Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Hamilton, J.F.; Borrull, F.; Marcé, R.M.; Lewis, A.C.; Özel, M.Z.; Ramírez, N. (2014)
Types: Article
Subjects: 2300
10.1016/j.envint.2014.06.012 In addition to passive inhalation, non-smokers, and especially children, are exposed to residual tobacco smoke gases and particles that are deposited to surfaces and dust, known as thirdhand smoke (THS). However, until now the potential cancer risks of this pathway of exposure have been highly uncertain and not considered in public health policy. In this study, we estimate for the first time the potential cancer risk by age group through non-dietary ingestion and dermal exposure to carcinogen N-nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) measured in house dust samples. Using a highly sensitive and selective analytical approach we have determined the presence of nicotine, eight N-nitrosamines and five tobacco-specific nitrosamines in forty-six settled dust samples from homes occupied by both smokers and non-smokers. Using observations of house dust composition, we have estimated the cancer risk by applying the most recent official toxicological information. Calculated cancer risks through exposure to the observed levels of TSNAs at an early life stage (1 to 6. years old) exceeded the upper-bound risk recommended by the USEPA in 77% of smokers' and 64% of non-smokers' homes. The maximum risk from exposure to all nitrosamines measured in a smoker occupied home was one excess cancer case per one thousand population exposed.The results presented here highlight the potentially severe long-term consequences of THS exposure, particularly to children, and give strong evidence of its potential health risk and, therefore, they should be considered when developing future environmental and health policies.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Cook, D.G., Strachan, D.P. 1999. Summary of effects of parental smoking on the respiratory health of children and implications for research. Thorax 54:357-365.
    • Drehmer, J.E., Ossip, D.J., Rigotti, N.A., Nabi-Burza, E., Woo, H., Wasserman, R.C., et al. 2012. Pediatrician interventions and thirdhand smoke beliefs of parents. Am J Prev Med 43:533- 536.
    • Hang, B., Sarker, A.H., Havel, C., Saha, S., Hazra, T.K., Schick, S., et al. 2013. Thirdhand smoke causes DNA damage in human cells. Mutagenesis 28:381-391.
    • Hecht, S.S., Hoffmann, D. 1988. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines, an important group of carcinogens in tobacco and tobacco-smoke. Carcinogenesis 9:875-884.
    • Hecht, S.S. 2003. Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 3:733-744.
    • Hecht, S.S. 2008. Progress and challenges in selected areas of tobacco carcinogenesis. Chem Res Toxicol 21:160-171.
    • Hein, H.O., Suadicani, P., Skov, P., Gyntelberg, F. 1991. Indoor dust exposure - an unnoticed aspect of involuntary smoking. Arch Environ Health 46:98-101.
    • Hoh, E., Hunt, R.N., Quintana, P.J.E., Zakarian, J.M., Chatfield, D.A., Wittry, B.C., et al. 2012. Environmental tobacco smoke as a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in settled household dust. Environ Sci Technol 46:4174-4183.
    • 419  IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2013. List of classifications by alphabetical 420  order. Available: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/ClassificationsAlphaOrder.pdf 421  [accessed: 8 September 2013].
    • (National Institute of Statistics, Spanish Government. 2001.
    • http://www.ine.es/jaxi/tabla.do?path=/t25/p442/e01/l0/&file=02006.px&type=pcaxis.
    • [accessed: 30 July 2013]
    • Oberg, M., Jaakkola, M.S., Woodward, A., Peruga, A., Pruss-Ustun, A. 2011. Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: A retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries. Lancet 377:139-146.
    • OEHHA (California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment). 2007. OEHHA Toxicity Criteria Database. http://oehha.ca.gov/risk/ChemicalDB/index.asp [accessed: 28 June 2013].
    • Ott, W., Steinemann, A.C., Wallace LA. 2007. Exposure analysis. Boca Raton, CA:CRC Press.
    • Rumchev, K., Jamrozik, K., Stick, S., Spickett, J. 2008. How free of tobacco smoke are 'smokefree' homes? Indoor Air 18:202-208.
    • Schick, S.F., Glantz, S. 2007. Concentrations of the carcinogen 4-(methyinitrosamino)1-(3- pyridyl)-1-butanone in sidestream cigarette smoke increase after release into indoor air: Results from unpublished tobacco industry research. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:1547-1553.
    • Singer, B.C., Hodgson, A.T., Nazaroff, W.W. 2003. Gas-phase organics in environmental tobacco smoke: 2. Exposure-relevant emission factors and indirect exposures from habitual smoking. Atmos Environ 37:5551-5561.
    • Sleiman, M., Gundel, L.A., Pankow, J.F., Jacob, P., Singer, B.C., Destaillats, H. 2010. Formation of carcinogens indoors by surface-mediated reactions of nicotine with nitrous acid, leading to potential thirdhand smoke hazards. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:6576-6581.
    • Sterner, O. 2010. Chemistry, health and environment: Weinheim, Germany:Wiley-VCH.
    • U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Assigning values to non detected/nonquantified pesticide residues in human health food exposure assessments. Washington, DC: U.S.EPA. Available: http://www.epa.gov/oppfead1/trac/science/trac3b012.pdf [accessed: 19 February 2013].
    • U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2004. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual. Washington, DC:U.S.EPA. Available: http://www.epa.gov/oswer/ riskassessment/ragsd/tara.htm [accessed: 20 April 2013].
    • U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. EPA/630/P-03/00F. DC: U.S.EPA. Available: http://www.epa.gov/cancerguidelines/ [accessed: 31 July 2013].
    • U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2007. U.S. Dermal exposure assessment: A summary of EPA approaches. 600/R-07/040F. Washington, DC:U.S.EPA. Available: http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/r ecordisplay.cfm?deid=183584 [accessed 20 March 2013].
    • U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2011. Exposure factors handbook. Washington, DC: U.S.EPA, Office of Research and Development. Available: http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/risk/recordisplay.cfm?deid=236252 [accessed 30 August 2013].
    • WHO (World Health Organization). 2011. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Fourth Edition. Geneva, Switzerland. Available: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241548151_eng.pdf [accessed 6 March 2013].
    • WHO (World Health Organization). 2007. Protection from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke. Policy recommendations. Geneva, Switzerland. Available: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/9789241563413_eng.pdf [accessed 17 September 2013].
    • WHO (World Health Organization). 2010. 2010 Global progress report on implementation of the WHO framework convention on tobacco control. Geneva, Switzerland. Available: http://www.who.int/ fctc/reporting/progress_report_final.pdf [accessed 5 May 2013].
    • Winickoff, J.P., Friebely, J., Tanski, S.E., Sherrod, C., Matt, G.E., Hovell, M.F., et al. 2009. Beliefs about the health effects of "Thirdhand" Smoke and home smoking bans. Pediatrics 123:E74- E79.
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects

Cite this article