OpenAIRE is about to release its new face with lots of new content and services.
During September, you may notice downtime in services, while some functionalities (e.g. user registration, login, validation, claiming) will be temporarily disabled.
We apologize for the inconvenience, please stay tuned!
For further information please contact helpdesk[at]openaire.eu

fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Tantivess, Sripen
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects:
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in reducing HIV morbidity and mortality as well as improving patients' quality of life. However, because of several hurdles, resource-poor countries have provided treatment to only a few people in need. Thailand is unusual in having opted to offer universal coverage for therapy. This thesis aims to understand the process by which ART reached the Thai Government agenda, and to explore the lessons learned from the design and implementation of the publicly-organised treatment programme. This study suggests that Thailand's ART programme was influenced by the networks and learning of several actors which evolved over time. During a period of policy continuity between 1992 and 2000, the policy process developed within a relatively closed subsystem dominated by health officials in the Disease Control Department and HIV experts. The cost of antiretrovirals was the major factor restraining treatment coverage. The dramatic shift in ART service towards universal access took place in 2001, as a consequence of drug price reduction and political transformation that allowed participation of new Health Minister, health financing reformists, and an alliance of non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Apparently, local and external treatment experiences inspired these actors to pursue similar paths in Thailand. The rapid policy formulation process was facilitated by common interests, shared experience, previously established collaboration, as well as awareness of interdependency among members of the Ministry of Public Health's Technical and Administration Panels. Learning about the intricacy in ART administration, especially from existing programmes and research studies in the country, played a crucial role in devising treatment expansion plans. The individual expertise of clinical specialists, researchers, health officials, NGOs and PL WHA helped to accelerate lesson drawing from policy feedback, anticipating future obstacles and selecting appropriate policy options. At the sub-national level, the process by which the universal ART policy was translated into action involved another set of actors, comprising hospital administrators, health professionals, officials in the Health Ministry's Regional and Provincial Offices, local NGOs and PLWHA groups. A key feature of policy in this phase was that the front-line workforce struggled to carry out the tasks prescribed by national policy makers. The discrepancy between the programme's expectation and actual therapy delivered in two study provinces was significant, resulting from insufficient number of experienced health personnel, increased workload as an effect of parallel reforms in the health and public administration systems, and stigma attached to HIV. To counter these impediments, treatment execution networks of government staff and civic groups were instigated. Collective learning among service providers, supporters and clients had an important role in ART scaling up. Different coping strategies were implemented in study hospitals, aiming to balance the contradictory goals of achieving the allocated targets while maintaining treatment quality. This thesis demonstrates that to understand policy development in such a complex circumstance governments cannot unilaterally deal with particular problems. Employing a policy network concept to address the partnership between state and non-state actors is not only useful but essential as the policy environment has expanded beyond merely state actions, to depend, to some extent, on non-state actors. Moreover, the integration of policy learning model into policy analysis framework can provide insights into the increasingly dynamic interactions between actors, context and processes of public policy in focus.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1.2.1 Critical issues in ART: biomedical aspects and associated factors.........
    • 1.2.2 Public health spill-over of ART.................................................
    • 1.3.1 Costly drugs and treatment monitoring .........................................
    • 1.3.2 Improving access to ART: estimated costs and feasibility ...................
    • 1.5.1 When to instigate treatment programmes? ...... ...............................
    • 1.5.2 Valuing costs and outcomes of ART ...........................................
    • 1.5.3 Roles of ideologies in ART.................................................. .....
    • 2.2.1 Models of ART delivery in the public sector..................................
    • 2.2.2 Range of partners involved in treatment scaling up ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ....
    • 2.2.3 Financing ART.....................................................................
    • 2.4.1 Health service facilities...........................................................
    • 2.4.2 Workforce in the health delivery system ........................................
    • 2.4.3 Health system financing.. ........................................................
    • 2.4.4 Health system and policy research ................. , .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
    • 2.4.5 Pharmaceutical industry and the Government Pharmaceutical
    • 2.5.1 Feature ofthe epidemic...........................................................
    • 2.5.2 National responses to HN epidemic ................................ ............
    • 2.5.3 Overview of civil society organisations in HIV field.........................
    • 2.5.4 Evolution of the national ART programme ... .................................
    • 3.2.1 Policy networks: framing the interplay between key actors ......... " .. . . ...
    • 3.2.2 Policy learning: acquiring knowledge for policy decisions and action.....
    • 3.2.3 Agenda setting........................ .......... ............................... .....
    • 3.2.4 Policy formulation ................................................................ ,
    • 3.2.5 Policy implementation............................................................
    • 3.5.1 Justification of case study approach and selection of study provinces... ...
    • 3.5.2 Data collection.....................................................................
    • 3.5.3 Data analysis..................................................................... ...
    • 3.5.4 Quality control of research ..................................................... ...
    • 3.5.5 Consent procedures and ethical clearances.....................................
    • 3.5.6 Research limitations...............................................................
    • The national ART programme before 2001: incremental policy changes ........ .
    • 4.1.1 Interactions between policy makers and civil society ........................ .
    • 4.1.2 The attitudes of key actors towards ART ............................... '" .... .
    • 4.3.1 Stepping towards universal ART access ....................................... .
    • 4.3.2 Extending ART coverage versus integrating ART in the UC ............... .
    • 4.3.3 What others thought about the new policy .................................... .
    • 5.2.1 National programme management .............................................. .
    • 5.2.2 Resource mobilisation ............................................................ .
    • 5.2.3 Designations for responsible MOPH-affiliated agencies .................... .
    • 5.2.4 Changes in treatment protocol .................................................. .
    • 5.2.5 Revisions of enrolment criteria .................................................. ,
    • 5.2.6 Spill-over effects to other agencies ............................................. .
    • 5.3.1 Advisory panels for treatment extension ...................................... .
    • 5.3.2 Decisions on the programme's new design ................................... .
    • 5.3.3 Termination of the policy formulation panel ...................................
    • 5.3.4 Who really made the changes? .................................................. .
    • 6.1.1 Phichit ................................. ...... ..................... ...................
    • 6.1.2 Rayong ..............................................................................
    • 6.2.1 Demands for HIV treatment and care.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. ...
    • 6.2.2 Health care resources..............................................................
    • 6.2.3 Direction and supervision for ART implementation..........................
    • 6.204 Relationship between NOOs, PLWHA groups and healthcare providers..
    • 6.5.1 Persuasive role of sub-national MOPH offices.................................
    • 6.5.2 Perceptions of healthcare providers on universal ART policy...............
    • 6.5.3 Decisions to join the national ART programme...............................
    • 7.2.1 The unmet targets..................................................................
    • 7.2.2 Beyond the number of enrolees.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ....
    • 7.3.1 Moving patients: moving targets................................................
    • 7.3.2 Strategies to boost the programme uptake......................................
    • 7.3.3 Quantity versus quality: health workers' perspectives.................... ....
    • 704.1 The dynamics of change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
    • 704.2 Providers' competency............................................................
    • 704.3 Integrating care in the province ............................................ ......
    • 70404 Crossing professional boundaries... . . . . . . . . . ... . . . ... . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .....
    • 704.5 Struggling to ensure quality......................................................
    • 8.1.1 Old and new policy networks. . . . . . ... . . . ... . . . . . . . . . ... . . ... . . . ... . . . . . ... . .. ...
    • 8.1.2 The contextual elements.. . . . ... .. .. . . . ... . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ... ...
    • 8.1.3 How did the policy change?: the process.. .. .. ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .... .
    • 8.1.4 Spill-over effects/policy momentum. . . .. . . ... . . ... .. . ... .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . .. ....
    • 8.2.1 Policy formulation network ............................................. , . .........
    • 8.2.2 Role of policy learning in policy formulation.. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... .. . . ... . . .. ..
    • 8.2.3 Imbalance of power ...... ..........................................................
    • 8.2.4 Factors facilitating policy formulation. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . ... . . .. . .. . . . . .... . . . .
    • 8.3.1 Policy implementation network..................................................
    • 8.3.2 ART delivery constraints, discretion and context..............................
    • 8.3.3 Policy learning in the implementation stage.... ................................
    • APPENDIX 1: INTERVIEW GUiDES .................................................................................
    • APPENDIX 2: LIST OF INFORMANTS ............................................................................................
    • July 2004 ............................................................................
    • Number of health facilities by type and administrative level, 2003 ..... ....
    • HIV prevalence in high-risk populations, 1989-2003 ....................... ..
    • ART programme development, 1992-2004 ................................... .
    • Enrolment criteria for adults in the national ART programme, 2000-2001
    • Rayong 2003 ....................................................................... .
    • Reported symptomatic HIV and AIDS patients in study settings, 2000-
    • Selected government's health resources in study settings, 2003 ........... .
    • members comparing with number of ART clients in 2004 ................. .
    • of the targets, Phichit and Rayong, fiscal year 2004 ......................... .
    • National ART programme clients in study hospitals, 2004 ................. .
    • ART and 01 medication coverage in the three health benefit plans and
    • Mills, Anne, and Sam Shillcutt. 2004. Challenge Paper on Communicable Diseases Environmental Assessment Institute, [cited 2 June 2004]. Available from http://www. copenhagenconsensus.com.
    • Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2003. Major Foreign Policy Statements: HIVIAIDS Ministry of Foreign Affair, Department of International Organisations, [cited 15 December 2004]. Available from http://www.mfa.go.th.
    • Ministry of Public Health. 200 I a. Guidelines for Universal Health Care Coverage in Transition Period. Nonthaburi.
    • Ministry of Public Health. 2001b. The Medical Services for PLWHA and Monitoring System Development: Operational Guidelines. Nonthaburi.
    • Ministry of Public Health. 2001c. Minute of the consultative meeting on antiretroviral treatment and universal health coverage. Nonthaburi: Office of the Public Health Minister.
    • Ministry of Public Health. 2001d. Public Health Ministerial Order No.1147/2544. Subject: Appointment of the Committee on the Integration of Antiretroviral Treatment to the Universal Health Coverage Scheme. Date of issuance: 4 December 2001.
    • Ministry of Public Health. 2001e. Sudarat's suggestions on the marketing strategies of GPO's antiretrovirals. Nonthaburi: The Information and Public Relations Office.
    • Ministry of Public Health. 200lf. Summary of the resolutions from the National Workshop on the Establishment of the Universal Health Coverage Scheme: Information and Public Relations Office.
    • Ministry of Public Health. 2002a. The Medical Services for PLWHA and Monitoring System Development: Operational Guidelines. Nonthaburi.
    • Ministry of Public Health. 2002b. New missions and organisational structure ofthe Ministry of Public Health. Nonthaburi: Bureau of Policy and Strategy.
    • Ministry of Public Health. 2002c. Public Health Ministerial Order No.137/2545. Subject: Appointment of the Subcommittee on the Integration of Antiretroviral Treatment to the Universal Health Coverage Scheme. Date of issuance: 11 February 2002.
    • Ministry of Public Health. 2002d. Thailand Health Profile 1999-2000. Edited by S. Wibulpolprasert. Nonthaburi: Bureau of Policy and Strategy.
    • Ministry of Public Health. 2003a. Important and urgent health programmes, .fiscal year 2004. Nonthaburi: Bureau of Policy and Strategy.
    • Ministry of Public Health. 2003b. The Medical Services for PL WHA and Monitoring System Development: Operational Guidelines. Nonthaburi.
    • Ministry of Public Health. 2003c. Public Health Ministerial Order No. 905/2546. Subject: Appointment of the Committee on the Integration of Antiretroviral Treatment to the Universal Health Coverage Scheme. Date of issuance: 10 October 2003.
    • Ministry of Public Health. 2004a. Minutes of Ministry of Public Health Meetings (JanuarySeptember 2004). Nonthaburi: Bureau of Policy and Strategy.
    • Ministry 'of Public Health. 2004b. Thai Health and Health Care [cited 12 January 2006]. Available from http://eng.moph.gp.thITechResearch!hsrilhsriweb.htm.
    • Ministry of Public Health. 2005. Thailand Health Profile 2001-2004. Edited by S. Wibulpolprasert. Nonthaburi: Bureau of Policy and Strategy.
    • Mintrom, Michael. 1997. Policy Entrepreneurs and the Diffusion of Innovation. American Journal ofPolitical Science 41 (3):738-770.
    • Moatti, Jean-Paul, I N'Doye, Scott Hammer, P Hale, and MD Kazatchkine. 2003a. Antiretroviral treatment for HIV infection in developing countries: an attainable new paradigm. Nature Medicine 9 (12):1449-1452.
    • Moatti, Jean-Paul, Joanne Prudhomme, Djeneba Coulibaly Traore, Anne Juillet-Amari, Hortense Aka-Dago Akribi, and Philippe Msellati. 2003b. Access to antiretroviral treatment and sexual behaviour of HIV-infected patients aware of their serostatus in Cote d'Ivoire. AIDS 17 (suppI3):S69-S77.
    • Moatti, Jean-Paul, and Bruno Spire. 2000. Living with HIVIAIDS and adherence to antiretroviral treatments. In AIDS in Europe: New challenges for the social sciences, edited by J.-P. Maotti, Y. Souteyrand, A. Prieur, T. Sandfort and P. Aggleton. London: Routledge.
    • Mocroft, Amanda, and Jens D Lundgren. 2004. Starting highly active antiretroviral therapy: why, when and response to HAART. Journal ofAntimicrobial Chemotherapy 54:10-13.
    • Montessori, Valentina, Natasha Press, Marianne Harris, Linda Akagi, and Julio SG Montaner. 2004. Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy. Canadian Medical Association Journal 170 (2):229-238.
    • Morse, Janice M, Michael Barrett, Maria Mayan, Karin Olson, and Jude Spiers. 2002. Verification strategies for establishing reliability and validity in qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 1 (2): Retrieved 18 October 2005 from http://www.ualberta.ca/~ijqm.
    • Msellati, Philippe, Anne Juillet-Amari, Joanne Prudhomme, Hortense Aka-Dago Akribi, Djeneba Coulibaly-Traore, Marc Souville, and Jean-Paul Maotti. 2003. Socio-economic and health characteristics of HN-infected patients seeking care in relation to access to the Drug Access Initiative and to antiretroviral treatment in Cote d'lvoire. AIDS 17 (suppI3):S63-S68.
    • MSF. 2004a. In Thailand, patient activism is crucial to expanding treatment 11 July 2004a [cited 3 June 2005]. Available from http://www.msf.org/countries/page.cfm?Articleid= 008 EC7FA-3A3B-4F39-9FCF968E65F757C4.
    • MSF. 2004b. MSF AIDS Treatment Experience: Rapid Expansion Emerging Challenges. Geneva.
    • MSF, TAC, and Oxfam. 2001. Press release: Drug companies in South Africa capitulate under barrage of public pressure.
    • Mugyenyi, Peter. 2004. Highly active antiretroviral therapy: We need to scale up its use and reach with existing facilities in poor countries. BMJ 329: 1118-1119.
    • Mukherjee, JS, Paul Farmer, D Niyizonkiza, L McCorkle, C Vanderwarker, Paulo Teixeira, and JY Kim. 2003. Tackling HN in resource poor countries. BMJ 327: 11 04-11 06.
    • Mundy, Jackie. 2003. Supporting the Scale up of Anti-retroviral Therapy - A Systems Perspective: IHSD Experience in Kenya. London: Institute for Health Sector Development.
    • Muula, Adamson S. 2004. Ethical and Programmatic Challenges in Antiretroviral Scaling-up in Malawi: Challenges in Meeting the World Health Organization's "Treating 3 Million by 2005" Initiative Goals. Croatian Medical Journal 45 (4):415-421.
    • Naew Naa. 1992. AIDS drug incredibly expensive - 600 baht per day: free treatment is limited owing to resource constraint. Naew Naa newspaper, 10 February 1992, 2.
    • National AIDS Committee. 2002. National HN/AIDS Plan, 2002-2006.
    • National AIDS Control Committee Cameroon. 2004. Cameroon's Response to the HIVIAIDS Pandemic: Experiences in clinical management with AR V.
    • National Economic and Social Development Board. 2002. Health Development Plan under the 9th National Economic and Social Development Plan, 2002-2006.
    • National' Economic and Social Development Office. 2002. Gross Provincial Product 2002 edition (1995-2002) [cited 20 September 2004]. Available from http://www.nesdb.go. thieconSociaVmacro/macro eng.php.
    • National Health Security Office. 2004a. Annual Report on the National Health Security Development, fiscal year 2004. Nonthaburi.
    • National Health Security Office. 2004b. Towards universal health coverage. Edited by P. Jongudomsuk. Nonthaburi: Bureau of Policy and Planning.
    • National Health System Reform Committee. 2002. The draft law on national health as a Thais' Health Constitution. Nonthaburi.
    • Neaton, James D. 2005. Quantitative Science. In The AIDS Pandemic: Impact on Science and Society, edited by K. H. Mayer and H. Pizer. London: Elsevier.
    • Nelson, Barbara J. 1978. Setting the Public Agenda: The Case of Child Abuse. In The Policy Cycle, edited by J. V. May and A. B. Wildavsky. Beverly Hills: Sage.
    • Nelson, Kenrad E, Sakol Eiumtrakol, Narongrid Sirisopana, Chirasak Khamboonruang, David D Celentano, and Chris Beyrer. 1999. Continued decrease in sexually acquired HN among young men in northern Thailand, 1991-1998: Fifth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, Kuala Lumpur, 1999.
    • Nelson, Michael H. 2001. Thailand's House Elections of 6 January 2001: Thaksin's Landslide Victory and Subsequent Narrow Escape. In Thailand's New Politics: KPI Yearbook 2001, edited by M. H. Nelson. Bangkok: King Prajadhipok's Institute.
    • Nielsen, Jette, and Bjorn Melgaard. 2004. The Economic and Security Dimensions of HIV/ AIDS in Asia. In AIDS in Asia: The Challenge Ahead, edited by J. P. Narain. New Delhi: WHO, Regional Office for South-East Asia.
    • Nitayarumphong, Sanguan, and Surapol Mulada. 2001. Past, present and future of Thai NGO. Bangkok: Kobfai Publishing Project.
    • Noikorn, Uamdao. 2001. Thai activists report over 1000 PLWHAs showed up for this historic and victorious demonstration! Bangkok: Associated Press.
    • Ogden, Jessica, Gill Walt, and Louisiana Lush. 2003. The politics of 'branding' in policy transfer: the case of DOTS for tuberculosis control. Social Science & Medicine 57: 179- 188.
    • Okubagzi, Gebreselassie, and Swjit Singh. 2002. Establishing an HIV/AIDS programme in developing countries: the Ethiopian experience. AIDS 16:1575-1586.
    • Opuni, Majorie, Stefano Bertozzi, Lori Bollinger, Juan-Pablo Gutierrez, Ernest Massiah, William McGreevey, and John Stover. 2002. Resource requirements to fight HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean. AIDS 16 (supp13):S58-S65.
    • Ortells, Pascual. 2003. Brazil: A Model Response to AIDS. American Program, Interhemisphere Resource Center, [cited 12 May 2003]. Available from http://www.America policy.org.
    • Paiva, Vera, Jose Ricardo Ayres, Cassia Maria Buchalla, and Norman Hearst. 2002. Building partnerships to respond to HIV/AIDS: non-governmental organisations and universities. AIDS 16 (Supp13):S76-S82.
    • Pan, Philip P. 2003. China: Some Chinese with AIDS Abandon Free 'Cocktail'. Washington Post newspaper, 11 November 2003.
    • Panichpak, Promboon. 2002. Roles of non-governmental organizations in AIDS prevention and care. Paper read at 8th National AIDS Conference, 11 - 13 July 2002, at Nonthaburi.
    • Parsons, Wayne. 1995. Public Policy: An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Policy Analysis. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
    • Partners for Health Reform plus. 2004. Nigeria: Rapid Assessment of HIVIAIDS Care in the Public and Private Sectors. Bathesda, MD: United States Agency for International Development.
    • Partners for Health Reform plus. 2005. Rwanda National Health Accounts 2002: Informing Financing Decisions. Bathesda, MD: United States Agency for International Development.
    • Patanasingha, Klinkaew. 1996. AIDS ... infectious disease that becomes social problem. Siam Post newspaper, 27 December 1996, 7.
    • Paterson,DL, S Swindells, J Mohr, M Brester, EN Vergis, and C Squier. 2000. Adherence to protease inhibitor therapy and outcomes in patients with HIV infection. Annals of Internal Medicine 133:21-30.
    • Patterson, David, and Leslie London. 2002. International law, human rights and HIV/AIDS. Bulletin ofthe World Health Organization 80 (12):964-969.
    • Patton, Michael Q. 2002. Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods. 3rd ed. London: Sage Publications.
    • Pau, Alice K, Neelambal K Moodley, Diane T Holland, Henry Fomundam, Gugu U Matchaba, and Edmund V Capparelli. 2005. Instability of lopinavir/ritonavir capsules at ambient temperatures in sub-Saharan Africa: relevance to WHO antiretroviral guidelines. AIDS 19 (11):1233-1234.
    • Peck, Jonathan, and Clement Bezold. 1996. Health Care and AIDS. In AIDS: The Politics and Policy ofDisease, edited by S. Z. Theodoulou. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    • Peiperl, Laurence, and Susan Buchbinder. 2005. Challenges in Developing HIV Vaccine. In The AIDS Pandemic: Impact on Science and Society, edited by K. H. Mayer and H. Pizer. London: Elsevier.
    • Penzak, Scott R, Edward P Acosta, Michele Turner, Jorge A Tavel, and Henry Masur. 2004. Antiretroviral Drug Content in Products from developing Countries. Clinical Infectious Diseases 38.
    • Petdachai, Witaya, and David Wilson. 2005. How to help children adhere to antiretroviral therapy. Paper read at Seventh International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, 1-5 July 2005, at Kobe Convention Centre, Kobe.
    • Peterson, Mark A. 1997. The Limits of Social Learning: Translating Analysis into Action. Journal ofHealth Politics, Policy and Law 22 (4):1077-1114.
    • Phanuphak, P. 2004. Antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings: what can we learn from the existing programmes in Thailand. AIDS 18 (suppI3):S33-S38.
    • Phanuphak, P., C. Locharernkul, W. Panmuang, and H. Wilde. 1985. A report of three cases of AIDS in Thailand. Asian PacJ Allergy ImmunoI3:195-199.
    • Phichit Provincial Administration Office. 2004. Phichit Geographical Information [cited 26 June 2004]. Available from http:www.phichit.go.thiinformation gen.html.
    • Phichit Provincial Health Office. 2004. Phichit Provincial Health Office Annual Report, 2003. Phichit.
    • Phichit provincial hospital. 2003. Annual Report of Phichit provincial hospital, 2002. Phichit.
    • Phillips, Andrew N, Alessandro Cozzi Lepri, Fiona Lampe, Margaret Johnson, and Caroline A Sabin. 2003. When should antiretroviral therapy be started for HIV infection? Interpreting the evidence from observational studies. AIDS 17:1863-1369.
    • Phongpaichit, Pasuk, and Chris Baker. 2004. Thaksin: The Business of Politics in Thailand. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books. .
    • Phoolcharoen, W., Pitiporn Chandrtat-na-Ayuthya, W. Pawanarom, W. Teokul, and C. Tantinimitkul. 1999. The evolution of HIVIAIDS control in Thailand. Nonthaburi: Health Systems Research Institute.
    • Phoolcharoen, W., K. Ungchusak, W. Sitthitrai, and T. Brown. 1998. Thailand: lessons from a strong national response to HNIAIDS. AIDS 12 (Supplement B):SI23-S135.
    • Phoolcharoen, Wiput. 2001. Thailand's health system reform. Nonthaburi: Health Systems Research Institute.
    • Phoolcharoen, Wiput. 2002a. Health System Reform in Thailand. In Health Insurance Systems in Thailand, edited by S. Wibulpolprasert and P. Pramualratana. Nonthaburi: Health Systems Research Institute.
    • Phoolcharoen, Wiput. 2002b. Health system reform in Thailand: the role of the Health Systems Research Institute. Geneva: Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research.
    • Phoolcharoen, Wiput, and Roger Detels. 2002. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In OJfford Textbook ofPublic Health: the Practice ofPublic Health, edited by R. Detels, J. McEwen, R. Beaglehole and H. Tanaka. New York: Oxford University Press.
    • Piot, Peter, and Awa Marie Coll-Seck. 2001. International response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic: planning for success. Bulletin ofthe World Health Organization 79 (12):1106-1112.
    • Plipat, Tanarak, Orapan Sangwanloy, Kunjanakorn Phokhasawat, and Tareerat Chemnasiri. 2003. Results of HN sero-surveillance, Thailand 1989-2003. In AIDS situation, Thailand 2003. Nonthaburi: Department of Disease Control.
    • Pomerantz, Roger J, and David L Horn. 2003. Twenty years of therapy for HN-l infection. Nature Medicine 9 (7):867-873.
    • Pope, Catherine, and Nicholas Mays. 1999. Qualitative methods in health research. In Qualitative Research in Health Care, edited by C. Pope and N. Mays. London: BMJ Publishing Group.
    • Pope, Catherine, Sue Ziebland, and Nicholas Mays. 1999. Analysing qualitative data. In Qualitative Research in Health Care, edited by C. Pope and N. Mays. London: BMJ Publishing Group.
    • Popp, Danielle, and Jeffrey D Fisher. 2002. First, do no harm: a call for emphasizing adherence and HN prevention interventions in active antiretroviral therapy programs in the developing world. AIDS 16 (4):676-678.
    • Porapakkham, Y., S. Pramarnpol, and S. Athibhodhi. 1995. AIDS Policy: a case study of Thailand, 1984 to 1994. Nakorn Pathom: ASEAN Public Health Development Institute, Mahidol University.
    • Poshyachinda, Vichai, and Vipa Danthamrongkul. 1999. Monitoring human immunodeficiency viral infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Thailand. Paper read at Conference:Towards Improved Monitoring and Evaluation of HIV Prevention, AIDS Care, STD Control Programs, 17-20 November 1999, at Nairobi, Kenya.
    • Post, Robert C, and Nancy L Rosenblum. 2002. Introduction. In Civil Society and Government, edited by N. L. Rosenblum and R. C. Post. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    • Prescott, N, and Thai Antiretrovirals Study Team. 1998. Economics ofAntiretroviral Therapy in Thailand The World Bank, [cited 10 October 2003]. Available from http://www. worldbank.org/aids-econiarv/presc-prezlsldOO l.htm.
    • Prior, Lindsay. 2003. Using Documents in Social Research. London: Sage Publications.
    • Pronyk, PM, J Kim, and JDH Porter. 2001. Whose priorities? A response to the issue of antiretrovirals in Africa. Tropical Medicine and International Health 6 (8):575-577.
    • Punpanich, Ratana, Kriengkrai Piriyasupong, Kannika Vitsupakorn, Tharini Chattrapiban, and Penpak Sornchai. 2005. Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment and Factors Related to Non-Adherence among People Living with HIV/AIDS of the National "Access to Care" Project in Thailand. Paper read at Seventh International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, 1-5 July 2005, at Kobe Convention Centre, Kobe.
    • Punpanich, Ratana, Penpak Sornchai, Jiraporn Suwanteerangkul, Somsak Thamthitiwat, Praweena Sounthisombut, and Kannika Visupakorn. 2002. A rapid situation analysis (RSA) of the provision of highly active anti-retroviral therapy to persons living with HIV/AIDS by the Ministry of Public Health's Access to Care Project in Northern Thailand. Chiang Mai: Chiang Mai University.
    • Punpanich, Warunee, Kumnuan Ungchusak, and Roger Detels. 2004. Thailand's Response to the HIV Epidemic: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. AIDS Education and Prevention 16 (Suppl A): 119-136.
    • Quinn, Thomas C, Maria J Wawer, Nelson Sewankambo, David Serwadda, Chuanjun Li, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Mary 0 Meehan, Thomas Lutalo, and Ronald H Gray. 2000. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. N Engl J Med 342 (13):921-929.
    • Rayong Administration Centre. 2004. Rayong socioeconomic information [cited 20 April 2005]. Available from http://www.rayong.go.thlceo/sungkom 4.html.
    • Rayong hospital. 2003 and 2004. Monthly Access to Care Report, June 2003 - May 2004. Rayong.
    • Rayong Provincial Health Office. 2004a. AIDS and symptomatic HIV in Rayong. Rayong.
    • Rayong Provincial Health Office. 2004b. HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Plan, Fiscal Year 2004. Rayong.
    • Rayong Provincial Health Office. 2004c. List of Ministry of Public Health doctor, Rayong [cited 28 May 2004]. Available from http://province.moph.go.th/rayongdoctorgo.htm.
    • Razum, Oliver, and Sylvia Okoye. 2001. Affordable antiretroviral drugs for developing countries: dreams of the magic bullet. Tropical Medicine and International Health 6 (6):421-422.
    • Read, Melvyn D. 1992. Policy networks and Issue Networks: The Politics of Smoking. In Policy Networks in British Government, edited by D. Marsh and R. A W. Rhodes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Rees, Gwyneth, Guro Huby, Lian McDade, and L McKechnie. 2004. Joint working in community mental health teams: implementation of an integrated care pathway. Health and Social Care in the Community 12 (6):527-536.
    • Reich, Michael R, and Priya Bery. 2005. Expanding Global Access to ARVs: The Challenges of Prices and Patents. In The AIDS Pandemic: Impact on Science and Society, edited by K. H. Mayer and H. Pizer. London: Elsevier.
    • Reuters. 2001. Indian drug maker offers cocktail for $350 a year. Bangkok Post newspaper, 8 February 2001,4.
    • Rhodes, R.AW. 1988. Beyond Westminster and Whitehall. London: Unwin Hyman.
    • Rhodes, R.AW. 1996. The new governance: Governing without government. Political Studies 44 (4):652-667.
    • Richardson, Jeremy. 2000. Government, Interest Groups and Policy Change. Political Studies 48:1006-1025.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Download from

Cite this article

Cookies make it easier for us to provide you with our services. With the usage of our services you permit us to use cookies.
More information Ok