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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Palfreyman, Nicholas (2017)
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: Q190, Q100
Until now there has been no robust (socio)linguistic documentation of urban sign language varieties in Indonesia, and given the size of the Indonesian archipelago, it might be expected that these varieties are very different from each other. In this kind of situation, sign linguists have often applied lexicostatistical methods, but two such studies in Indonesia have recently produced contradictory results.\ud Instead, this investigation uses conceptual and methodological approaches from linguistic typology and Variationist Sociolinguistics, contextualised by a sociohistorical account of the Indonesian sign community. The grammatical domains of completion and negation are analysed using a corpus of spontaneous data from two urban centres, Solo and Makassar.\ud Four completive particles occur in both varieties, alongside clitics and the expression of completion through mouthings alone. The realisations of two variables, one lexical and one grammatical, are predicted by factors including the syntactic and functional properties of the variant, and younger Solonese signers are found to favour completive clitics. The reasons for intra-individual persistence and variation are also discussed.\ud Negation is expressed through particles, clitics, suppletives, and the simultaneous mouthing of predicates with negative particles. These paradigmatic variants occur in both varieties, with small differences in the sets of particles and suppletives for each variety. The realisations of four variables are found to be conditioned by factors including predicate type, sub-function, and the use of constructed dialogue. The gender of the signer is found to correlate with the syntactic order of negative and predicate; younger Solonese signers are also found to favour negative clitics and suppletives.\ud The similarities revealed between the Solo and Makassar varieties are discussed with reference to the history of contact between sign sub-communities across the archipelago. The investigation concludes with a discussion of factors that favour and disfavour the convergence of urban sign language varieties.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • CHAPTER 1 - Introduction: Sign language varieties of Indonesia............................1 1.1. Signed languages, modality and variation.......................................................... 1 1.2. Natural sign languages and artificial sign systems............................................. 4 1.2.1. Natural sign languages and language contact ........................................................ 5 1.2.2. Educational intervention through artificial sign systems ....................................... 6 1.3. The concept of an 'urban sign community'........................................................ 8 1.4. The linguistic ecology of urban sign language varieties in Indonesia.............. 10 1.4.1. Indonesia: a brief geographic, demographic and historical overview.................. 11 1.4.2. Spoken languages in Indonesia............................................................................ 13 1.4.3. Demography and proximity of sign community members................................... 14 1.4.4. Attitudes towards deafness and sign language..................................................... 16 1.5. Existing research on sign language varieties in Indonesia ............................... 17 1.6. Research questions........................................................................................... 20 1.7. Thesis structure ................................................................................................ 21
    • CHAPTER 3 - Method and research design.............................................................. 56 3.1. Conceptual and empirical framework .............................................................. 56
    • CHAPTER 5 - Variation in the grammatical domain of completion .................... 132 5.1. Aspect and completion................................................................................... 133 5.1.1. Perfect and perfective aspects............................................................................ 133 5.1.2. A working definition of the completive aspect .................................................. 135 5.1.3. Motivation for targeting the grammatical expression of completion ................. 136 5.1.4. The completive aspect in spoken languages ...................................................... 138 5.1.5. The completive aspect in signed languages ....................................................... 144 5.2. Completion in the Solo and Makassar sign language varieties ...................... 148 5.2.1. Completive particles .......................................................................................... 148 5.2.2. Completive clitics.............................................................................................. 152 5.2.3. Completive mouthings....................................................................................... 153 5.2.4. Distribution of completive forms....................................................................... 155
    • 1.1. The population of deaf people in the Dutch East Indies, according to the 1930 census.
    • 2.1. Terms for categorising languages suggested by Swadesh.
    • 2.2. A selection of studies that compare the closeness of sign language varieties using Swadesh's classificatory scale.
    • 2.3. A comparison of signs elicited from two signers in Makassar using a wordlist.
    • 2.4. The frequencies of five variants found in the Makassar dataset meaning 'mother'.
    • 2.5. A selection of Variationist Sociolinguistics studies on sign language variables.
    • 4.1. The outcome of the sociolinguistic mapping exercise.
    • 4.2. Pak Siregar (1938-2013), a key figure in early deaf organisation in Indonesia.
    • 4.3. An article asking expatriates for donations to establish a deaf school.
    • 4.4. Sisters of Mary and Joseph in the Netherlands with Msgr. Hermus.
    • 4.5. Dena Upakara school in Wonosobo.
    • 4.6. A graph showing the birthplace of deaf pupils who entered Dena Upakara and Don Bosco schools in Wonosobo 1950-1999.
    • 4.7. Blueminck and his wife with Monsignor Hermus, in Sint-Michielsgestel.
    • 4.8. Charts showing 'German fingerspelling' and 'Indonesian fingerspelling'.
    • 4.9. The schoolization process by which sign language features are diffused.
    • 4.10. Congressional meetings of Gerkatin and the representation of regional Gerkatins, grouped by colour according to island.
    • 4.11. National Disabled Sports Week (PORCANAS XIII), Samarinda, Kalimantan.
    • 4.12. Provincial towns in South Sulawesi from whence informants came.
    • 4.13. SUDAH:jkt, a variant for the expression of completion that occurs in Jakarta.
    • 4.14. Variants meaning 'alhamdulillah' in Solo and a variant recently introduced.
    • 4.15. Oktaviani, Audy and Arfan chatting remotely with friends using 3G phones.
    • 4.16. Ibu Baron Sutadisastra and Professor Frances M. Parsons.
    • 4.17. SIBI, the Indonesian Sign System.
    • 4.18. Two variants used to refer to the city of Surabaya and the motivation for each sign.
    • 4.19. Makassarese and Javanese variants meaning 'an illicit affair'.
    • Marmor, Gloria and Laura-Ann Pettito 1979 Simultaneous communication in the classroom: How well is English grammar represented? Sign Language Studies, 23, 991-136.
    • Melčuk, Igor A. 1994
    • Oaksford, Mike 2010 Form, function, and the grammaticalisation of completive markers in the sign language varieties of Solo and Makassar. In: John Bowden (ed.) NUSA 55: Tense, Aspect, Modality and Evidentiality in Languages of Indonesia, 153-172. http://hdl.handle.net/10108/74331 2014 Grazing in new pastures: Integrating multiple analytic practices on sociolinguistic variation in Indonesian sign language varieties. A presentation at the third New Ways of Analysing Variation (Asia-Pacific) NWAV-AP3 conference, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. 30 April - 2 May 2014.
    • Parkhurst, Stephen and Dianne Parkhurst 2001 Variación de las Lenguas de Signos Usadas en España: Un Estudio Lingüístico. Revista Española de Lingüística de las Lenguas de Signos. 2003 Lexical comparisons of signed languages and the effects of iconicity. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session, Volume 47.
    • Parks, Elizabeth and Jason Parks 2008 Sociolinguistic Survey Report of the Deaf Community of Guatemala. SIL Electronic Survey Report 2008-016.
    • 2010 A Sociolinguistic Profile of the Peruvian Deaf Community. Sign Language Studies. 10:4, 409-441.
    • Parmegiani, Andrea 2008 Language ownership in multilingual settings: Exploring attitudes among students entering the University of KwaZulu-Natal through the Access Program. Stellenbosch Papers in Lingusitics 38, 107-124.
    • Schembri, Adam, Kearsy Cormier, Jordan Fenlon and Trevor Johnston 2013 Sign languages and sociolinguistic typology. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Language Variation in Europe, Trondheim, Norway.
    • 2010 Sociolinguistic variation in British, Australian and New Zealand Sign Languages. In: Brentari (2010), 476-498.
    • Schembri, Adam, Jordan Fenlon, Ramas Rentelis, Kearsy Cormier 2011 British Sign Language Corpus Project: A corpus of digital video data of British Sign Language, 2008-2010 (First Edition). UCL, London.
    • Schembri, Adam, Jordan Fenlon, Ramas Rentelis, Sally Reyolds and Kearsy Cormier 2013 Building the British Sign Language Corpus. Language Documentation and Conservation 7, 136-154.
    • Schembri, Adam and Trevor Johnston 2007 Sociolinguistic variation in the use of fingerspelling in Australian Sign Language: A pilot study. Sign Language Studies 7:3, 319-347.
    • 2012 Sociolinguistic aspects of variation and change. In: Pfau, Steinbach and Woll (2012), 788-815.
    • 2013 Sociolinguistic variation and change in sign languages. In: Bayley, Cameron and Lucas (2013), 503-524.
    • Schembri, Adam, Trevor Johnston and Della Goswell 2006 Name dropping: Location variation in Australian Sign Language. In: Ceil Lucas (ed.) Multilingualism and Sign Languages: From the Great Plains to Australia. Washington DC: Gallaudet University Press.
    • Schembri, Adam, David McKee, Rachel McKee, Sara Pivac, Trevor Johnston and Della Goswell 2009 Phonological variation and change in Australian and New Zealand Sign Languages: The location variable. Language Variation and Change 21, 193- 231.
    • Schermer, Trude, Connie Fortgens, Rita Harder and Esther de Noble 1991 De Nederlandse Gebarentaal [Dutch Sign Language] Antwerp: Van Tricht.
    • Schick, Brenda and Mary Moeller 1992 What is learnable in manually coded English sign systems? Applied Psycholinguistics, 13, 313-340.
    • Malay-Indonesian. In: Comrie (2009), 791-818. Why protect heritage sign languages? International Journal of Applied Linguistics 16:3, 409-413.
    • 2007 The biocognition of the mental lexicon. In: M. Gareth Gaskell (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 267-286.
    • 2012 The declarative/procedural model. In: Peter Robinson (ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition. London: Routledge, 160- 164.
    • Vander Klok, Jozina 2012 Tense, aspect and modal markers in Paciran Javanese. PhD dissertation, York University, Montréal.
    • Van Deusen-Phillips, Sarah B., Susan Goldin-Meadow and Peggy J. Miller 2001 Enacting stories, seeing worlds: Similarities and differences in the crosscultural narrative development of linguistically isolated deaf children. Human Development, 44:6, 311-336.
    • Vanhecke, Eline and Kristof De Weerdt 2004 Regional variation in Flemish Sign Language. In: Van Herreweghe and Vermeerbergen (2004), 27-38.
    • Van Herreweghe, Mieke and Myriam Vermeerbergen (eds.) 2004 To the Lexicon and Beyond: Sociolinguistics in European Deaf communities. Washington DC: Gallaudet University Press.
    • Van Minde, Don and Johnny Tjia 2002 Between perfect and perfective: The meaning and function of Ambonese Malay su and suda. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 158:2, 283-303.
    • Van Valin, Robert D. and Randy J. LaPolla 1997 Syntax: Structure, Meaning and Function. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Vermeerbergen, Myriam 2006 Past and current trends in sign language research. Language Communication 26:2, 168-192
    • Vermeerbergen, Myriam, Lorraine Leeson and Onno Crasborn (eds.) 2007 Simultaneity in Signed Languages. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
    • Vickers, Adrian 2005 A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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