Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Omer, Huner Kamal
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
This study describes developments and in vitro characterisation of lipid microparticles prepared using spray-drying for drug delivery to the lung via dry powder inhalers. Bioadhesive formulations such as prochitosome or chitosome powders have been introduced to overcome the drawbacks of liposome instability and potentially provide significant increase in the residence time of drug in the lung. \ud Mannitol or lactose monohydrate (LMH) aqueous solutions were spray dried at inlet temperatures of 90, 130, 170 or 210ºC. Soy phosphatidylcholine and cholestrol (1:1 mole ratio) were used in all formulations. Cholesterol was added to increase vesicle membrane rigidity. Proliposomes containing salbutamol sulphate (SS) were prepared by incorporating various lipid:carrier (mannitol or LMH; 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10 w/w). Prochitosomes including SS or beclomethason dipropionate (BDP) were prepared by adding various chitosan glutamate:lipid ratios of 1:10, 2:10, 3:10 and 5:10 w/w. Chitosomes, including various cryoprotectants (mannitol, LMH, trehalose or sucrose), were prepared by including chitosan glutamate to liposomes generated from ethanol-based proliposomes in the ratio of 3:10 w/w chitosan to lipid. The spray-drying parameters for generation of dry powders were optimised by using an inlet temperature of 120ºC, outlet temperature of 73 ± 3°C, aspirator rate of 100%, suspension feed rate of 11%, and spray flow rate of 600 L/h using B-290 Buchi mini spray-dryer.\ud The production yields were 48.1±2.84%, 69.73±2.05%, 61.33±2.51% and 58.0±3.0% for mannitol and 50.66±3.51%, 68.0±2.0%, 73.66±1.52%, 59.0±2.64% for LMH at 90, 130, 170 or 210ºC, respectively. The size of the particles were smaller than 5 µm for both carriers at of 90 and 130 ºC, whilst larger than 5 µm at inlet temperatures of 170 and 210 ºC. Particles had smooth, spherical and smaller size at 90 and 130 ºC than inlet temperatures of 170 and 210 ºC. Mannitol kept its crystalline properties after spray-drying, whilst LMH changed to amorphous at all drying temperatures.\ud Mannitol-based proliposome particles were uniform, small and spherically shaped. In contrast, LMH-based proliposome particles were irregular and large. Entrapment efficiency of SS was higher for LMH-based proliposomes, however, fine particle fraction (FPF) was higher for proliposomes containing mannitol. Higher FPF was obtained for proliposome containing lipid to mannitol ratio of 1:6 (FF= 52.6%). Vesicles size decreased with increasing carrier ratio and the zeta potential was slightly negative for all formulations studied.\ud Prochitosomes were small, porous and spherically shaped particles. Higher FPF was achieved for prochitosome powders containing chitosan to lipid ratio of 3:10 and 5:10 for both SS (FPF = 58.12±2.86% and 70.25±2.61% respectively) and BDP (FPF = 61.89±9.04% and 61.56±3.13% respectively). Zeta potential and the fraction of mucin adsorbed on the vesicles increased upon increasing chitosan concentration. Vesicle size decreased with increasing chitosan concentration. Entrapment efficiency (EE) of the formulations containing BDP was higher than that for SS. Moreover, the drug EE was higher using chitosomes compared to liposomes.\ud LMH and trehalose-based liposome or chitosome particles were spherical with less tendency of agglomeration compared to mannitol and sucrose-based particles. Powders containing LMH, trehalose or sucrose were amorphous, whilst mannitol-based powder was crystalline. The FPF values were 14.39±1.81%, 32.29±0.15, 48.99±2.22% and 50.79±3.19% for mannitol, sucrose, LMH and trehalose-based liposome formulations, respectively. However, FPF% values were higher for chitosomes, being 23.48±3.38%, 33.89±0.66%, 54.88±1.85% and 55.9±2.74% for mannitol, sucrose, LMH and trehalose-based chitosomes, respectively. The EE of SS was increased upon coating liposome surface with chitosan regardless of cryoprotectant type. \ud In conclusion, the findings of this study have demonstrated the potential of lipid microparticles in pulmonary drug delivery and that prochitosomes or chitosomes may offer great potential for enhancing drug resident time in the lung.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Crommelin, D.J.A., van Bommel, E.M.G., 1984. Stability of liposomes on storage: freeze dried, frozen or as an aqueous dispersion. Pharm. Res. 1, 159-163.
    • Crompton, G.K., 1982. Problems patients have using pressurized aerosol inhalers. Eur. J. Respir. Dis. Suppl. 119, 101-104.
    • Crompton, G.K., 2004. How to achieve good compliance with inhaled asthma therapy. Respir. Med. 98 Suppl B, S35-40.
    • Crowe, J.H., Carpenter, J.F., Crowe, L.M., 1998. The role of vitrification in anhydrobiosis. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 60, 73-103.
    • Crowe, J.H., Crowe, L.M., 1988. Factors affecting the stability of dry liposomes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 939, 327-334.
    • Crowe, L.M., Reid, D.S., Crowe, J.H., 1996. Is trehalose special for preserving dry biomaterials? Biophys. J. 71, 2087-2093.
    • Crowe, L.M., Womersley, C., Crowe, J.H., Reid, D., Appel, L., Rudolph, A., 1986. Prevention of fusion and leakage in freeze-dried liposomes by carbohydrates. Biochim. Biophys. Acta BBA - Biomembr. 861, 131-140.
    • Dale, O., Brown, B.R., Jr, 1987. Clinical pharmacokinetics of the inhalational anaesthetics. Clin. Pharmacokinet. 12, 145-167.
    • Daniher, D.I., Zhu, J., 2008. Dry powder platform for pulmonary drug delivery. Particuology 6, 225-238.
    • Darquenne, C., Prisk, G.K., 2004. Aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract breathing air and 80:20 heliox. J. Aerosol Med. Off. J. Int. Soc. Aerosols Med. 17, 278-285.
    • Y., Kellaway, I.W., 2001. Nebulisation of rehydrated freeze-dried beclomethasone dipropionate liposomes. Int. J. Pharm. 215, 113-121.
    • Darwish, M.K., Elmeshad, A.N., 2009. Buccal mucoadhesive tablets of flurbiprofen: Characterization and optimization. Drug Discov. Ther. 3, 181-189.
    • Davis, 1999. Delivery of peptide and non-peptide drugs through the respiratory tract. Pharm. Sci. Technol. Today 2, 450-456.
    • Desai, T.R., Wong, J.P., Hancock, R.E.W., Finlay, W.H., 2002. A novel approach to the pulmonary delivery of liposomes in dry powder form to eliminate the deleterious effects of milling. J. Pharm. Sci. 91, 482-491.
    • Dhand, R., 2002. Nebulizers that use a vibrating mesh or plate with multiple apertures to generate aerosol. Respir. Care 47, 1406-1416; discussion 1416-1418.
    • Di Colo, G., Zambito, Y., Burgalassi, S., Nardini, I., Saettone, M.F., 2004. Effect of chitosan and of N-carboxymethylchitosan on intraocular penetration of topically applied ofloxacin. Int. J. Pharm. 273, 37-44.
    • Di Martino, P., Scoppa, M., Joiris, E., Palmieri, G.F., Andres, C., Pourcelot, Y., Martelli, S., 2001. The spray drying of acetazolamide as method to modify crystal properties and to improve compression behaviour. Int. J. Pharm. 213, 209-221.
    • Dierendonck, M., De Koker, S., De Rycke, R., Bogaert, P., Grooten, J., Vervaet, C., Remon, J.P., De Geest, B.G., 2011. Single-step formation of degradable intracellular biomolecule microreactors. ACS Nano 5, 6886-6893.
    • Dolinsky, A., Maletskaya, K., Snezhkin, Y., 2000. Fruit and vegetable powders production technology on the bases of spray and convective drying methods. Dry. Technol. 18, 747-758.
    • Dolinsky, A.A., 2001. High-temperature spray drying. Dry. Technol. 19, 785-806.
    • Dolovich, M.B., Ahrens, R.C., Hess, D.R., Anderson, P., Dhand, R., Rau, J.L., Smaldone, G.C., Guyatt, G., American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Asthma, Allergy, and Immunology, 2005. Device selection and outcomes of aerosol therapy: Evidence-based guidelines: American College of Chest Physicians/American College of Asthma, Allergy, and Immunology. Chest 127, 335-371.
    • Du plessis, J., Ramachandran, C., Weiner, N., Muller, D.G., 1996. The influence of lipid composition and lamellarity of liposomes on the physical stability of liposomes upon storage. Int. J. Pharm. 127, 273-278.
    • Duan, J., Vogt, F.G., Li, X., Hayes, D., Mansour, H.M., 2013. Design, characterization, and aerosolization of organic solution advanced spray-dried moxifloxacin and ofloxacin dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders for pulmonary inhalation aerosol delivery. Int. J. Nanomedicine 8, 3489-3505.
    • Dufour, P., Vuillemard, J.C., Laloy, E., Simard, R.E., 1996. Characterization of enzyme immobilization in liposomes prepared from proliposomes. J. Microencapsul. 13, 185-194.
    • Edwards, D.A., 1995. The macrotransport of aerosol particles in the lung: Aerosol deposition phenomena. J. Aerosol Sci. 26, 293-317.
    • Edwards, D.A., Ben-Jebria, A., Langer, R., 1998. Recent advances in pulmonary drug delivery using large, porous inhaled particles. J. Appl. Physiol. Bethesda Md 1985 85, 379-385.
    • Edwards, D.A., Caponetti, G., Hrkach, J.S., Lotan, J., Hanes, J., Ben-Jebria, A., Langer, R.S., 2005. Aerodynamically light particles for pulmonary drug delivery. US6942868 B2.
    • Elamin, A.A., Sebhatu, T., Ahlneck, C., 1995. The use of amorphous model substances to study mechanically activated materials in the solid state. Int. J. Pharm. 119, 25-36.
    • Elhissi, A., Taylor, K., Ahmed, W., 2011. Nanocarrier systems for drug delivery for the treatment of asthma: diposomes as model carrier systems. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
    • Elhissi, A.M.A., Ahmed, W., McCarthy, D., Taylor, K.M.G., 2012. A study of size, microscopic morphology, and dispersion mechanism of structures generated on hydration of proliposomes. J. Dispers. Sci. Technol. 33, 1121-1126.
    • Elhissi, A.M.A., Faizi, M., Naji, W.F., Gill, H.S., Taylor, K.M.G., 2007. Physical stability and aerosol properties of liposomes delivered using an air-jet nebulizer and a novel micropump device with large mesh apertures. Int. J. Pharm. 334, 62-70.
    • Elhissi, A.M.A., Karnam, K.K., Danesh-Azari, M.-R., Gill, H.S., Taylor, K.M.G., 2006. Formulations generated from ethanol-based proliposomes for delivery via medical nebulizers. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 58, 887-894.
    • Elkordy, A.A., Forbes, R.T., Barry, B.W., 2002. Integrity of crystalline lysozyme exceeds that of a spray-dried form. Int. J. Pharm. 247, 79-90.
    • Elkordy, A.A., Forbes, R.T., Barry, B.W., 2004. Stability of crystallised and spray-dried lysozyme. Int. J. Pharm. 278, 209-219.
    • Elkordy, A.A., Forbes, R.T., Barry, B.W., 2008. Study of protein conformational stability and integrity using calorimetry and FT-Raman spectroscopy correlated with enzymatic activity. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. Off. J. Eur. Fed. Pharm. Sci. 33, 177-190.
    • Embleton, J.K., 2000. Inhalation powders. WO2000033789 A2.
    • Eugene, R., Prabo, W., Craig, O., Bharati, V., Robert, C., 2010. Method development for the determination of the aerodynamic particle size distribution of inhaled atropine sulfate from the microDose dry powder inhaler by the next generation impactor. Presented at the Respiratory Drug Delivery, USA.
    • Farr, S.J., Kellaway, I.W., 1987. Assessing the potential of aerosol-generated liposomes from pressurised pack formulations. J. Controlled Release 5, 119-127.
    • Farr, S.J., Kellaway, I.W., Parry-Jones, D.R., Woolfrey, S.G., 1985. 99m-Technetium as a marker of liposomal deposition and clearance in the human lung. Int. J. Pharm. 26, 303-316.
    • Farr, S.J., Otulana, B.A., 2006. Pulmonary delivery of opioids as pain therapeutics. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58, 1076-1088.
    • Fernandes, Eaton, P., Nascimento, H., Gião, M.S., Ramos, O.S., Belo, L., Santos-Silva, A., Pintado, M.E., Malcata, F.X., 2010. Antioxidant activity of chitooligosaccharides upon two biological systems: Erythrocytes and bacteriophages. Carbohydr. Polym. 79, 1101-1106.
    • Ferron, G.A., Kerrebijn, K.F., Weber, J., 1976. Properties of aerosols produced with three nebulizers. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 114, 899-908.
    • Fiebrig, I., Harding, S.E., Rowe, A.J., Hyman, S.C., Davis, S.S., 1995. Transmission electron microscopy studies on pig gastric mucin and its interactions with chitosan. Carbohydr. Polym. 28, 239-244.
    • Filipović-Grcić, J., Ska-lBkaosnet, N., Jalsenjak, I., 2001. Mucoadhesive chitosancoated liposomes: characteristics and stability. J. Microencapsul. 18, 3-12.
    • Flament, M.P., Leterme, P., Gayot, A., 1999. Influence of the technological parameters of ultrasonic nebulisation on the nebulisation quality of alpha1 protease inhibitor (alpha1PI). Int. J. Pharm. 189, 197-204.
    • Frijlink, H.W., De Boer, A.H., 2004. Dry powder inhalers for pulmonary drug delivery. Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 1, 67-86.
    • Gabizon, A., Price, D.C., Huberty, J., Bresalier, R.S., Papahadjopoulos, D., 1990. Effect of liposome composition and other factors on the targeting of liposomes to experimental tumors: biodistribution and imaging studies. Cancer Res. 50, 6371-6378.
    • Gagnadoux, F., Hureaux, J., Vecellio, L., Urban, T., Le Pape, A., Valo, I., Montharu, J., Leblond, V., Boisdron-Celle, M., Lerondel, S., Majoral, C., Diot, P., Racineux, J.L., Lemarie, E., 2008. Aerosolized chemotherapy. J. Aerosol Med. Pulm. Drug Deliv. 21, 61-69.
    • Galovic Rengel, R., Barisic, K., Pavelic, Z., Zanic Grubisic, T., Cepelak, I., FilipovicGrcic, J., 2002. High efficiency entrapment of superoxide dismutase into mucoadhesive chitosan-coated liposomes. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. Off. J. Eur. Fed. Pharm. Sci. 15.
    • Gaspar, M.M., Bakowsky, U., Ehrhardt, C., 2008. Inhaled Liposomes-Current Strategies and Future Challenges. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 4, 245-257.
    • Ghazanfari, T., Elhissi, A.M.A., Ding, Z., Taylor, K.M.G., 2007. The influence of fluid physicochemical properties on vibrating-mesh nebulization. Int. J. Pharm. 339, 103-111.
    • Gilani, K., Najafabadi, A.R., Barghi, M., Rafiee-Tehrani, M., 2005. The effect of water to ethanol feed ratio on physical properties and aerosolization behavior of spray dried cromolyn sodium particles. J. Pharm. Sci. 94, 1048-1059.
    • Grabovac, V., Guggi, D., Bernkop-Schnürch, A., 2005. Comparison of the mucoadhesive properties of various polymers. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57, 1713- 1723.
    • Gradauer, K., Vonach, C., Leitinger, G., Kolb, D., Fröhlich, E., Roblegg, E., BernkopSchnürch, A., Prassl, R., 2012. Chemical coupling of thiolated chitosan to preformed liposomes improves mucoadhesive properties. Int. J. Nanomedicine 7, 2523-2534.
    • Grainger, C.I., Alcock, R., Gard, T.G., Quirk, A.V., van Amerongen, G., de Swart, R.L., Hardy, J.G., 2004. Administration of an insulin powder to the lungs of cynomolgus monkeys using a Penn Century insufflator. Int. J. Pharm. 269, 523- 527.
    • Gregoriadis, G., 1993. Liposome technology. Volume 1, Volume 1,. CRC Press, Boca Raton [etc.].
    • Gregoriadis, G., Florence, A.T., 1993. Liposomes in drug delivery. Clinical, diagnostic and ophthalmic potential. Drugs 45, 15-28.
    • Guo, J., Ping, Q., Jiang, G., Huang, L., Tong, Y., 2003. Chitosan-coated liposomes: characterization and interaction with leuprolide. Int. J. Pharm. 260, 167-173.
    • Gupta, V., Barupal, A.K., Ramteke, S., 2008. Formulation development and in vitro characterization of proliposomes for topical delivery of aceclofenac. Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 70, 768-775.
    • Haj-Ahmad, R.R., Elkordy, A.A., Chaw, C.S., Moore, A., 2013. Compare and contrast the effects of surfactants (PluronicF-127 and CremophorEL) and sugars- (β cyclodextrin and inulin) on properties of spray dried and crystallised lysozyme. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. Off. J. Eur. Fed. Pharm. Sci. 49, 519-534.
    • Hallworth, G.W., Westmoreland, D.G., 1987. The twin impinger: a simple device for assessing the delivery of drugs from metered dose pressurized aerosol inhalers. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 39, 966-972.
    • Hamman, J.H., Schultz, C.M., Kotzé, A.F., 2003. N-trimethyl chitosan chloride: optimum degree of quaternization for drug absorption enhancement across epithelial cells. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 29, 161-172. doi:10.1081/DDC120016724
    • Hancock, B.C., Shamblin, S.L., Zografi, G., 1995. Molecular mobility of amorphous pharmaceutical solids below their glass transition temperatures. Pharm. Res. 12, 799-806.
    • Hancock, B.C., Zografi, G., 1997. Characteristics and significance of the amorphous state in pharmaceutical systems. J. Pharm. Sci. 86, 1-12.
    • Harashima, H., Sakata, K., Funato, K., Kiwada, H., 1994. Enhanced hepatic uptake of liposomes through complement activation depending on the size of liposomes. Pharm. Res. 11, 402-406.
    • Harjunen, P., Lehto, V.-P., Martimo, K., Suihko, E., Lankinen, T., Paronen, P., Järvinen, K., 2002. Lactose modifications enhance its drug performance in the novel multiple dose Taifun DPI. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. Off. J. Eur. Fed. Pharm. Sci. 16, 313-321.
    • Harjunen, P., 2004. Modification by spray drying of the physicochemical properties of lactose particles used as carriers in a dry powder inhaler (PhD thesis), University of Kuopio, Finland.
    • He, P., Davis, S.S., Illum, L., 1998. In vitro evaluation of the mucoadhesive properties of chitosan microspheres. Int. J. Pharm. 166, 75-88.
    • Henriksen, I., Våagen, S.R., Sande, S.A., Smistad, G., Karlsen, J., 1997. Interactions between liposomes and chitosan II: Effect of selected parameters on aggregation and leakage. Int. J. Pharm. 146, 193-203.
    • Hess, D.R., 2000. Nebulizers: principles and performance. Respir. Care 45, 609-622.
    • Hess, D.R., MacIntyre, N.R., Mishoe, S.C., Galvin, W.F., 2011. Respiratory Care: Principles and Practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
    • Hickey, A.J., Mansour, H.M., 2008. Formulation challenges of powders for the delivery of small molecular weight molecules as aerosols, modified-release drug delivery technology, Informa healthcare [WWW Document]. URL http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/9781420045260.043 (accessed 12.25.13).
    • Hillery, A.M., Lloyd, Swarbrick, 2001. Drug delivery and targeting for pharmacists and pharmaceutical scientists. Taylor & Francis,, London; New York.
    • Hincha, D.K., Hagemann, M., 2004. Stabilization of model membranes during drying by compatible solutes involved in the stress tolerance of plants and microorganisms. Biochem. J. 383, 277-283.
    • Hinds, W.C., 1999. Aerosol technology properties, behavior, and measurement of airborne particles. Wiley, New York.
    • Hinrichs, W.L.J., Sanders, N.N., De Smedt, S.C., Demeester, J., Frijlink, H.W., 2005. Inulin is a promising cryo- and lyoprotectant for PEGylated lipoplexes. J. Control. Release Off. J. Control. Release Soc. 103, 465-479.
    • Hirano, S., 1996. Chitin biotechnology applications. Biotechnol. Annu. Rev. 2, 237- 258.
    • Hsu, C.C., Wu, S.S., Walsh, A.J., 1996. The preparation of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease powder: omparative studies of spray-drying versus lyophilization and application of microwave drying. Presented at the International drying conferences 10th, Germany, pp. 1229-1236.
    • Hua, Z.-Z., Li, B.-G., Liu, Z.-J., Sun, D.-W., 2003. Freeze-Drying of Liposomes with Cryoprotectants and Its Effect on Retention Rate of Encapsulated Ftorafur and Vitamin A. Dry. Technol. 21, 1491-1505.
    • Huang, W.-H., Yang, Z.-J., Wu, H., Wong, Y.-F., Zhao, Z.-Z., Liu, L., 2010. Development of liposomal salbutamol sulfate dry powder inhaler formulation. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 33, 512-517.
    • Huang, Y., Leobandung, W., Foss, A., Peppas, N.A., 2000. Molecular aspects of mucoand bioadhesion: tethered structures and site-specific surfaces. J. Control. Release Off. J. Control. Release Soc. 65, 63-71.
    • Hupfeld, S., Holsaeter, A.M., Skar, M., Frantzen, C.B., Brandl, M., 2006. Liposome size analysis by dynamic/static light scattering upon size exclusion-/field flowfractionation. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 3025-3031.
    • Illum, L., Farraj, N.F., Davis, S.S., 1994. Chitosan as a novel nasal delivery system for peptide drugs. Pharm. Res. 11, 1186-1189.
    • Imtiaz-Ul-Islam, M., Langrish, T.A.G., 2009. Comparing the crystallization of sucrose and lactose in spray dryers. Food Bioprod. Process. 87, 87-95.
    • Ingvarsson, P.T., Schmidt, S.T., Christensen, D., Larsen, N.B., Hinrichs, W.L.J., Andersen, P., Rantanen, J., Nielsen, H.M., Yang, M., Foged, C., 2013. Designing CAF-adjuvanted dry powder vaccines: spray drying preserves the adjuvant activity of CAF01. J. Control. Release Off. J. Control. Release Soc. 167, 256-264.
    • Irngartinger, M., Camuglia, V., Damm, M., Goede, J., Frijlink, H.W., 2004. Pulmonary delivery of therapeutic peptides via dry powder inhalation: effects of micronisation and manufacturing. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. Off. J. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Für Pharm. Verfahrenstechnik EV 58, 7-14.
    • Ishikawa, H., Shimoda, Y., Matsumoto, K., 2004. Preparation and characterization of liposomal microencapsulated poly-γ-glutamic acid for prevention of Caphosphate precipitation under intestinal environment. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 10, 227-231.
    • Jesorka, A., Orwar, O., 2008. Liposomes: technologies and analytical applications. Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. Palo Alto Calif 1, 801-832. doi:10.1146/annurev.anchem.1.031207.112747
    • Jiménez-castellanos, M.R., Zia, H., Rhodes, C.T., 1993. Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery Systems. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 19, 143-194.
    • Joshi, M., Misra, A.N., 2001. Pulmonary disposition of budesonide from liposomal dry powder inhaler. Methods Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol. 23, 531-536.
    • Jovanović, N., Bouchard, A., Hofland, G.W., Wi-tJk.,amCpr,ommGe.lin, D.J.A., Jiskoot, W., 2006. Distinct effects of sucrose and trehalose on protein stability during supercritical fluid drying and freeze-drying. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. Off. J. Eur. Fed. Pharm. Sci. 27, 336-345.
    • Justo, O.R., Moraes, A.M., 2003. Incorporation of antibiotics in liposomes designed for tuberculosis therapy by inhalation. Drug Deliv. 10, 201-207.
    • P.R., Vanić, Z., Pepić, I.-,BasSnkeat,lkNo., 2011. Mucoadhesive liposomal delivery systems: the choice of coating material. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 37, 482-488.
    • Kato, Y., Onishi, H., Machida, Y., 2003. Application of chitin and chitosan derivatives in the pharmaceutical field. Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 4, 303-309.
    • Kawashima, Y., Serigano, T., Hino, T., Yamamoto, H., Takeuchi, H., 1998. Effect of surface morphology of carrier lactose on dry powder inhalation property of pranlukast hydrate. Int. J. Pharm. 172, 179-188.
    • Kellaway, I.W., Farr, S.J., 1990. Liposomes as drug delivery systems to the lung. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 5, 149-161.
    • Keller, M., Rudi, M.-W., 2000. Dry powder for inhalation. WO0028979 (A1).
    • Kendrick, A.H., Smith, E.C., Wilson, R.S., 1997. Selecting and using nebuliser equipment. Thorax 52, S92-S101.
    • Kensil, C.R., Dennis, E.A., 1981. Alkaline hydrolysis of phospholipids in model membranes and the dependence on their state of aggregation. Biochemistry (Mosc.) 20, 6079-6085.
    • Kim, C.K., Chung, H.S., Lee, M.K., Choi, L.N., Kim, M.H., 1999. Development of dried liposomes containing beta-galactosidase for the digestion of lactose in milk. Int. J. Pharm. 183, 185-193.
    • Kim, H.-J., Lee, C.-M., Lee, Y.-B., Lee, K.-Y., 2005. Preparation and mucoadhesive test of CSA-loaded liposomes with different characteristics for the intestinal lymphatic delivery. Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. 10, 516-521.
    • Kim, J.C., Kim, J.D., 2001. Preparation by spray drying of amphotericin Bphospholipid composite particles and their anticellular activity. Drug Deliv. 8, 143-147.
    • K., Kim, C., Byun, Y., 2001. Preparation Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol langmuir−blodgett suppresses protein adsorption. Langmuir 17, 5066-5070.
    • Kleinstreuer, C., Zhang, Z., Donohue, J.F., 2008. Targeted drug-aerosol delivery in the human respiratory system. Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 10, 195-220. doi:10.1146/annurev.bioeng.10.061807.160544
    • Kou, X., Chan, L.W., Steckel, H., Heng, P.W.S., 2012. Physico-chemical aspects of lactose for inhalation. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 64, 220-232.
    • Kradjan, W.A., Lakshminarayan, S., 1985. Efficiency of air compressor-driven nebulizers. Chest 87, 512-516.
    • Kukuchi, H., Yamauchi, H., Hirota, S., 1991. A Spray-drying method for mass production of liposomes. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 39, 1522-1527.
    • Kumar, M.N.V.R., Muzzarelli, R.A.A., Muzzarelli, C., Sashiwa, H., Domb, A.J., 2004. Chitosan chemistry and pharmaceutical perspectives. Chem. Rev. 104, 6017- 6084.
    • Kundawala, A.J., 2011. Influence of formulation components on aerosolization properties of isoniazid loaded chitosan microspheres. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Drug Res. 3(4), 297-302.
    • Labiris, N.R., Dolovich, M.B., 2003. Pulmonary drug delivery. Part II: the role of inhalant delivery devices and drug formulations in therapeutic effectiveness of aerosolized medications. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 56, 600-612.
    • Langer, R.S., Peppas, N.A., 1981. Present and future applications of biomaterials in controlled drug delivery systems. Biomaterials 2, 201-214.
    • Laouini, A., Jaafar-Maalej, C., Limayem-Blouza, I., Sfar, S., Charcosset, C., Fessi, H., 2012. Preparation, characterization and applications of liposomes: state of the art. J. Colloid Sci. Biotechnol. 1, 147-168.
    • Larhrib, H., Martin, G.P., Marriott, C., Prime, D., 2003. The influence of carrier and drug morphology on drug delivery from dry powder formulations. Int. J. Pharm. 257, 283-296.
    • Larhrib, H., Zeng, X.M., Martin, G.P., Marriott, C., Pritchard, J., 1999. The use of different grades of lactose as a carrier for aerosolised salbutamol sulphate. Int. J. Pharm. 191, 1-14.
    • Lasic, D.D., 1988. The mechanism of vesicle formation. Biochem. J. 256, 1-11.
    • Laube, B.L., 2005. The expanding role of aerosols in systemic drug delivery, gene therapy, and vaccination. Respir. Care 50.
    • Lauten, E.H., VerBerkmoes, J., Choi, J., Jin, R., Edwards, D.A., Loscalzo, J., Zhang, Y.-Y., 2010. Nanoglycan complex formulation extends VEGF retention time in the lung. Biomacromolecules 11, 1863-1872.
    • Law, M., 2000. Plant sterol and stanol margarines and health. BMJ 320, 861-864.
    • Lawaczeck, R., Kainosho, M., Chan, S.I., 1976. The formation and annealing of structural defects in lipid bilayer vesicles. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 443, 313- 330.
    • Lazar, M., Brawn, A., Smith, G., Wong, F., Linquist, F., 1956. Experimental production of tomato powder by spray drying. Food Technol 11, 129-134.
    • Lee, J.W., Park, J.H., Robinson, J.R., 2000. Bioadhesive-based dosage forms: the next generation. J. Pharm. Sci. 89, 850-866.
    • Lee, S.L., Adams, W.P., Li, B.V., Conner, D.P., Chowdhury, B.A., Yu, L.X., 2009. In vitro considerations to support bioequivalence of locally acting drugs in dry powder inhalers for lung diseases. AAPS J. 11, 414-423.
    • Lehr, C.-M., Bouwstra, J.A., Schacht, E.H., Junginger, H.E., 1992. In vitro evaluation of mucoadhesive properties of chitosan and some other natural polymers. Int. J. Pharm. 78, 43-48.
    • Li, H.-Y., Birchall, J., 2006. Chitosan-modified dry powder formulations for pulmonary gene delivery. Pharm. Res. 23, 941-950.
    • Li, N., Zhuang, C., Wang, M., Sun, X., Nie, S., Pan, W., 2009. Liposome coated with low molecular weight chitosan and its potential use in ocular drug delivery. Int. J. Pharm. 379, 131-138.
    • Liu, N., Park, H.-J., 2010. Factors effect on the loading efficiency of Vitamin C loaded chitosan-coated nanoliposomes. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 76, 16-19.
    • Lo, Y., Tsai, J., Kuo, J., 2004. Liposomes and disaccharides as carriers in spray-dried powder formulations of superoxide dismutase. J. Control. Release Off. J. Control. Release Soc. 94, 259-272.
    • Loffert, D.T., Ikle, D., Nelson, H.S., 1994. A comparison of commercial jet nebulizers. Chest 106, 1788-1792.
    • Lu, D., Hickey, A.J., 2005. Liposomal dry powders as aerosols for pulmonary delivery of proteins. AAPS PharmSciTech 6, E641-648.
    • Lueßen, H.L., Lehr, C.-M., Rentel, C.-O., Noach, A.B.J., de Boer, A.G., Verhoef, J.C., Junginger, H.E., 1994. Bioadhesive polymers for the peroral delivery of peptide drugs. J. Controlled Release 29, 329-338.
    • M. I.U. Islam, T.A.G.L., 2010. An investigation into lactose crystallization under high temperature conditions during spray drying. Food Res. Int. 43, 46-56.
    • M'Baye, G., Mely, Y., Duportail, G., Klymchenko, A.S., 2008. Liquid phases of lipid bilayers: fluorescent probes reveal close fluidity but different hydration. Biophys. J. 95, 1217-1225.
    • Ma, L., Ramachandran, C., Weiner, N.D., 1991. Partitioning of an homologous series of alkyl p-aminobenzoates into multilamellar liposomes: effect of liposome composition. Int. J. Pharm. 70, 209-218.
    • Maa, Y.F., Costantino, H.R., Nguyen, P.A., Hsu, C.C., 1997. The effect of operating and formulation variables on the morphology of spray-dried protein particles. Pharm. Dev. Technol. 2, 213-223.
    • Maa, Y.F., Nguyen, P.A., Sit, K., Hsu, C.C., 1998. Spray-drying performance of a bench-top spray dryer for protein aerosol powder preparation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 60, 301-309.
    • Maa, Y.F., Prestrelski, S.J., 2000. Biopharmaceutical powders: particle formation and formulation considerations. Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol. 1, 283-302.
    • Maas, S., Schaldach, G., Littringer, E., Mescher, A., Griesser, U., Braun, D., Walzel, P., Urbanetz, N., 2011. The impact of spray drying outlet temperature on the particle morphology of mannitol. Powder Technol. 213, 27-35.
    • Maherani, B., Arab-tehrany, E., Kheirolomoom, A., Reshetov, V., Stebe, M.J., Linder, M., 2012. Optimization and characterization of liposome formulation by mixture design. The Analyst 137, 773-786.
    • Makhlof, A., Werle, M., Tozuka, Y., Takeuchi, H., 2010. Nanoparticles of glycol chitosan and its thiolated derivative significantly improved the pulmonary delivery of calcitonin. Int. J. Pharm. 397, 92-95.
    • Malvern-instruments, 2004. Zetasizer nano series user manual [WWW Document]. www.malvern.com. URL (accessed 6.14.12).
    • Malvern-instruments, 2012. Laser diffraction particle sizing [WWW www.malvern.com. URL (accessed 6.14.12).
    • Manca, M.L., Manconi, M., Valenti, D., Lai, F., Loy, G., Matricardi, P., Fadda, A.M., 2012. Liposomes coated with chitosan-xanthan gum (chitosomes) as potential carriers for pulmonary delivery of rifampicin. J. Pharm. Sci. 101, 566-575.
    • Manconi, M., Mura, S., Manca, M.L., Fadda, A.M., Dolz, M., Hernandez, M.J., Casanovas, A., Díez-Sales, O., 2010. Chitosomes as drug delivery systems for C-phycocyanin: preparation and characterization. Int. J. Pharm. 392, 92-100.
    • Mao, S., Bakowsky, U., Jintapattanakit, A., Kissel, T., 2006. Self-assembled polyelectrolyte nanocomplexes between chitosan derivatives and insulin. J. Pharm. Sci. 95, 1035-1048.
    • Marple, V.A., Olson, B.A., Santhanakrishnan, K., Mitchell, J.P., Murray, S.C., HudsonCurtis, B.L., 2003a. Next generation pharmaceutical impactor (a new impactor for pharmaceutical inhaler testing). Part II: Archival calibration. J. Aerosol Med. Off. J. Int. Soc. Aerosols Med. 16, 301-324.
    • Marple, V.A., Roberts, D.L., Romay, F.J., Miller, N.C., Truman, K.G., Van Oort, M., Olsson, B., Holroyd, M.J., Mitchell, J.P., Hochrainer, D., 2003b. Next generation pharmaceutical impactor (a new impactor for pharmaceutical inhaler testing). Part I: Design. J. Aerosol Med. Off. J. Int. Soc. Aerosols Med. 16, 283- 299.
    • Marsh, D., Watts, A., Knowles, P.F., 1976. Evidence for phase boundary lipid. Permeability of Tempo-choline into dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles at the phase transition. Biochemistry (Mosc.) 15, 3570-3578.
    • Martin A. Braun, R.O., 1996. Influence of excipients and storage humidity on the deposition of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) in the Twin Impinger. Int. J. Pharm. 135, 53-62.
    • Maury, M., Murphy, K., Kumar, S., Shi, L., Lee, G., 2005. Effects of process variables on the powder yield of spray-dried trehalose on a laboratory spray-dryer. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 59, 565-573.
    • Mc Callion, O.N.., Taylor, K.M.G., Thomas, M., Taylor, A.J., 1996. The influence of surface tension on aerosols produced by medical nebulisers. Int. J. Pharm. 129, 123-136.
    • Meenach, S.A., Vogt, F.G., Anderson, K.W., Hilt, J.Z., McGarry, R.C., Mansour, H.M., 2013. Design, physicochemical characterization, and optimization of organic solution advanced spray-dried inhalable dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine poly(ethylene glycol) (DPPE-PEG) microparticles and nanoparticles for targeted respiratory nanomedicine delivery as dry powder inhalation aerosols. Int. J. Nanomedicine 8, 275-293.
    • Meisner, D., Pringle, J., Mezei, M., 1989. Liposomal pulmonary drug delivery. I. In vivo disposition of atropine base in solution and liposomal form following endotracheal instillation to the rabbit lung. J. Microencapsul. 6, 379-387.
    • Melanie, B.B., Knight, V., Waldrep, J.C., 1999. High dose liposomal aerosol formulations containing cyclosporin A or budesonide. US5958378 A.
    • Mertins, O., Dimova, R., 2011. Binding of chitosan to phospholipid vesicles studied with isothermal titration calorimetry. Langmuir ACS J. Surf. Colloids 27, 5506- 5515.
    • Minne, A., Louahed, J., Mehauden, S., Baras, B., Renauld, J.-C., Vanbever, R., 2007. The delivery site of a monovalent influenza vaccine within the respiratory tract impacts on the immune response RID C-4088-2008. Immunology 122, 316-325.
    • Molina, F.S.R., 1974. Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes - chlorine atom catalyzed destruction of ozone. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 55, 491-491.
    • Muers, M.F., 1997. Overview of nebuliser treatment. Thorax 52, S25-S30.
    • Muramatsu, M., Kanada, K., Nishida, A., Ouchi, K., Saito, N., Yoshida, M., Shimoaka, A., Ozeki, T., Yuasa, H., Kanaya, Y., 2000. Application of Carbopol to controlled release preparations I. Carbopol as a novel coating material. Int. J. Pharm. 199, 77-83.
    • Naikwade, S.R., Bajaj, A.N., Gurav, P., Gatne, M.M., Singh Soni, P., 2009. Development of budesonide microparticles using spray-drying technology for pulmonary administration: design, characterization, in vitro evaluation, and in vivo efficacy study. AAPS PharmSciTech 10, 993-1012.
    • Naini V., Byron PR, Phillips EM., 1998. Physicochemical stability of crystalline sugars and their spray-dried forms: dependence upon relative humidity and suitability for use in powder inhalers. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 24, 895-909.
    • Nastruzzi, C., 2004. Lipospheres in drug targets and delivery: Approaches, methods, and applications. CRC Press.
    • Nerbrink, O., Dahlbäck, M., Hansson, H.C., 1994. Why do medical nebulizers differ in their output and particle size characteristics? J. Aerosol Med. Off. J. Int. Soc. Aerosols Med. 7, 259-276.
    • New, R.R.C., 1990. Liposomes: a practical approach. IRL Press at Oxford University Press.
    • Newman, S.P., 2005. Principles of metered-dose inhaler design. Respir. Care 50, 1177- 1190.
    • Newman, S.P., Pavia, D., Garland, N., Clarke, S.W., 1982. Effects of various inhalation modes on the deposition of radioactive pressurized aerosols. Eur. J. Respir. Dis. Suppl. 119, 57-65.
    • Newman, S.P., Pavia, D., Morén, F., Sheahan, N.F., Clarke, S.W., 1981. Deposition of pressurised aerosols in the human respiratory tract. Thorax 36, 52-55.
    • Nielsen, E.J.B., Nielsen, J.M., Becker, D., Karlas, A., Prakash, H., Glud, S.Z., Merrison, J., Besenbacher, F., Meyer, T.F., Kjems, J., Howard, K.A., 2010. Pulmonary gene silencing in transgenic EGFP mice using aerosolised chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles. Pharm. Res. 27, 2520-2527.
    • Ning, M.-Y., Guo, Y.-Z., Pan, H.-Z., Yu, H.-M., Gu, Z.-W., 2005. Preparation and evaluation of proliposomes containing clotrimazole. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 53, 620-624.
    • Noakes, T., 2002. Medical aerosol propellants. J. Fluor. Chem. 118, 35-45.
    • Nounou, M.M., El-Khordagui, L., Khalafallah, N., Khalil, S., 2005. Influence of different sugar cryoprotectants on the stability and physico-chemical Oliveira, B.F., Santana, M.H.A., Ré, M.I., 2005. Spray-dried chitosan microspheres cross-linked with d, l-glyceraldehyde as a potential drug delivery system: preparation and characterization. Braz. J. Chem. Eng. 22, 353-360.
    • Ozaki, K., Hayashi, M., 1996. Cryoprotective effects of cycloinulohexaose on freezing and freeze-drying of liposomes. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 44, 2116-2120.
    • Ozmen, L., Langrish, T.A.G., 2003. An experimental investigation of the wall deposition of milk powder in a pilot-scale spray dryer. Dry. Technol. 21, 1253- 1272.
    • Paternostre, M.T., Roux, M., Rigaud, J.L., 1988. Mechanisms of membrane protein insertion into liposomes during reconstitution procedures involving the use of detergents. 1. Solubilization of large unilamellar liposomes (prepared by reverse-phase evaporation) by Triton X-100, octyl glucoside, and sodium cholate. Biochemistry (Mosc.) 27, 2668-2677.
    • Patton, J.S., Byron, P.R., 2007. Inhaling medicines: delivering drugs to the body through the lungs. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 6, 67-74.
    • Pavia, D., Thomson, M.L., Clarke, S.W., Shannon, H.S., 1977. Effect of lung function and mode of inhalation on penetration of aerosol into the human lung. Thorax 32, 194-197.
    • Pavinatto, F., dos Santos Jr., D.S., Oliverira Jr., O.N., 2005. Interaction between cholesterol and chitosan in Langmuir monolayers. Polímeros 15, 91-94.
    • Payne, N.I., Browning, I., Hynes, C.A., 1986a. Characterization of proliposomes. J. Pharm. Sci. 75, 330-333.
    • Payne, N.I., Timmins, P., Ambrose, C.V., Ward, M.D., Ridgway, F., 1986b. Proliposomes: a novel solution to an old problem. J. Pharm. Sci. 75, 325-329.
    • Perrett, S., Golding, M., Williams, W.P., 1991. A simple method for the preparation of liposomes for pharmaceutical applications: characterization of the liposomes. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 43, 154-161.
    • Perugini, P., Genta, I., Pavanetto, F., Conti, B., Scalia, S., Baruffini, A., 2000. Study on glycolic acid delivery by liposomes and microspheres. Int. J. Pharm. 196, 51-61.
    • Phetdee, M., Polnok, A., Viyoch, J., 2008. Development of chitosan-coated liposomes for sustained delivery of tamarind fruit pulp's extract to the skin. Int. Sci. 30, 285-295.
    • Phisut, N., 2012. Spray drying technique of fruit juice powder: some factors influencing the properties of product. Int. Food Res. J. 19, 1297-1306.
    • Pia Fäldt, B.B., 1994. The surface composition of spray-dried protein-lactose powders. Colloids Surf. Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 90, 183-190.
    • Pikal, M.J., Lukes, A.L., Lang, J.E., Gaines, K., 1978. Quantitative crystallinity determinations for beta-lactam antibiotics by solution calorimetry: correlations with stability. J. Pharm. Sci. 67, 767-773.
    • Pilcer, G., Amighi, K., 2010. Formulation strategy and use of excipients in pulmonary drug delivery. Int. J. Pharm. 392, 1-19.
    • Pilcer, G., Sebti, T., Amighi, K., 2006. Formulation and characterization of lipid-coated tobramycin particles for dry powder inhalation. Pharm. Res. 23, 931-940.
    • Pilcer, G., Wauthoz, N., Amighi, K., 2012. Lactose characteristics and the generation of the aerosol. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 64, 233-256.
    • Písecký, J., 1997. Handbook of milk powder manufacture. Niro A/S.
    • Podczeck, F., 1998. The relationship between physical properties of lactose monohydrate and the aerodynamic behaviour of adhered drug particles. Int. J. Pharm. 160, 119-130.
    • Portero, A., Remuñán-López, C., Nielsen, H.M., 2002. The potential of chitosan in enhancing peptide and protein absorption across the TR146 cell culture modelan in vitro model of the buccal epithelium. Pharm. Res. 19, 169-174.
    • Pramod K. Gupta, A.J.H., 1991. Contemporary approaches in aerosolized drug delivery to the lung. J. Controlled Release 127-147.
    • Prime, D., Atkins, P., Slater, A., Sumby, B., 1997. Review of dry powder inhalers. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 26, 51-58.
    • Pritchard, J., 2005. The future of metered-dose inhalers [WWW Document]. Pharm. Technol. Eur. URL http://www.pharmtech.com/pharmtech/Analytical/TheFuture-of-Metered-Dose-Inhalers/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/176027 (accessed 1.2.14).
    • Reusch, W., 1999. Virtual text of organic chemistry [WWW Document]. URL http://www.cem.msu.edu/~reusch/vtxtindex.htm (accessed 1.3.14).
    • G m-Sezerranillos, I., Mi Iribarnegaray, E., 2004.
    • study. Langmuir 20, 928-933.
    • Robinson, J.R., Mlynek, G.M., 1995. Bioadhesive and phase-change polymers for ocular drug delivery. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 16, 45-50.
    • Rojanarat, W., Changsan, N., Tawithong, E., Pinsuwan, S., Chan, H.-K., Srichana, T., 2011. Isoniazid proliposome powders for inhalation-preparation, characterization and cell culture studies. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, 4414-4434.
    • Rojanarat, W., Nakpheng, T., Thawithong, E., Yanyium, N., Srichana, T., 2012a. Inhaled pyrazinamide proliposome for targeting alveolar macrophages. Drug Deliv. 19, 334-345.
    • Rojanarat, W., Nakpheng, T., Thawithong, E., Yanyium, N., Srichana, T., 2012b. Levofloxacin-proliposomes: opportunities for use in lung tuberculosis. Pharmaceutics 4, 385-412.
    • Roos, Y., 1993. Melting and glass transitions of low molecular weight carbohydrates. Carbohydr. Res. 238, 39-48.
    • Roos, Y., Karel, M., 1991. Plasticizing effect of water on thermal behavior and crystallization of amorphous food models. J. Food Sci. 56, 38-43.
    • Rubin, B.K., 2010. Air and soul: the science and application of aerosol therapy. Respir. Care 55, 911-921.
    • Rubin, B.K., Durotoye, L., 2004. How do patients determine that their metered-dose inhaler is empty? Chest 126, 1134-1137.
    • Rytting, E., Nguyen, J., Wang, X., Kissel, T., 2008. Biodegradable polymeric nanocarriers for pulmonary drug delivery. Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 5, 629-639.
    • Saleki-Gerhardt, A., Ahlneck, C., Zografi, G., 1994. Assessment of disorder in crystalline solids. Int. J. Pharm. 101, 237-247.
    • Schreier, H., Gonzalez-Rothi, R.J., Stecenko, A.A., 1993. Pulmonary delivery of liposomes. J. Controlled Release 24, 209-223.
    • Schulz, H., 1998. Mechanisms and factors affecting intrapulmonary particle deposition: implications for efficient inhalation therapies Holger Schulz. Pharm. Sci. Technol. Today 1, 326-344.
    • Sebhatu, T., Angberg, M., Ahlneck, C., 1994. Assessment of the degree of disorder in crystalline solids by isothermal microcalorimetry. Int. J. Pharm. 104, 135-144. S., Kremer, M.J., Kaş, S., Wertz, P.W., Hincal, A.A., Squier, Enhancing effect of chitosan on peptide drug delivery across buccal mucosa.
    • Biomaterials 21, 2067-2071.
    • Shah, N.M., Parikh, J., Namdeo, A., Subramanian, N., Bhowmick, S., 2006. Preparation, characterization and in vivo studies of proliposomes containing Cyclosporine A. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6, 2967-2973.
    • Shah, S.P., Misra, A., 2004. Development of liposomal amphotericin B dry powder inhaler formulation. Drug Deliv. 11, 247-253.
    • Sharma, A., Sharma, U.S., 1997. Liposomes in drug delivery: Progress and limitations. Int. J. Pharm. 154, 123-140.
    • Sharma, A., Straubinger, N.L., Straubinger, R.M., 1993. Modulation of human ovarian tumor cell sensitivity to N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) by liposome drug carriers. Pharm. Res. 10, 1434-1441.
    • Shaw, I.H., Knight, C.G., Dingle, J.T., 1976. Liposomal retention of a modified antiinflammatory steroid. Biochem. J. 158, 473-476.
    • Siew Young Quek, N.K.C., 2007. The physicochemical properties of spray-dried watermelon powders. Chem. Eng. Process. Process Intensif. 386-392.
    • Skalko-Basnet, N., Pavelic, Z., Becirevic-Lacan, M., 2000. Liposomes containing drug and cyclodextrin prepared by the one-step spray-drying method. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 26, 1279-1284.
    • Smart, J.D., 2005. The basics and underlying mechanisms of mucoadhesion. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57, 1556-1568.
    • Smyth, H.D.C., Hickey, A.J., 2011. Controlled Pulmonary Drug Delivery. Springer.
    • Sogias, I.A., Williams, A.C., Khutoryanskiy, V.V., 2008. Why is chitosan mucoadhesive? Biomacromolecules 9, 1837-1842.
    • Song Miao, Y.H.R., 2006. Isothermal study of nonenzymatic browning kinetics in spray-dried and freeze-dried systems at different relative vapor pressure environments. Innov. Food Sci. Amp Emerg. Technol. 182-194.
    • Stahl, K., Claesson, M., Lilliehorn, P., Linden, H., Backstrom, K., 2002. The effect of process variables on the degradation and physical properties of spray dried insulin intended for inhalation. Int. J. Pharm. 233, 227-237.
    • Stahlhofen, W., Gebhart, J., Heyder, J., 1980. Experimental determination of the regional deposition of aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 41, 385-398a.
    • Staniforth, J.N., 1995. Improvements in and relating to carrier particles for use in dry powder inhalers. WO1995011666 A1.
    • Stark, B., Pabst, G., Prassl, R., 2010. Long-term stability of sterically stabilized liposomes by freezing and freeze-drying: Effects of cryoprotectants on structure. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. Off. J. Eur. Fed. Pharm. Sci. 41, 546-555.
    • Steckel, H., Brandes, H.G., 2004. A novel spray-drying technique to produce low density particles for pulmonary delivery. Int. J. Pharm. 278, 187-195.
    • Steckel, H., Muller, B.W., 1997. In vitro evaluation of dry powder inhalers I: drug deposition of commonly used devices. Int. J. Pharm. 154, 19-29.
    • Steve Newman, A.G.-T., 2005. The Omron MicroAir vibrating mesh technology nebuliser, a 21st century approach to inhalation therapy. J. Appl. Ther. Reserach 5, 29-33.
    • Stewart, J.C., 1980. Colorimetric determination of phospholipids with ammonium ferrothiocyanate. Anal. Biochem. 104, 10-14.
    • Straubinger, R.M., Hong, K., Friend, D.S., Papahadjopoulos, D., 1983. Endocytosis of liposomes and intracellular fate of encapsulated molecules: encounter with a low pH compartment after internalization in coated vesicles. Cell 32, 1069-1079.
    • Suarez, S., Hickey, A.J., 2000. Drug properties affecting aerosol behavior. Respir. Care 45, 652-666.
    • Surana, R., Pyne, A., Suryanarayanan, R., 2004. Effect of aging on the physical properties of amorphous trehalose. Pharm. Res. 21, 867-874.
    • Szoka, F., Jr, Papahadjopoulos, D., 1980. Comparative properties and methods of preparation of lipid vesicles (liposomes). Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 9, 467- 508.
    • Szoka, F., Papahadjopoulos, D., 1978. Procedure for preparation of liposomes with large internal aqueous space and high capture by reverse-phase evaporation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 75, 4194-4198.
    • Tajber, L., Corrigan, O.I., Healy, A.M., 2009. Spray drying of budesonide, formoterol fumarate and their composites-II. Statistical factorial design and in vitro deposition properties. Int. J. Pharm. 367, 86-96.
    • Takeuchi, H., Matsui, Y., Yamamoto, H., Kawashima, Y., 2003. Mucoadhesive properties of carbopol or chitosan-coated liposomes and their effectiveness in the oral administration of calcitonin to rats. J. Control. Release Off. J. Control. Release Soc. 86, 235-242.
    • Takeuchi, H., Thongborisute, J., Matsui, Y., Sugihara, H., Yamamoto, H., Kawashima, Y., 2005. Novel mucoadhesion tests for polymers and polymer-coated particles to design optimal mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57, 1583-1594.
    • Takeuchi, H., Yamamoto, H., Kawashima, Y., 2001. Mucoadhesive nanoparticulate systems for peptide drug delivery. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 47, 39-54.
    • Takeuchi, H., Yamamoto, H., Niwa, T., Hino, T., Kawashima, Y., 1996. Enteral absorption of insulin in rats from mucoadhesive chitosan-coated liposomes. Pharm. Res. 13, 896-901.
    • Taylor, K., McCallion, O., 1997. Ultrasonic nebulisers for pulmonary drug delivery. Int. J. Pharm. 153, 93-104.
    • Taylor, K.M., Taylor, G., Kellaway, I.W., Stevens, J., 1989. The influence of liposomal encapsulation on sodium cromoglycate pharmacokinetics in man. Pharm. Res. 6, 633-636.
    • Taylor, K.M.G., Farr, S.J., 1993. Liposomes for drug delivery to the respiratory tract. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 19, 123-142.
    • Taylor, K.M.G., Hoare, C., 1993. Ultrasonic nebulisation of pentamidine isethionate. Int. J. Pharm. 98, 45-49.
    • Taylor, K.M.G., McCallion, O.N.M., 2002. Ultrasonic nebulizers, in: Swarbrick, J., Boylan, J.C. (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of Pharmaceutical Technology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 2840-2847.
    • Taylor, K.M.G., Morris, R.M., 1995. Thermal analysis of phase transition behaviour in liposomes. Thermochim. Acta 248, 289-301.
    • Taylor, K.M.G., Taylor, G., Kellaway, I.W., Stevens, J., 1990. The stability of liposomes to nebulisation. Int. J. Pharm. 58, 57-61.
    • Tee, S.K., Marriott, C., Zeng, X.M., Martin, G.P., 2000. The use of different sugars as fine and coarse carriers for aerosolised salbutamol sulphate. Int. J. Pharm. 208, 111-123.
    • Telang, C., Suryanarayanan, R., Yu, L., 2003. Crystallization of D-mannitol in binary mixtures with NaCl: phase diagram and polymorphism. Pharm. Res. 20, 1939- 1945.
    • Thami Sebti, K.A., 2006. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of lipidic carriers and fillers for inhalation. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. Off. J. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Für Pharm. Verfahrenstechnik EV 63, 51-8.
    • Thanou, M., Verhoef, J.C., Junginger, H.E., 2001. Chitosan and its derivatives as intestinal absorption enhancers. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 50 Suppl 1, S91-101.
    • Tonon, R.V., Brabet, C., Hubinger, M.D., 2008. Influence of process conditions on the physicochemical properties of açai (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) powder produced by spray drying. J. Food Eng. 88, 411-418.
    • Tsapis, N., Bennett, D., Jackson, B., Weitz, D.A., Edwards, D.A., 2002. Trojan particles: large porous carriers of nanoparticles for drug delivery. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99, 12001-12005.
    • Tsvetkova, N.M., Phillips, B.L., Crowe, L.M., Crowe, J.H., Risbud, S.H., 1998. Effect of sugars on headgroup mobility in freeze-dried dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers: solid-state 31P NMR and FTIR studies. Biophys. J. 75, 2947-2955.
    • Tu, J., Inthavong, K., Ahmadi, G., 2012. Computational Fluid and Particle Dynamics in the Human Respiratory System. Springer.
    • Van Winden, E.C.A., Crommelin, D.J.., 1997. Long term stability of freeze-dried, lyoprotected doxorubicin liposomes. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 43, 295-307.
    • Vanbever, R., Mintzes, J.D., Wang, J., Nice, J., Chen, D., Batycky, R., Langer, R., Edwards, D.A., 1999. Formulation and physical characterization of large porous particles for inhalation. Pharm. Res. 16, 1735-1742.
    • Vanderbist, F., Wery, B., Moyano-Pavon, I., Moës, A.J., 1999. Optimization of a dry powder inhaler formulation of nacystelyn, a new mucoactive agent. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 51, 1229-1234.
    • Vehring, R., 2008. Pharmaceutical particle engineering via spray drying. Pharm. Res. 25, 999-1022.
    • Vemuri, S., Rhodes, C.T., 1995. Preparation and characterization of liposomes as therapeutic delivery systems: a review. Pharm. Acta Helv. 70, 95-111.
    • Vila, A., Sánchez, A., Janes, K., Behrens, I., Kissel, T., Vila Jato, J.L., Alonso, M.J., 2004. Low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticles as new carriers for nasal vaccine delivery in mice. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. Off. J. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Für Pharm. Verfahrenstechnik EV 57, 123-131.
    • Voss, A., Finlay, W.H., 2002. Deagglomeration of dry powder pharmaceutical aerosols. Int. J. Pharm. 248, 39-50.
    • Vyas, S.P., Kannan, M.E., Jain, S., Mishra, V., Singh, P., 2004. Design of liposomal aerosols for improved delivery of rifampicin to alveolar macrophages. Int. J. Pharm. 269, 37-49.
    • Wessman, P., Edwards, K., Mahlin, D., 2010. Structural effects caused by spray- and freeze-drying of liposomes and bilayer disks. J. Pharm. Sci. 99, 2032-2048.
    • White, G.W., Cakebread, S.H., 1966. The glassy state in certain sugar-containing food products. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 1, 73-82.
    • White, S., Bennett, D.B., Cheu, S., Conley, P.W., Guzek, D.B., Gray, S., Howard, J., Malcolmson, R., Parker, J.M., Roberts, P., Sadrzadeh, N., Schumacher, J.D., Seshadri, S., Sluggett, G.W., Stevenson, C.L., Harper, N.J., 2005. EXUBERA: pharmaceutical development of a novel product for pulmonary delivery of insulin. Diabetes Technol. Ther. 7, 896-906.
    • Wong, M., Thompson, T.E., 1982. Aggregation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles. Biochemistry (Mosc.) 21, 4133-4139.
    • Yoshinari, T., Forbes, R.T., York, P., Kawashima, Y., 2003. Crystallisation of amorphous mannitol is retarded using boric acid. Int. J. Pharm. 258, 109-120.
    • Yousefi, S., Emam-Djomeh, Z., Mousavi, S.M., 2011. Effect of carrier type and spray drying on the physicochemical properties of powdered and reconstituted pomegranate juice (Punica Granatum L.). J. Food Sci. Technol. 48, 677-684.
    • Yu, J., Chien, Y., 1997. Pulmonary drug delivery: Physiologic and mechanistic aspects. Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug Carrier Syst. 14, 395-453.
    • Yu, L., 2001. Amorphous pharmaceutical solids: preparation, characterization and stabilization. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 48, 27-42.
    • Yu, L., Mishra, D.S., Rigsbee, D.R., 1998. Determination of the glass properties of Dmannitol using sorbitol as an impurity. J. Pharm. Sci. 87, 774-777.
    • Zaru, M., Manca, M.-L., Fadda, A.M., Antimisiaris, S.G., 2009. Chitosan-coated liposomes for delivery to lungs by nebulisation. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 71, 88-95.
    • Zeng, X.M., Martin, G.P., Marriott, C., 1995. The controlled delivery of drugs to the lung. Int. J. Pharm. 124, 149-164.
    • Zeng, X.M., Martin, G.P., Marriott, C., Pritchard, J., 2000. The effects of carrier size and morphology on the dispersion of salbutamol sulphate after aerosolization at different flow rates. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 52, 1211-1221.
    • 4. Huner Omer, Mohamed Alhnan, Waqar Ahmed, Abdelbary Elhissi (2014). SprayDried Chitosome Formulations for Pulmonary Delivery. In: Respiratory Drug delivery (RDD), 04-08, May 2014, Fajardo, Puerto Rico, USA.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article