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Benham, Jenny (2014)
Publisher: Djet Forlag
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
Subjects: P1, K1, D901
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    • 6. Downer, Leges, c. 12.3; R.R. Darlington & P. McGurk (ed.), The Chronicle of John of Worcester, 3 vols. (Oxford: 1995-1998), iii, 112.
    • 7. Downer, Leges, c. 93.1-36.
    • 8. Downer, Leges, c. 5.28b, 70.12b, 90.11-11a.
    • 9. Downer, Leges, c. 13.3, 13.6-7.
    • 10. Hudson, The Formation of the English Common Law, 56; Donahue, 'The Emergence of the Crime-Tort Distinction', 220-02.
    • 11. N. Vincent (ed.), Assize of Clarendon, Early English Laws project: http://www.earlyenglishlaws.ac.uk/laws/texts/ass-clar/view/#edition,/apparatus, c. 1 (Accessed 15.12.2013).
    • 12. N. Vincent (ed.), Assize of Northampton, Early English Laws project:
    • 17. For a discussion of some of the punishments in the early 12th century, see J. Hudson (ed.) The Oxford History of the Laws of England, volume II: 871-1216 (Oxford: 2012), 399-415.
    • 18. Assize of Northampton, c. 1.
    • 19. S. Stewart, 'Outlawry as an Instrument of Justice in the Thirteenth Century', in J.C. Appleby & P. Dalton (eds.), Outlaws in Medieval and Early Modern England: Crime, Government and Society c. 1066-c. 1600 (Farnham: 2009), 39.
    • 20. Hudson, The Oxford History of the Laws of England, 724-27; Stewart, 'Outlawry as an Instrument of Justice', 40, 48, 51.
    • 21. D.M. Stenton (ed.), Rolls of the Justices in Eyre for Yorkshire in the Year 3 Hen. III (1218-19), Selden Society, 56 (London: 1937), no. 553.
    • 22. F.W. Maitland (ed.), Pleas of the Crown for the County of Gloucester before the Abbot of Reading, 1221 (London: 1884), no. 327.
    • 23. B. Hanawalt, 'Justice without Judgement: Criminal Prosecution before Magna Carta', in J.S. Loengard (ed.), Magna Carta and the England of King John (Woodbridge: 2010), 120.
    • 24. Hudson, The Oxford History of the Laws of England, 740.
    • 25. C.A. Christensen et al. (ed.), Cnut VI's Ordinance on Homicide, in Diplomatarium Danicum. 1. raekke, 7 vols. (Copenhagen: 1957-1990), iv, no. 24, c. 1.
    • 26. J. Brøndum-Nielsen & P.J. Jørgensen (eds.), Skånske Lov, in Danmarks gamle landskabslove, vol. 1 (Copenhagen: 1933), c. 85.
    • 27. Cnut VI's Ordinance on Homicide, cc. 6-7; Skånske Lov, c. 87. Note that in the Law of Scania an additional offence, also regarded as gang crime, is the taking by force of a virgin or wife in a field or at home in a house, for which see Skånske Lov, c. 218.
    • 28. Cnut VI's Ordinance on Homicide, cc. 4, 6-7; Skånske Lov, c. 87-8.
    • 29. J. Brøndum-Nielsen (ed.), Valdemars Sjaellandske Lov. Danmarks gamle landskabslove 8 (Copenhagen: 1941), cc. 57, 63; E. Kroman (ed.), Eriks Sjaellandske Lov. Danmarks gamle landskabslove 8 (Copenhagen: 1941), Bk. II, cc. 14, 17, 20, 22; P. Skautrup (ed.), Jyske lov. Danmarks gamle landskabslove 2 (Copenhagen: 1933), Bk. III, c. 22.
    • 30. Cnut VI's Ordinance on Homicide, c. 2; Skånske Lov, c. 85.
    • 31. Skånske Lov, c. 151; Jyske Lov, Bk. II, c. 87
    • 32. Skånske Lov, c. 151; Valdemars Sjaellandske Lov, c. 87.
    • 33. Jyske Lov, Bk. II, c. 89.
    • 34. Jyske Lov, Bk. II, c. 89.
    • 35. Eriks Sjaellandske Lov, Bk. II, c. 15.
    • 36. Jyske Lov, Bk. III, c. 66.
    • 37. H. Vogt, The Function of Kinship in Medieval Nordic Legislation (Leiden: 2010), 127- 30; P. Andersen, Legal Procedure and Practice in Medieval Denmark (Leiden: 2011), 71-2.
    • 38. On the dates of Valdemar's Law of Zealand and Erik's Law of Zealand, see discussions in Vogt, The Function of Kinship, 64-71; Andersen, Legal Procedure, 77-8.
    • 39. Valdemars Sjaellandske Lov, c. 53.
    • 40. Valdemars Sjaellandske Lov, c. 50. This role of the assembly and kin was later given to the king, for which see Eriks Sjaellandske Lov, Bk. II, c. 9.
    • 41. Valdemars Sjaellandske Lov, c. 87.
    • 42. Jyske Lov, Bk. II, c. 12.
    • 43. Eriks Sjaellandske Lov, Bk. II, c. 5. On the word frithløs, see below.
    • 44. H. Vogt, 'Nye perspektiver på familierettens historie. Nordisk middelalder - Individ, familie, slaegt', in M.J. Jareborg & M. Kumlien (eds.), De lege: årsbok 2011 från juridiska fakulteten i Uppsala: Rätten och rättsfamiljer i ett föränderligt samhälle - rättshistoriskt och komparativt: Vänbok till Rolf Nygren (Uppsala: 2011), 259-261.
    • 45. S.M. Pons-Sanz, Norse-derived Vocabulary in Late Old English Texts. Wulfstan's Works, a Case Study (Odense: 2007), 80, 122.
    • 46. Pons-Sanz, Norse-derived Vocabulary, 80.
    • 47. Pons-Sanz, Norse-derived Vocabulary, 130. Some of this had already been noted by Steenstrup at the end of the 19th century. J.C.H.R. Steenstrup, Normannerne, 4 vols. (Copenhagen: 1876-1882; repr. 1972), iv, 252.
    • 48. G.E. Woodbine (ed.), Bracton On the Laws and Customs of England, 4 vols., trans. with revisions and notes by S.E. Thorne (Cambridge, MA: 1968-1977), ii, 354. The alliteration 'they deservedly perish without law who have refused to live according to law' has a curious similarity with reference to a frithløs man in Erik's Law of Zealand: 'then he shall always be without peace [frithløs] until he has redeemed his peace'. Eriks Sjaellandske Lov, Bk. III, c. 46.
    • 63. W. Stubbs (ed.), Chronica magistri Rogeri de Hovedene, 4 vols., Rolls Series, 51 (London: 1868-1871), iii, 36.
    • 64. E.F. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages (London: 1896), 4, 135; W. Sayers et al., 'The Early Symbolism of Tarring and Feathering', Mariner's Mirror 96:3 (2010), 317-36. For some of the historiography surrounding tarring and feathering in North America, see B. Levy, 'Tar and Feathers', The Journal of the Historical Society 11 (2011), 85-110; D. Grimsted, 'Rioting in Its Jacksonian Setting', American Historical Review 77 (1972); C.E. Prince, 'The Great “Riot Year”: Jacksonian Democracy and Patterns of Violence in 1834', Journal of the Early Republic 5 (1985), 1-19; A.E. Young, 'English Plebeian Culture and Eighteenth-Century American Radicalism', in J.R. Jacob & M.C. Jacob (eds.), The Origins of Anglo-American Radicalism (London: 1991), 184-212. For an example from Lucky Luke, see R. Goscinny, La Ville fantôme (Marcinelle: 1965).
    • 65. On the origin of the laws of Oléron and the Admiralty Black Book, see T. Twiss (ed.), The Black Book of the Admiralty, 4 vols., Rolls Series 55 (London: 1871-1876), i, lvilxxi; P. Studer, trans., Oak Book of Southampton, 2 vols. (Southampton: 1910-1911), ii, xxxv; T.J. Runyan, 'The Rolls of Oleron and the Admiralty Court in FourteenthCentury England', American Journal of Legal History 19 (1975), 96-99; E. Frankot, 'Medieval Maritime Law from Oléron to Wisby: Jurisdictions in the Law of the Sea', in J. Pan-Montojo & F. Pedersen (eds.), Communities in European History: Representations, Jurisdictions, Conflicts (Pisa: 2007), 159.
    • 66. For just a few examples of naval warfare during the Danish conquest of the Slavs in the late 12th century, see E. Christiansen (ed.), Saxo Grammaticus, Danorum Regum Heroumque Historia. Books X-XVI: the Text of the First Edition with Translation and Commentary, 3 vols. (Oxford: 1980-1981), ii, 616-21.
    • 67. For one example, see J. Benham, 'Wounding in the High Middle Ages: Law and Practice', in C. Warr & A. Kirkham (ed.), Wounds in the Middle Ages (Farnham: 2014), 241.
    • 68. Vogt makes the point that even across the Scandinavian laws, the heinous crimes are often different. Vogt, The Function of Kinship, 129-130.
    • 69. For instance, the recent work by Alice Taylor on Scotland shows that there are some interesting comparisons to be drawn on law and crime with this kingdom too. See A. Taylor, 'Crime without Punishment: Medieval Scottish Law in Comparative Perspective', Anglo-Norman Studies 35 (2013).
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