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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Ali, Abbas H.
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects:
This study was undertaken for two primary purposes. The first was to discover whether or not two of the four cultural dimensions depicted by Hof-stede (1980), namely Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance, could be repeated using samples from seven organizations operating in three distinct cultural settings. The second was to assess the degree to which these dimensions affect superior-subordinate communication across the culturally-different groups. Also, the impact of the three interpersonal factors: Trust in Superior, Upward Influence and Mobility Aspirations was investigated cross-culturally. Participants were 291 managers from seven organizations; four Sudanese, two white British and an organization in Britain run by a group of British citizens of Pakistani extraction. It was hypothesized that the Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance of the three groups would replicate Hof-stede's. Specific implications of these dimensions for organizational communication and in particular for superior-subordinate communication were also hypothesized. Multiple regression analyses were performed with items of the two cultural dimensions and the three interpersonal factors (each in turn) forming the independent variables, while the organizational communication aspects formed the dependent variables. T-tests between means were also used to compare and contrast issues such as directionality of information flow across organizations operating in these settings. Work-related values of each of the three cultural groups provided support for Hofstede's model. However, only tentative support was given to the hypothesized relationships between the cultural dimensions and organizational communication. Similarly, weak associations were found between the three interpersonal factors and superior-subordinate communication behaviour. Some practical and theoretical implications are offered. An evaluation of the study and recommendation for further research are also given.
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    • 2.4.1 Cultural Settings of the Research
    • Groups 51
    • 2.4.2 The Sudan: Physical, Historical and
    • Social Features 55
    • 2.4.3 Familial Relations 58
    • 2.4.3.1 Sudanese Familial Relations.. 59
    • 2.4.3.2 Pakitani Familial Relations. 61
    • 2.4.3.3 British Familial Relations 63
    • 2.4.4 Educational Systems 63
    • 2.4.4.1 Sudanese Educational System 65
    • 2.4.4.1 British Educational System 67
    • 2.4.5 Religion 70
    • 2.4.6 Political and Economic Culture 73 2.5 Sociocultural Institutions and
    • Work-related Values 77
    • 2.5.1 Familial Institutions and Work-related
    • Values 78
    • 2.5.2 Educational Systems and Work-related
    • Values 79
    • 2.5.3 Religion and Work-related Values Bo
    • 2.5.4 Political and Economic Systems and
    • Work-related Values ao 2.6 National Culture viz., organizational
    • Culture 81 3.1 Introduction 3.2 A General Background
    • 3.2.1 Information Theory
    • 3.2.2 Nonverbal Communication
    • 3.2.3 Interpersonal Comunication
    • 3.2.4 Definition 3.3 Literature Review
    • 3.3.1 Trust in Superiors
    • 3.3.2 Upward Influence
    • 3.3.3 Mobility Aspirations
    • 3.3.4 Directionality of Information Flow
    • 3.3.5 Modalities of Communication 3.4 Summary 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Cross-cultural and/or Cross-national
    • 4.2.1 Research Design 4.3 Methodology
    • 4.3.1 Sample Configuration
    • 4.3.2 Definition of Analytic Variables
    • 4.3.3 Participants and Procedure
    • 4.3.4 Statistical Analyses
    • 4.3.5 She Questionnaire 4.4 A Note an Research Design 4.5 Research Proposition
    • 8.2.3 Gatekeeping to Superiors 8.3 Uncertainty Avoidance and Modalities of
    • 8.3.1 Written Modalities
    • 8.3.2 Face-to-Face Modality
    • 8.3.3 The Telephone 8.4 Discussion 8.5 Summary 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Trust in Superiors
    • 9.2.1 Disclosure of Grievance
    • 9.2.2 Trust Unfavourable Decisions
    • 9.2.3 Trust General Fairness 9.3 Trust ard Quantitative Attributes of
    • 9.3.1 Trust and Upward Conmunication
    • 9.3.2 Trust and Desire for Interaction
    • 9.3.3 Trust aid Downward Communication
    • 9.3.4 Trust and Upward Communication 9.4 Trust aid Qualitative Attributes of
    • 9.4.1 Trust and Accuracy of Downward
    • 9.4.2 Trust and Summarizing to Superiors
    • 9.4.3 Trust and Gatekeepipg to Superiors 9.5 Discussion 9.6 Summary 10.3 Perceived Influence of Superiors 286
    • 10.3.1 Superior's Success in Overcoming
    • Restrictions 286
    • 10.3.2 Superior's General Influence 286
    • 10.3.3 Influence of Superior's
    • Recommendation 289 10.4 Superior's Influence and Communication
    • Behaviour 291
    • 10.4.1 Influence and the Quantitative
    • Attributes 292
    • 10.4.2 Influence and Walitative Attributes. 293 10.5 Discussion 301 10.6 Summary 303 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Mobility Aspirations
    • 11.2.1 Desire for Promotion
    • 11.2.2 Importance of Promotion 11.3 Mobility Aspirations and Quantitative
    • Communication 11.4 Mobility Aspirations and Qualitative
    • 11.4.1 Summarizing to Superiors
    • 11.4.2 Gatekeeping to Superiors 11.5 Summary and Discussion 305 305 306 307 308 309 318 318 319 323 1 General Organizational Features 2 Factors Investigated in the Study 2a Personal Characteristics of the Participants 3 Factor Analysis and Reliability Coefficients of Trust
    • in Superiors Scale 4 Factor Analysis and Reliability Coefficients of Upward
    • Influence Scale 5 Factor Analysis and Reliability Coefficients of Mobility
    • Aspirations Scale 6 Factor Analysis and Reliability Coefficients of the
    • Accuracy Scale 7 Factor Analysis and Reliability Coefficients of the
    • Directionality-Upward. Scale 8 Factor Analysis and ReliabilityCcefficients of the
    • Directionality-Downward. Scale 9 Factor Analysis and Reaiability Coefficients of the
    • Directionality-Lateral Scale 10 Factor Analysis and Reliability Coefficients of the
    • Desire for Interaction Scale 11 Factor Analysis and Reaiability Coefficients of the
    • Summarization Scale 12 Factor Analysis and Reliability Coefficients of the
    • Gatekeeping Scale 12a Connotations of Power Distance as a Social Norm 12b Connotations of Uncertainty Avoidance as a Social Norm 13 Factor Analyses of the PDI and UAI Items in the
    • Sudanese, British and Pakistani Groups 14 Pearson Correlations Between the Core Power Distance
    • Items in the Three Cultural Groups 15 Pearson Correlations Between the Core Uncertainty
    • Avoidance Items in the Three Cultural Groups 16 PDI for the Sudanese, British and Pakistani Groups 17 UAI for the Sudanese, British and Pakigtani Groups 18 interactionwith Subordinates Across the Three Groups 19 Interaction with Superiors Across the Three Groups 20 Receiving from Superiors Across the Three
    • Cultural Groups 21 Sending to Subordinates Across the Three
    • Cultural Groups 22 Receiving from Subordinates Across the Three
    • Cultural Groups 23 Sending to Superiors Across the Three Groups 24 Perceived Accuracy of Downward Communication 25 Summari7ing to Superiors Across the Three
    • Cultural. Groups 26 Gatekeeping to Superiors Across the Three
    • Cultural Groups 27 Adherence to Written Modalities in the Sudanese
    • British and Pakistani Organizations 28 Using Face-to-face Modality in the Sudanese
    • British and Pakistani Organizations 29 Adherence to the Telephone in the Sudanese,
    • Britigh and Pakistani Crgnni7ations 30 General Features of Organizational Communication 31 Power Distance and Frequency of Interaction with Superiors
    • in the Sudanese Organizations 32 Power Distance and Frequency of Interaction with
    • Superiors in the Britiqh and Pakistani Organizations 33 Power Distance and Desire for Interaction, with
    • Superiors in the Sudanese Organizations 34 Power Distance and Desire for Interaction, with
    • Superior in the British and Pnkistani Organizations 35 Power Distance and Downward Communication in the
    • Sudanese Sugar and Textile 36 Power Distance and Downward Communication
    • in the British and Pakistani Orgaro7ations 37 Power Distance and Upward Communication
    • in the Sudanese Organizations 38 Power Distance and Upward Communication
    • in the British aid Pakistani Organizations 39 Power Distance and Accuracy of Downward Communication
    • Pakistani Textile 40 Power Distance and Summari7ing to Superiors in
    • the Sudanese Organizations 41 Power Distance and Summarizing to Superiors
    • in the British and Pakistani Organizations 42 Power Distance and Gatekepping to Superiors
    • in the Sudanese Cement and Military 43 Uncertainty Avoidance aniQmoitative Attributes of
    • Upward Communication Across the Three Cultural. Groups 44 Uncertaintytoroldance and Accuracy of Downward
    • Communication in the Sugar Organi7ation 45 Uncertainty Avoidance and Summari7ing to Superiors
    • in the Sudanese Organizations 46 Uncertainty Avoidance and Summari7ing to Superiors
    • in the British and Pakistani Organi7ations 47 Uncertainty Avoidance and Gatekeeping in the Cement 48 Principal Media of Communication: Advantages
    • and Disadvantages 49 Uncertattytivcddance and Modalities of Communication 50 Uncertainty Avoidance and Frequency of Using
    • Written Modalities in the Pakistani Organization 51 Uncertaintytotidance and Frequency of Using
    • Written Modalities in the Sudanese Military 52 Uncertainty Avoidance and Frequency of Using
    • Face-to-face Modality in the British Textile 53 UncertaintyAmoidance and the Telephone in the
    • Sudanese Organizations 54 Uncertainty Avoidance and the Telephone in the
    • Briti sh and Paki stani Organizations 55 Disclosure of Grievence Across the Three Groups 56 Trusting Unfavourable Decisions 57 Trusting General Fairness 58 Trust and Frequency of Upward Communication in
    • the Sudanese Organizations 59 Trust and Frequency of Upward Communication in
    • the British and Paki stani. organizations 60 Trust and Receiving from Superiors in the
    • Sudanese Organizations 61 Trust and Sending to Superiors in the
    • Sudanese Textile. and Military 62 Trust ard Quantitative Attributes of Communication 63 Trust and Perceived. Accuracy of Downward Communication
    • in the Sudanese Organizations 64 Trust and Perceives. Accuracy of Downward Communication
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    • British and Pakistani Organizations 67 Trust and Gatekeeping to Superiors in the
    • Sudanese Organizations 68 Trust and Gatekeeping to Superiors in the
    • Sudanese Cement and Witary 69 Trust and Gatakeeping to Superiors in the
    • British and Pakistani Organizations 70 Trust and qialitative Attributes of Communication
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