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Carr, Rosalind (2014)
Publisher: University of Edinburgh Press
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
This introduction situates Scotland's Enlightenment in a wider European framework. Concepts of appropriate masculinity and femininity were central features of Scottish Enlightenment discourses of luxury and refinement, and the dominant gender identities that emerged were the polite, refined gentleman motivated by an inner sensibility, and the emotional woman governed by modesty. These were not the only identities available to men and women of eighteenth-century Scotland, but they determined the socially dominant public gender performance among the urban elite. Yet, as the book will show, the exact boundaries of these identities (especially for men) were fluid. Improvement was the unifying thread that held the Enlightenment together, and that enables us to see it as a coherent epistemological and social development. However, in neither thought nor culture was it uniform.
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    • 7 Judith Butler, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (London: Routledge, 1999), 173.
    • 8 Butler, Bodies that Matter, 2.
    • 9 R. W. Connell, Masculinities (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005).
    • 10 John Dwyer, Virtuous Discourse: Sensibility and Community in Late Eighteenth Century Scotland (Edinburgh: John Donald, 1987); G. J Barker-Benfi eld, The Culture of Sensibility: Sex and Society in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992); Michèle Cohen, Fashioning Masculinity: National Identity and Language in the Eighteenth Century (London: Routledge, 1996); Philip Carter, Men and the Emergence of Polite Society, Britain 1660-1800 (Harlow: Pearson Education, 2001).
    • 11 Connell, Masculinities, 77-81.
    • 16 See, for example, Carla Hesse (ed.), 'Section 5: women in the enlightened republic of letters', in Sarah Knott and Barbara Taylor (eds), Women, Gender and Enlightenment (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), 259-347; Margaret C. Jacob, 'The mental landscape of the public sphere: a European perspective', Eighteenth-Century Studies 28(1) (1994) 95-113; Margaret C. Jacob, Living the Enlightenment: Freemasonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991); Karen Offen, European Feminisms 1700-1950: A Political History (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000), 27-49.
    • 17 Jacob, 'Mental landscape', 108; Joan Landes, Women and the Public Sphere in the Age of the French Revolution (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1988).
    • 18 Offen, European Feminisms, 27-9.
    • 19 Ibid., 46-7.
    • 20 Karen O'Brien, Women and Enlightenment in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 2.
    • 21 O'Brien, Women and Enlightenment.
    • 22 For a summary of this debate see Richard B. Sher, The Enlightenment and the Book: Scottish Authors and their Publishers in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Ireland and America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 11-24.
    • 23 Sher, Enlightenment and the Book, 15.
    • 24 Nicholas Phillipson, 'Politics, politeness, and the Anglicisation of early eighteenth-century Scottish culture', in R. A. Mason. (ed.), Scotland and England, 1286-1815 (Edinburgh: John Donald, 1987), 235; Alexander Murdoch, 'Scotland and the idea of Britain in the eighteenth century', in Tom Devine and John R. Young (eds), Eighteenth-Century Scotland: New Perspectives (East Linton: Tuckwell, 1999), 116; Berry, Scottish Enlightenment, 18.
    • 25 Rosemary H. Sweet, 'Topographies of politeness', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 12 (2002) 355-74; Helen Berry, 'Polite consumption: shopping in eighteenth-century England', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 12 (2002) 375-94.
    • 26 Lawrence Klein, 'Politeness and the interpretation of the British eighteenth century', Historical Journal 45(4) (2002) 869-98.
    • 27 R. A. Houston, Social Change in the Age of Enlightenment, Edinburgh, 1660-1760 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), 8.
    • 28 Gilbert Elliot, Proposals for Carrying on certain Public Works in the City of Edinburgh (Edinburgh, 1752), 5.
    • 29 Ibid., 24.
    • 30 T. C. Smout, 'Problems of nationalism, identity and improvement in later Enlightenment Scotland', in Thomas M. Devine (ed.), Improvement and Enlightenment (Edinburgh: John Donald, 1989), 1-21.
    • 31 Charles McKean, 'Improvement and modernisation in everyday Enlightenment Scotland', in Elizabeth Foyster and Christopher A. Whatley (eds), A History of Everyday Life in Scotland, 1600 to 1800 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010), 65.
    • 32 Richard B. Sher and Jeffrey Smitten (eds), Scotland and America in the Age of Enlightenment (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990); Sher, Enlightenment and the Book, esp. chs 8 and 9.
    • 33 Thomas Munck, The Enlightenment: A Comparative Social History 1721-1794 (London: Arnold, 2000), 111-28.
    • 34 Dena Goodman, 'Enlightenment salons: the convergence of female and philosophic ambitions', Eighteenth-Century Studies 22(3) (1989) 329-50.
    • 35 Elizabeth Eger, Bluestockings: Women of Reason from Enlightenment to Romanticism (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2010); Teresa A. Smith, The Emerging Female Citizen: Gender and Enlightenment in Spain (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006).
    • 37 Luigi Turco, 'Moral sense and the foundation of morals', in Alexander Broadie (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Scottish Enlightenment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 136-56.
    • 38 Gavin Kennedy, Adam Smith (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2008); Knud Haakonssen (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Adam Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006); Nicholas Phillipson, Adam Smith: An Enlightened Life (London: Penguin, 2011).
    • 39 Berry, Scottish Enlightenment, 91-4.
    • 40 Ibid., 94-113.
    • 41 Ronald L. Meek, Social Science and the Ignoble Savage (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), 99-127.
    • 42 Lisa Hill, The Passionate Society: The Social, Political and Moral Thought of Adam Ferguson (Dordrecht: Springer, 2006), 68.
    • 43 Harro M. Höpfl, 'From savage to Scotsman: conjectural history in the Scottish Enlightenment', Journal of British Studies 17(2) (1978) 24-34; Meek, Ignoble Savage.
    • 44 Silvia Sebastiani, '“Race”, women and progress in the Scottish Enlightenment', in Knott and Taylor (eds), Women, Gender and Enlightenment, 75-96.
    • 45 Jane Rendall, 'Clio, Mars and Minerva: the Scottish Enlightenment and the writing of women's history', in Devine and Young (eds), Eighteenth-Century Scotland, 135-41; see also Paul Bowles, 'John Millar, the four stages theory and women's position in society', History of Political Economy 16(4) (1984) 619-38; Chris Nyland, 'Adam Smith, stage theory and the status of women', History of Political Economy 25(4) (1993) 617-40.
    • 46 John Millar, The Origin of the Distinction of Ranks (Bristol: Thoemmes Antiquarian Books, [1779] 1990), 80.
    • 47 Sylvana Tomaselli, 'The Enlightenment debate on women', History Workshop Journal 20(1) (1985) 101-24.
    • 48 Mary Catherine Moran, '“The commerce of the sexes”: gender and the social sphere in Scottish Enlightenment accounts of civil society', in Frank Trentman (ed.), Paradoxes of Civil Society: New Perspectives on Modern German and British History (New York: Berghahn Books, 2003), 61-81.
    • 49 O'Brien, Women and Enlightenment, 106.
    • 50 Barbara Taylor, 'Feminists versus gallants: manners and morals in Enlightenment Britain', Representations 87 (2004) 125-48.
    • 69 Pam Perkins, Women Writers and the Edinburgh Enlightenment (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2010).
    • 70 Katie Barclay, Love, Intimacy and Power: Marriage and Patriarchy in Scotland (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2011).
    • 71 Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, 'Women and the Enlightenment', in Renate Bridenthal, Claudia Koonz and Susan Stuard (eds), Becoming Visible: Women in European History (Boston, MA: Houghton Miffl in, 1987), 251-72.
    • 72 O'Brien, Women and Enlightenment, 181-7.
    • 73 For an analysis of some of the apparent paradoxes in Wollstonecraft's thought, see Barbara Taylor, 'Mary Wollstonecraft and the wild wish of early Feminism', History Workshop Journal 33(1) (1992) 197-219.
    • 74 Dwyer, Virtuous Discourse, 95-110.
    • 75 Pantheon Debating Society Minutes, 20/6/1776, Glasgow University Library [GUL] Sp Coll MS Gen. 1283.
    • 76 Gregory, Father's Legacy, 24.
    • 77 Ibid., 48-9.
    • 78 Fordyce, Sermons to Young Women, i, 37; Mary Catherine Moran, 'From Rudeness to Refi nement: Gender, Genre and Scottish Enlightenment Discourse', unpublished PhD thesis (Johns Hopkins University, 1999).
    • 79 Moran, 'Rudeness to refi nement', 6-14; Steven A. Macleod Burns, 'The humean female', in Lorenne M. G. Clark and Lynda Lange (eds), The Sexism of Social and Political Theory: Women and Reproduction from Plato to Nietzsche (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1979), 55-7; Louise Marcil-Lacoste, 'Hume's method in moral reasoning', in Clark and Lange (eds), Social and Political Theory, 67.
    • 80 David Hume, 'Of refi nement in the arts' [1752], in David Hume, Essays: Moral, Political and Literary, ed. Eugene F. Miller (Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, [1777] 1987), 272.
    • 86 Alexander Broadie, 'Introduction: what was the Scottish Enlightenment?', in Alexander Broadie (ed.), The Scottish Enlightenment: An Anthology (Edinburgh: Canongate, 2008), 8.
    • 87 Broadie, 'Scottish Enlightenment', 4.
    • 88 Immanuel Kant, 'What is Enlightenment?' [1784], available at: http://www.columbia. edu/acis/ets/CCREAD/etscc/kant.html, accessed 27 February 2013.
    • 89 Dwyer, Virtuous Discourse, 38-51.
    • 96 John Dwyer, R. A. Mason and Alexander Murdoch, 'Introduction', in John Dwyer, R. A. Mason and Alexander Murdoch (eds), New Perspectives on the Politics and Culture of Early Modern Scotland (John Donald: Edinburgh, 1982), 6.
    • 97 Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 2 vols, eds Roy H. Campbell and Andrew S. Skinner (Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, [1776] 1981), i, 37.
    • 98 Richard Sher, 'Commerce, religion and Enlightenment in eighteenth-century Glasgow', in Thomas Devine and Gordon Jackson (eds), Glasgow, vol. 1: Beginnings to 1830 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995), 315-16.
    • 99 Christopher Berry, The Idea of Luxury: A Conceptual and Historical Investigation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 154-63.
    • 100 Matthew McCormack, The Independent Man: Citizenship and Gender Politics in Georgian England (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005), 1-2.
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