of the UCCS ..................................... 141
    • 3.5 Study 3: Corroboration of Factor Structure and Assessment of Concurrent and Discriminant Validity............................................................................... 143 3.5.1 Use of creative cognition and dispositional flow......................................................................... 144 3.5.2 Use of creative cognition and trait motivation............................................................... 145 3.5.3 Use of creative cognition and affect ....................... 146 3.5.4 Use of creative cognition and adaptive and maladaptive metacognitive traits ............................ 148
    • 3.6 Method .................................................................................. 152 3.6.1 Participants ............................................................. 152 3.6.2 Measures................................................................. 154 3.6.3 Procedure ................................................................ 161 3.6.4 Data analysis........................................................... 162
    • 3.7 Results ................................................................................... 162 3.7.1 Assessment of construct validity ............................ 162 3.7.2 Assessment of concurrent and discriminant validity .................................................................... 163
    • 4.1 Introduction ........................................................................... 173 4.1.1 Positive affect as a facilitator of the use of creative cognition ................................................... 174 4.1.2 Use of creative cognition as a facilitator of positive affect ......................................................... 176
    • 4.3 Results ................................................................................... 187 4.3.1 Descriptive statistics ............................................... 187 4.3.2 Model testing .......................................................... 188
    • The Chained Mediation Model of Academic Performance in Higher Education ........................................................................... 197
    • 5.1 Introduction ........................................................................... 198 5.1.1 Processes that correlate with academic performance ............................................................ 198 5.1.2 Structures that correlate with processes.................. 203
    • Method ................................................................................. 210
    • 5.2.1 Participants ............................................................. 210
    • 5.2.2 Measures................................................................. 212
    • 5.2.3 Procedure ................................................................ 218
    • 5.2.4 Data analysis........................................................... 219
    • 5.3 Results ................................................................................... 222 5.3.1 Descriptive statistics ............................................... 222 5.3.2 Structural equation modelling ................................ 225 5.3.3 Test of mediation .................................................... 228
    • 5.4 Discussion ............................................................................. 229 5.4.1 Facilitators of academic performance..................... 229 5.4.2 Inhibitors of academic performance ....................... 233
    • CHAPTER 6 - GENERAL DISCUSSION............................................. 237
    • 6.2 Summary of Main Findings .................................................. 237
    • 6.3 Limitations ............................................................................ 245
    • 6.5 Applications .......................................................................... 267 6.5.1 Outline of the prospective intervention and its benefits............................................................... 272
    • 6.6 Directions for Future Research ............................................. 277
    • Table 3: Summary of Studies Examining the Relationship Between Approaches to Studying Measured by ASSIST and Students' Academic Performance in Higher Education.............................................................................................. 25
    • Table 4: Summary of Studies Examining the Relationship Between Approaches to Studying Measured by SPQ and R-SPQ-2F, and Students' Academic Performance in Higher Education.................................................................................. 34
    • Table 5: Summary of Meta-analytic Research Examining the Relationship Between Approaches to Studying and Academic Performance ........................................................................ 43
    • Table 6: Summary of Participants' Demographic Characteristics for Time 1 and Time 2 Sub-samples (Study 1)............................................................................................. 100
    • Table 7: Means, Standard Deviations, Cronbach's alpha (in parentheses) and Correlation Coefficients of variables in the Time 1 sub-sample (below the diagonal) and in the Time 2 sub-sample (above the diagonal) (Study1). ........................... 109
    • Regressions of Academic Performance for the Time 1
    • sub-sample (Study 1) ......................................................................... 113
    • Table 9: Standardised Regression Coefficients and Coefficients of Determination of the Two-Step Hierarchical Regressions of Academic Performance for the Time 2 sub-sample (Study 1) ......................................................................... 114
    • Table 10: Standardised Regression Coefficients and Coefficients of Determination of the Three-Step Hierarchical Regressions of Academic Performance (Study 1)............................................................................................. 117
    • Table 11: Summary of Participants' Demographic Characteristics (Study 2) .................................................................... 134
    • Table 12: Means, Standard Deviations and Factor Loadings of the CPAC 21 Items for Two-factor and One-factor solutions (Study2) .............................................................................. 140
    • Table 13: Means, Standard Deviations, and Factor Loadings of the UCCS Items (Study 2) ................................................................. 143
    • Table 14: Summary of Participants' Demographic Characteristics (Study 3) .................................................................... 153
    • Table 15: Means, Standard Deviations, Cronbach's alpha (in parentheses) and Correlation Coefficients of the Study Variables (Study3).............................................................................. 165
    • Table 16: Summary of Participants' Demographic Characteristics (Study 4) .................................................................... 181
    • Table 17: Means, Standard Deviations, Correlation Coefficients, and Cronbach's alpha Coefficients (in parentheses) of the Study Variables (Study 4) ................................... 188
    • Table 19: Summary of Participants' Demographic Characteristics (Study 5) .................................................................... 211
    • Table 20: Means, Standard Deviations, Cronbach's alpha (in parentheses) and Correlation Coefficients of the Study Variables (Study 5)............................................................................. 223
    • Figure 1: Interaction graphs of (a) examination grades and (b) Grade Point Average (GPA) as a function of negative affect in studying measured in the first and second half of a semester ........................................................................................... 118
    • Figure 2: Scree plot of the 21-item CPAC scale ........................................ 138
    • Figure 3: Standardised factor loadings and measurement errors of the UCCS items estimated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).................................................................................... 163
    • Study 1:
    • Rogaten, J., Moneta, G. B., & Spada, M. M. (2013). Academic performance as a function of approaches to studying and affect in studying. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(6), 1751-1763.
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  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

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